Introduction to human Geography - Dymond
Introduction to human Geography - Dymond
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August 28 Terms and Concepts The ones he mentions in class are the ones that will be on the exam over the book Geography the study of the surface of the earth The science or the discipline that studies spacial distribution of human and physical phenomenon things stuff on the surface of the earth examples geography of disease how did that disease spread example truck drivers help spread the aids in africa aids food and water supply essential things for life is there ease of access are the sources located near the people who most need it where is fresh water is it near people can we easily get it conflict politics living conditions such as type of shelter commercial space some physical things would be energy resources which is both human and physical boundaries and borders weather and climate natural disasters why how and where How have we put ourselves in harms way culture39 shared values among community helps you become self aware might be region specific its a way of life LEARN IT culture is a LEARNED set of beliefs values traditions and customs LEARNED you aren39t born with culture genes transmitted through various agenst parents language education system and structure teachers proferrors textbooks media communities church town religious community migration environment we establish behaviors impart of our environment dynamic exible adaptable and not mutually exclusive its not mutually exclusive meaning you can be part of many different parts of culture groups most of this is self identification but you are also externally identified but ultimately its up to you you know who you identify with culture group39 group Of People who share a common set of beliefs values traditions and customs culture hearth EthniCity Ethnic group its a human construct Ethnicity changes with place and time group with shared cultural characteristics possible extending from a common ancestral heritage or common origin point perceived to be a distinct community Ethnicity is cultural not geneticphysical ITS A HUMAN CONSTRUCT no discreet people don39t always identify with group government groupings as people move ethnic diversity and spatial distribution change as you move your ethnic label can change EthnOCBntrism You39re blinded by what you know and your experience a frame of reference what you view thinking ones own groups ways are superior to others making false assumptions about others ways based on our own limited experience gtquotASSUMPTIONSgt39lt we don39t understand what we don39t understand Ethnic cleansing amp Genocide Ethnic aming attempt to eliminate remove an ethnic group from a territory either through killing members of the group or forcing them to migrate we are cleansing an area of population Genocme attempt to eliminate a group of people ethnic national racial through the murder of group members you dont want to get them out of dc you want them out of existence for examples Space and Place Yi fu TUAN place is security space is freedom Space is more abstract Place is based on our experience example Washington DC Innovation amp Diffusion InnOVatiom coming with new ways of doing things new ideas new techniques new beliefs new tools SPaCial Difqui011 The spread of something or how it spreads how you take the tools the food the beliefs the viechles how do those things end up spreading across the land scape coming up with new ways to get from point A to point B it starts wherever i came up with it thats the origin and then it diffuses and spreads EXPanSiOH COHtagiouS 1 it starts in its origin hitting the net proximate thing and after that and after that example a disease x z where it doesn39t just start somewhere and spread but stays existing in the origin Relocation difquiom spread and relocated and don39t exist where they started ex bhuddism Hierarcmcal Diffusmn top down through a structure hierarchy example goes through the tiers and structures Stimulus difquiom when you stimulate an idea its not the same idea but you stimulated an alteration of your innovation somewhere else culture Hearth a place that ideas come out of Example famous historic culture hearths like ancient Rome and Greece Certain things that the romans did then adopted in other places over a period of time also Jerusalem key religious practices gwadm gwuedu september 2 iii location direction and distance Absolute location Location of something on the earths surface with respect to a fixed position and mathematically verifiable and universally accepted LATITUDE north and south AND LONGITUDE east and west of the prime meridian where you are precisely in degrees minutes and seconds relative location place location with respect to another place you know which might be more meaningful and you dont know longitude and longitude but if you say 40 miles southwestThats more meaningful and likely it will help you Example Washington is 40 miles southwest of baltimore that place or location with respect to another location Absolute Direction north south east west Relative direction Example Its in the midwest down south up north middle east cultural direction descriptions relative to where you are Absolute distance Miles Physical measurable mathematically supported distance between point a and point b Ex point a is ten miles from point b Relative Distance How long does it take to get from here to there which is more useful the Relative Because everything in our society is time based you need to know the conditions transportation types Friction the re ection of time and cost in over coming distance useful for shipping firms marketers you want to understand how long and the cost to get something from here to there Decay distance the diminishment of activity due to distance site and situation Site is the internal characteristics of a place Example Washington DC s site monuments government buildings colleges and universities roads Human and physical features that make up the site A lot of parks trees grass animals water certain conditions certain average humidities etc its All the stuff that makes the place the place Situation the region in which something is location is that place in a larger geographical context Example DC is situated in the mid Atlantic South of Pennsylvania North of the Carolinas You39re talking about the place and how its positioned with respect to other but also in a broader content Immigration people coming into a place those coming into a place emmigration people leaving moving out of push and pull factors factors the in uence the movement of people push factors emmegration what makes you leave the place you39re in war health jobs pull factors facrots the at rat you to the destination ex social inequality con ict cost of living family health conditions natural disasters alot can push and pull you very similar list maps human created representations of features of the earths surface whoever makes the map makes the decisions of wants important or not they39re human constructs they39re subject to bias mental maps depending on where you live and where you go everyone will have a different mental map its your perception of a place generally based on your experience of that place VI nation state and nation state stateplacecountry clearly legally defined territory on the earths surface delineated with boudaries which are generally agreed upon and recognized by other states in the current global orderparadigm theoretically governed by a central authority that is theoretically representative of the majority of the people within which theoretically has sovereignty over the territoy example france morocco usa States challenged by this definition Palestine north korea taiwan puerto rico iraqnot functioning as a state even if its recognized somalia with similar problem ukraine tibet nation NOT a place its PEOPLE unified group of people bound together by a historically rooted consioucness of identity which is tied to spaceplaceteritorypolitical ideals people in a nation see themselves distant from other groups and self identity as memerts of the nation nationals NATION is a politicized culture group often through a desire for self rule nationalism also used to eXpress pride and support for the beliefs in identity with the nation to be part of a nation or to be a national you are buying into a supporting political ideology example are the people of uk a nation NO northern irish don39t consider themselves from uk the scotts have their own national identity nationa state where the statepolityterritory is inhabited by a very significant majority of people who identify as and wight he nation in the state there is no perfect numerical cut off point or formula the usa is NOT a nation state There are few nation states in the world The UN is united states The UK is a state THE uk is a member of the UN its got irish scottish english and welsh its got 4 different nations each of those is a nation all in one state That one state is a member of the UN citizen vs member of a nation nation is the selfidetification only you know which nation you belong citizen is a legal designation of the government maps are created by humans and therefor subject to bias all maps distort surface reality projections can be distorted maps use symbols to represent earths human and physical features POINT LINE borders highways etc AND AREA swamp desert state or country on political map isolines conenct areas of equality isobars connect areas of equal pressure isotherms equal temperature contour lines areas of equal elevation or altitude closer together more steep farther apart less steep nations are IMAGINED COMMUNITIESgt meaning they are a human construct they aren39t hereditary or genetic its not exclusive you can be part of more than one they are subject to change and interpretations its very real and can be very different through each of peoples lenses establish a sense of common nationality idea that they are bound and unified members of the same nation REGIONS an area on the surface of the earth that share something in common characteristics different fromt he areas around it human created subject to bias and change exible dynamic subject to change must have location spatial extent and boundaries examples desserts political regions demographic region languagebuisness region transportation region regions have to have loaction spatial extent boundaries doesnt mean political always and those boundaries aren39t perfect there can be overlapping regions transitional zones from one region to the next these are human created we came up with them and identify them regions can encompass any scale very large to very sall must have some commonality or distinguishing element may be hierarchically arranged ex political regions culture indepth A landscape physical or a combination the landscape is what exists on the land the PHYSICAL STUFF ON THE LAND Human human features on the land carl sauer how have people changed the physical setting example of human lanscape buildings farming area ordinary and symbolics landscapes human common everyday human landscapes symbolic landscapes monuments like places in dc historic and religious sites etc we attach emotion and all sorts of meanings to those social construction of space classroom little italy country public park any area on the surface of the earth in which we create social meaning culture trait is a single component of culture one trait one attribute ex Chopsticks Culture region distinct area a region that has characteristics in common that would be different from areas around it or outside of it a pale that has culture traits in common ex china town western europe neoclassical architecture latin alphabet shared common history with the roman empire catholicism shared political systems Culture realm largerboarder than region transcend boundaries Culture complex cultureal systems that has complex to it example capitalism religious practices multiple realated cultural traits Major groupings of culture practice A technological subsystems material objects pen compputer fork procedures of their use artifacts B socialogical subsystem behaVioral norms how to interact socially social institutionsstructures sociofacts greetings C Idealogical subsystem ideas bleiefs values knowledge mentifacts democracy confuciasm pop culture music and entertainment culture helps to frame our filter our lense it helps to give us our perspective Culture is a PROCESS popular culture when 1st described electronic media now includes everyday world around us lifestyle and life pictures how we iew and live in the world lt textbook definition practices and meaning systems produced by large groups of people whose norms and taste are often heterogeneous and change frequently often in response to commercial products pop culture contrasts with folktraditional culture a traditonal sociaety practices of small groups especially rural people with a simple lifestyle traditional societies can be found in the amazon in the middle of the rain forest also the omish culture as a process think about it how does pop culture became accepted many ehanism that leads you to it who determines the pop culture agenda peers teachers actors religious leaders boards of directors advertising firm eecutives politicians what type of power relations are involved financial political a mixture etc are there culture wares involved culture wars belief of one culture group con icting with another also innovations so there a culture war who wins out culture wars those battles rooted in ideology religion class differene the social construction of racail ethnic and gender difference over the meaning and structure of social relations that mark contemporary society they are spatial geographic language dominance ethnic cleansing cold war culture wars they are the building blocks of the geographies of the world Language language s the systematic method of communication ideas feelings and attitudes by means of a conventionalized system using mutually understood signs gestures and sounds around 5000 living languages in the world today that number is decreasing more than half of the worlds population are native speakers of just 8 of the 5000 language families groups of languages that are defended from a single language there are similiatrites that remain in vocabulary and grammar indO european language family is the largest in the world 12 of the world speaks an info european language diffusion of language increase use of a language over time and over earths surface space language can diffuse through all the different diffusion types we talked about colonization music trade religion immigration international organizations UN education media english worldwide diffusion and acceptance its the sole or joint official language of more countries territories than any other language language Change migration segregation isolation standard and variant forms of communicating a speech community a community who speks a common language they usually have a standard standard language form is the expected norm like using proper grammer the standard form journalist a common set of norms it terms of pronunciation also dialects recognizable speech variants in vocb pronunciation speeed ryhtm etc variants of the norm linguafranca an established language to unite a group of people who speak different native tounges exaple UN swaheeli official language is a govemmentally designated language of a country for government buisness education diplomacy its the official language QUEBEC CASE STUDY quebec ethnicity language religion nationalism 2nd largest provincial economy second to ontario GEO STATS 10 largest province area 2nd largest canadian population in comparison to ontario 2nd largest canadian economy in comparison to ontario good natural resources hydro electric power generation huge aerospace and other high tech services banking and finance diverse economy strong manufacturing base tourism natural resources based activities indentity in QUEBEC a canadtion nation are canadians a nation Of people what factors impactchallenge canadian national identity hockey is a unifying thing proud of not being american 1 franco identity majority approx 34 of quebec population I speak french 2 catholic majority 3 see themselves as uniquely ethnic franco quebecers quebecois also term for political party party quebecois b people of quebec province french quebecers 2006 canadian house of commons declared them to be a nation within a united canada c historic emergence frane established new france quebec in 1608 fishing fur trappinghunting logging etc the british garnered control in 1759 the british legistlasted it said it was okay to be french THE QUEBEC ACT protected religion language and some of the civillegal structure so the brits helped to solidify the future of franco identity 10 11 d anglos speak english as the first language mostly pro distant trace their origin back to the british involvement and not the french E nativeindegenous communities groups CREE ancestral lands comprose significant territory in northern quebec resources and hydro electric potential a lot of the land they claim is very resource rich lands F inuit other indigenous G rapidly increasing immigrant population seetling in the citiesmetro areas especially montreal immigration impact demographically the quebecois population is decreasing because the city is becoming linguistically diverse people are migrating fro all over the world quebecers have LOW reproductivity THEY ARE AGING which means that numerically you could be outnumbered so they are encouraging immigration with a younger population so that they will work and put into the system to help the older generation the younger people will have babies and make more canadians but we need to teach them french in quebec you have to learn french in public education english is secondary FRANCO INDEPENDENCE many french desire independence feel oppressed by anglo canadian majority fear decline of cultureloss of language 1960s quite revolution provincial government garnered power created many social departments nationalism grey economy grew parti quebecois 1968 championed french quebec identity provincial legistlative changes bill 22 1974 french official language of province bill 101 1977 french only language allowed on commercial signs there were restrictions on elvish language education in public schools bill 101 angered many in business community some brain and drain from montreal 11 12 when movement is strong the parti quebecois calls for a referendum vote in quebec 1955 VOTE 49 of the total quebec population wanted to separate make quebec sovereign 506 voted to remain with canada sep 112014 canadian federal government and supreme court legistlation that gives the house of commons right to decide on Clear maj01ities court rules that all of canada would have to vote to approve english speakers and native peoples in quebec NO separatism both claim they will separate from quebec if quebec separates from canada franCO quebecers say that is absurd independent quebec will not be divided quebec economy tied to canada and world overt annoyance on the part of other provinces many anglo canadians and other regions feel too much federal level Special treatment Of quebec other provinces no separation however if quebec separates others may follow The Georgraphy of Organized RELIGION religion cultural innovationsconstructs not physical or biological societal value systems common beliefs understandings eXpectations controls that unite religion a belief system and a set of practices that recognize the eXistence of a power higher than humankind reliogion a cultural system of beliefs systems and practices often centered around the worship of a dirt or cities monotheis one god polythies many gods classification of religions 12 13 a Universalizing proselytizing those religions see their mission as expansion and conversionbelieve that their religion is right for everyone and the one to follow ethnic heritage based ancestral ex Judaism hinduism C tribal specialized local religions ex mainly in Africa and latin America d secularism non expectancy of the organized religion in uential monotheism judaism Christianity islam 3 most in uential monotheistic religions in the world originated in above order hearth same part of the world far MORE SIMILARITIES than differences a Judaism ethic religion 3 thousand years old or more laid foundation for chrisitanity and islam not universalizing prior history of proselytizing complex set of restrictive beliefs centuries of development 15 million jews in the world approx created a place based territorial population distinct geographic indentity ethnicity human construct religious beliefs assert spatial rights sense of territorial attachmentsacred space basic distinguishing factors common ancestry torah law and scripture in uenced by many various empires forced migration became a disapora scattered europe asia and US late 1800s ZIONIST movement official homeland heartl origin area statecountry sovereignty sacredhistoric significance WW2 Nazi Germany helped zionist movement sympathies of world community toward establishment of state of israel israel b CHRISTIANITY origin in the teaching of jesus a jew living in the same hearth area of judaism 1st century of modern era did NOT reject traditional jewish beliefs bible is the religious code and written word of god universal religion asserted salvation and open to all mission convesion early diffusion facilitated through empire 13 14 diffused through underclass groups of E and W of the roman empire separated into western and eastern spheres western christianity underwent prtotestant reformation 15th and 16th centuries in europe further subdivided christianty some western catholicchristians rejected authority of the pope split ito protestant and catholocism subsequent imprerialcolonial activity had a great in uence on diffusion of christianity throughout the world missionary work in uenced diffusion and adoption western later diffused to the americas C ISLAM aprox 13 billion submission to the will of god allah came from same judaic roots as christianity same basic beliefs hearth is same general region belief in same prophets mohammed was the last and most important prophet islam identity and space arab ethnicity islam religion muslim person adhering to islam currently worlds fastest growing religion arab muslims are much less than 50 of global population which regions and countries have the largest muslim population indonesia inda pakistan muhammed born in 571 born in mecca later moved to medina arabian peninsula division of sunni and shiaa muslims originally based on succession of muhammed sunni sucessor did not need to be a blood relative vast majority today believe family and community may solve problems shiaa sucessor had to be blood relative minority today only true counciUknowledge comes from religious officials qurar koran rules of worship and detailed rules of social life 5 pillars pray 5 X 14 15 fasting give to the poor pilgramige to mecca repeated expression of the basic creed HINDUISM ETHNIC RELIGION APPROX 900 MILLION may date back to 4000 years or more may be the worlds oldest major religion vast majority of hindus are indian and live in india impact of globalizationmigration on distribution intricate yet relatively unencumbered set of spiritualphilosophicalsocialeconomic etc values polytheistic may be monotheistic also hearth is in the indus river valley pakistan and diffused to ganges valley then eastward diffused throughout SEA but little remains today islam and other religions supplanted it there not 1 doctrine accepts mono or poly many beliefs may be incorporated choice up to individual caste system often associated with hinduism but its a social link not spiritual or metaphysical NOT PART OF HINDU TEACHING j anism 6th century BC unique for non violence views all living things sikhism punj ab 15th century AD elements of both hinduism and islam and buddhism sikhs see it as very different from Hinduism and islam buddhism 376 million sidhartha guatama the budhha enlightened one 6th century BC hearthnorthern india he was from the highest caste in the hindu system largely not practiced in its hearth area moral philopshy eXplains good and evil and human suffering road to enlightenment reached by following 4 noble truth 1 life suffering 2 suffering comes from attachment 3suffering can end 4 the 8 fold paths self improvemnt ends the suffering may lead to enlightenment buhdishm diffused eastward throughout SEA and parts of east Asia Tibet and Nepal and eastward began to die out in its hearth area several variations eXist as with all major religions HINDU CASTE SYSTEM ancient india may be several thousands years old clans or tribes VISHA 15 16 collectively people became known as VAISHYA regardless of their occupation or economic status material wealthresource control etc CASTE SYSTEM originally society based on bartertrade no cash goods given as paymenttribute to communitytribal leaders originally a PLACE FOR EVERYONE and all respected for social contribution women enjoyed greater rights and freedom of choice in ancient times than ie late 1800s 1900s ancients beliefs and the VEDAS collective written knowledgescripture gtkdid NOT restrict changing occupations or marrying from one caste to another that was an addition social contract that was put on the system as society evolved overtime PASSAGE OF TIME more convenient to stay in the postitionsoccupations as your family father grandfather etc ad marry within same caste so overtime then your family became identified with that role roles became collected in different castes segregation developed along with the idea of BIRTH RIGHTS it became heritage based and the belief became that this was part of the religion you were born into a caste a role but this wasn39t part of the VEDAS strict societal structureheirarchy created strict social rules for behaviorinteraction formed among and between caste members ultimaley you couldn39t really change roles in society or marry outside of your caste some sholars say ARYANS central asian invaders altered the structure overtook dravidians creating indo aryan indo european culture system evolved into social structure with religious foundations RELIGION USED TO JUSTIFY karma and reincarnation more people would accept the role they were given because they believe its there destiny to stay where they are because they39re next life is WOTth You re not thought to question your religion THE VEDAS DOESNT SAY THAT YOU HAVE TO STAY IN THAT CERTAIN CASTE its a social structure that was made up this prevented chaos no rebellion really this benefits the upper caste literally 1000s of subcastes basically could be grouped into 4 primary caste groups plus those outside of strata 4 CASTES l BRAHMINS superor caste KNOWLEDGE WISDOM AND THE ANSWER keepersorators of the VEDAS complied knowledge 16 17 became priestly most learned and scholarly caste believed to have most knowledge and wisdom kSHATRIYA POLITICAL AND MILITARY POWER administrators of villages and chiefs of clans became military leaders those with political power administrative power VAISHYA prob the largest caste merChantS at the high end of this caste famerers blacksmithsleatherworkers tended cattle woodworkers laborers artisans majority of trades SHUDRA SURDA servant class untouchables literally outside of the caste poorest of the poor group became unfit for any formal position tought to be so lowly one was not to touch them not to use the same things as them role as sweepers garbage removal human waste removal dead animals cattle wouldn39t make eye contact with them wouldn39t talk with them in streets caste became A BIRTH RELATED ENTITY could not change except demotion people DID NOT MIX castes on a PERSONAL OR SOCIAL LEVEL THERE WAS A MIXING in buisness trade exchange council administration labor etc VARIED SPATIALLY AND TEMPORARILY these are broad generalizations variations over time and from village to village children didn39t play or go to school with those of other castes people did not eat with those of other castes people couldn39t marry outside of their caste if you did you would drop to a lower caste your status WOULD NOT rise some women39s rights deteriorated under caste system arranged marriage became common 17 18 within caste child brides common dowries necessary for many womens rights stigma of widow suteesati basically suicide of widow burning ELITES CASTES became POLTICAL AND BUISNESS LEADERS of india for centuries controlled wealth resources and power MINORITY CONTROLLING MAJORITY CONVENIENCE OF RELIGIOUS JUSTIFICATION 1900s INDIA challenges to system political gains made government reforms controversial quotas untouchales gained representation ghandi change came more quickly in the cities than in rural areas TODAY strict adherence in decreasing especially in more developed urban areas and among more educated however caste based marriage still dominates for many families rural areas still follow more strictlygtlt some people change their last names government 2011 census attempts to get data on the s in the castes cased based political parties video dalit face discrimination because of their caste and not because of their poverty violence caste based discrimination dalit broken people an identity that denotes a social struggle against caste disriminination against castes still eXist even now right outside the city video indian female untouchables many dalits accuse ghandi sep 18 all articles for discussion will be on exams questions from textbook reading 18 19 all of lecture reading EXAM 2 GLOBALIZATION part 1 working definition based on steger a set of social processes moving humans toward a social condition of interconnectedness part 2 the creation of new and the eXpansion of eXisting social networks that cut across traditional boundaries THE BIG THREE CATEGORIES l ECONOMIC CAPITALISM GLOBALIZATION 2 POLITICAL GLOBALIZATION spread of democracy 3 CULTURE western culture A all these 3 are diffusing and being adopted as they diffuse and adopt theres an evolution that takes place and can be modified this is a process its dynamic its underway it has been and continues to be BRIEF HISTORY in what ways have we always been globalizing migreation and diffusion key inventions trade and tranpostation early empires most significant recent global area the internet ability to process data how is it spatial the geography of globalization and how globalization is changing geographies 19 20 globalization can enable things to spread more quickly it can spread and tray more quickly disease creating new patterns enables us to respond to the paterns respond to the new geogrpahies its not a one way street or a single process localization opposite responses to globalization such as terrorist groups or rebel groups ex ISIS languages people are entrenching into their linguistic identity thats a rebellion against globalization thers no series of research efforts that are quantifying backlash backlash general global economy lst world 2nd world 3rd world whats wrong with this picture no one should be using these terms this was a cold war alignment and a cold war structuring we made geographic assumptions this is a political and economic OUTDATED amp GEOGRAPHICALLY inappropriate economic and political classifications no lst world juan or physical geography no lst world culture no lst world vegetation 3ed world better is developing but still offensive to some approx only 15 of global income rising gap between 1st and 3rd world exceptions middle east east asia global north and global south still common in IR better but still geographically challenged world bank 1 billion in DIRE poverty income below l a day snother 1 billion in poverty income below 2 a day gap between rich and poor increase 20 21 key economic sectors primary activities that take and use the earths resources like agriculture mining oil and gas secondary activities activities that add value to resourcestransform raw materials into finished goods like processing manufacturing power production tertiary basic services industries like retail sales hospitality industry landscaping and lawn care moving companies clericaladministrative etc quasternary processing and dissementing information white color service sector advanced services requiring specialized education training and skills accounting marketing financial advising legal education research GIS software develoers statisticians etc commodity dependence an economy that relies on the eXport of primary commodities for a large share of its eXport earnings and hence economic growth economic sector trends post 1950 MCCs see a decline in industrial secondary economy rise in tertiary quaternary LDCs still primary with increasing secondary sector rise of industrial economies in LDCS poorest LDcs wehre primary sector gt40 of GDP globality social condition charcterized by social political economical interconnectedness GLOBALIZATION IS A PROCESSWMlt on going it doesn39t really stop global imaginary the people in the global situation for exam tecbook chapeters 125 chaper 1 all of it chapter 2 page 51 end of chapter 21 22 chapter 5 start of chapter through page 161 page 175 end special readings lecture material is the biggest thing EXAM 2 oct30 POPULATION for 1000s of years the world population changed very little in the 1800s global population began to grow rapidly extremly recent histroy rapidly increasing people concern in 2014 food goes to industrial uses and to animals a lot of the best lands grows crops for animals why because countries are willing to pay more money for high quality meat so they need the best lands the best climate to raise the best meat the biggest problem in 2014 is WHERE WE ARE AND WHAT WE NEED ISMlt THE INEQUAL DISTRIBUTION the economics and the politics or ITS WHOSE GROWING AND WHO ISNT GROWING some countries are shrinking while others are growing THOMAS MALTHUS and population was a famous guy who wrote about population and he predicted a population eXplosion and a shortage we wouldn39t have enough resources to meet the needs of the people people who believed his theories were believed as malthusians we have had places where there are too many people and not enough resources we have seen this in a regional and local scale but NOT A GLOBAL SCALE the spatial distribution and the density of people and the distribution of soils climate and natural resources the majority of people live near the coasts we are near the oceans and the marine systems what are the primary spatial patters of population on earth surface today east asia and china south east asia india western europe physical featheres resources regions MAJOR POPULATION CLUSTERS 22 23 Southeast Asia East Asia Europe North America CHINA most populous country in the world right now eastern 3rd located in river valleys high densities on the coast INDIA second most populous country in the world right now gangees river hearth of indian civilization prominent fresh seater source sacred river AFRICA mediteranean coast egypt people are center around the nile 90 of the population lives near the nile river valley or delta gt lt USA eastern 3rd high densirt location great lakes gulf coast west coast CANADA 60 of canadians live in metro detriot up through toronoto ottowa montreal and quebec city PPOPULATION DENSITY how are people distributed on earths surface ARITHMETIC DENSITY crude population density of people per unit of of land square milessquare kilometersacereshectares etc population 20 people land 5 people 205 4 people per square PHYSIOLOGICAL DENSITY of people per arable unit of land land we can be able to cultivate in 20 people 5 square miles but only 2 are arable 202 10 10 people per square mile island od java in indonisia and singapore highly dense places MEASURES OF POPULATION CHANGE AND SOCIAL HEALTH ECONOMIC WEALTH INDICATORS 23 24 crude birth rate CBR of live births per year per 1000 people in a given population country with population of 2 million and 40k live births per year yields rate of 40000 2000000 02 1000 20 per 1000 whats absent from this we aren39t looking at gender there could be very different gender structures we arent looking at age crude birtrh rate of 20 means that for every 1000 people in a country 20 babies are born each year low 0 17 medium 18 29 high 30 crude because does not account for age or gender total fertility rate of child born to average women during her reproductive years childbearing yers roughly assumes to be 15 49 21 produces a stable population gender mortality and other factors INFANT MORTALITY RATE number of deaths per year of children aged 1 year old or less per 1000 ylives births 1st year 365 days at age 1 beginning 2ns year deaths 1 year or less 1000 live births also calculated for ages 5 years or less child mortality crude death year CDR deaths per yea per 100 people in population its crude because it doesn39t take into account age and gender might have to write that on exam population pyramids graphic devices representing ageseX composition what might they re ect war gender preferences major diseases etc RATE OF NATURAL INCREASE RNI CBR CDR RNI 24 25 natural not migration relation population change global average 12 PRB2011 DOUBLING TIME number of years it takes to double the population of a given place all else being equal the shorter the doubling time the faster the population growth The demographic transition This is really important because so much factors into looking at a population and the economy and understanding what that population went through and what that economy went through how it got to where it is and where it might be going from there basically what this is is a theoretical model we first came up with this model looking at the countries of europe and seeing how their populations changed over time and how that corresponds to economic change and activity in this model stage 1 early pre modern rural rural society this type of society was widely scattered on the landscape There was low population density a lot of subsistants forming and large families why because high infant mortality you didn39t know how long your kids would liv why would you want more kids because you had several responsibilities and things to pay for and the kids were contributing to the house and helping with food and kids were an asset your family was the workforce to sustain yourself a surplus stage one is also high death rate and birth date so the overal all impact on population growth is constant its not really growing its fairly stable this stage is a young society high birth rate high but uctuating death rate high child mortality kids are assetssocial security Stage 2 we are at the very beginning of industrialization we are starting to change where and what we are doing some of us are clustering on the landscape around factories our densities are starting to increasewe are starting to learn about sanitation and make a little bit of advances about healthcare and we are getting abetter understanding of all of this so with this being said the death rates starts to come down HOWEVER the birth rate stays high WHY because we are still children as an asset and our mentality needs to change were still use to large families and more kids infant child mortality are starting to decrease it really takes time for a societal mind 25 26 shift to adjust to all of this but we begin to adjust to it population is starting to increase dramatically second half of stage two first half of three is the highest population growth Stage 3 first half of 3 most rapid population growth we are starting to have citires large towns small growing ities a lot of economic industries our minds have shifted we39ve gotten the idea that kids are not as much of an asset anymore they are startingt to become a liability why because as population density increases the economic cost for each individual becomes more expensive cities are more eXpensive than rural areas across the globe the death rate goes down and birth rate drops dramatically population growth is pretty extreme role of women in society is changing women are becoming more integrated decreasng infant mortality urbanizing population increase info about populaioncontraception Stage 4 we are becoming post industrial low birth low death the population is a plateau the society is urban advance health care technology better family planning much more aware birth control people are living longer we all become very eXpensive kids are a liability because an urban society is a much higher cost of society everything costs women are more independent working this also corresponds to the change in birth rate postindustrial change urban role of women children educating them now there could be a stage 5 a stage five is becoming an old society we are having fewer kids and we are repplenishing we can get a net loss in population based on the socio economic structure this might be problematic you cant sustain the welfare system the old arent working they are taking they are sick they need stuff its a drain on the system they arent putting anything 11 the system young people need to fill the job to work to pay without a young population the welfare system doesn39t work as well because who will pay for roads schools etc its risky and problematic for countries that ind themselves in this position if govt find themselves in this positing imm planet migration lt we are moving and changing the human geography all over the place 26 27 The usa is in a transition zone from stage 4 to 5 Immigration is keeping us from going to stage 5 because you need some immigration you have young people coming in without that we would be a stage 5 which isn39t good there would be a draw on the economy more people dying that being born in theory once you pass from one stage to the nest you cant back up but a significant war can alter that a depression economic wide spread disease like africa HIV aids population policies like china govt manipulation for population population policy in the PRC MOA ZEDONG communist leder of PRC from 1949 until his death in 1976 he was in support of large families believed large familieslarge population were good for china historic cultural preferences for large families large armies if they had bigger family there were some government awareness of potential challenges from rapid growth and huge population for example birth control laws repealed in the 1950s and family planning promoted Great Leap Forward 195 8 1963 government attempted to restructure agriculture and promote rapid industrialization disaster faminemillions died didn39t have a positive impact on anything efforts to reinvigortae population controls were degraded by the cultural revolution mid 1960s to mid 1970s by 1976 mOa s death chinas population growth was dramatic total population over 850 million two child policy partially in place post mao PRC government very concerned with population growth early 1980s PRC was worlds largest country more than 1 billion peoples oct 7 some current research suggests fertility rates were already declining by the 1980s if this was the case it was not obvious at the time to PRC government and The growth was substantial official one child policy 1979 27 28 mid late 1980s back to two child policy in many areas one child enforced in others reduce TFRS and the CBRS thereby reducing RNI VARIED FROM ONE PLACE TO THE NEXT lt enforcement what is eliminated from traditional family structure cousins aunts and uncles no siblings no extended family incentives free education better housing payed vacationrasiesbonuses free healthcare disincentivesfines trouble at work lose incentives surveliance and espionage neigbors encouraged to keep an eye out on neigbors also school and kids local inspectors and officials hospital records gt work place lt statepublic services regarding birth control eXpanded abortion legal state clinics sterilizaton is encouraged height of campaign 1983 required for couples with more than one Childquot spatial variation facilities to promote distributior educate contraception information rural families numerous children needed lt family structure in the traditional han chinese sons are proffered sons honour your ancestors buisness retirementss daughters responsibility of her in laws there are millions of extra males worldwide millions of women are missing abortion infanticide adop on abandonment unreported female births male children better foodcare female children higher IMRs results and PRC dual system birth rate declines substantially Inconsistent enforcement and government supports population growth slower lag time underreporting for rurral areas in 1990s rural urban differences in the 2000s 28 29 politiccaly and economically dramatic spatial differences SEZs and the other developmental differences density issues intro chapter introduces us to child 6 billion characteristics probably born in a developing country cause birth rates are much higherthey might not make it to adulthood cause of the characteristics they were born in child mortality in cities in the developing world challenges rapid urbanization in the developing world which is challenging because diseases can spread more quickly and rejection of some medicine in some cultures HIV AIDS some women take tradition ways to prevent themselves from aids which doesn39t necessarily work migration and imigration for child 6 billion more developed have tighter immigration laws which makes it harder for that child to have options elsewhere cayotees peole who smuggle people across border meXico page 9 new bold says yes we have the demographic transition its theoretical he qualifies the demographic transition in different ways yes it goods BUT its very general and criticized for being more western centric so we cant just pick it up and apply it everywhere else in the world he says were likely gonna have continued growth 3 reasons l improvements in life eXpectancy indicial survive longer 2 age structure because they will havesigificant pop growth lots off young 3 fertility rates high no contrception lack of resources religious bias gt fertility variation marriage practices contraception abortion and inability to abort role of state in CHINA AND INDIA CHINA INDIA indias population policies haven39t worked because india has a democratic policy sterilization sterilized older men who already had children so it didn39t work sterilization was the only option not BC pills etc the political structure in india the internal state govt are operating on a diff paget than federal government little emperor syndome very spoiled young people since only child EC question maybe sept 9 POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY defined analysis of how political system r structures and internenational relations from locatl to global scales in uence and they39re in uenced by the spatial distribution of culture resources and economic activities PG increasingly includes the consideration of economic systems and networks from the local to the global scale on political interaction EC geopolinomics we cant talk about politics without factoring in the economy 29 3O political geography is a field of inquiry concerned with the nature and implications of the evolving spatial organization of political governance and formal political practices on the earths surface the widely recognized sub disciplined is increasingly interdisciplinary analytically geographically INTEGRATIVE human and physical multidisciplinary political science international affairs economics history anthropology environmental studies and enviro science etc INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARIES boundary line finite and often precise line surrounding and defining territory of a state border boundary as above line and andterrirotry in boundary Frontier spatial concept possible broader region in vicinity of boundary borderlands periphery area of FORWARD AND FRONTIER CAPITALS geographicallystratigically planned location of seat of government forward more politicized islamabad pakistan moved its capital from kirachi to islamabad near kashmier to show whose in control jerusalam israelis recognize it as their capital and palestinians america doesnt we recognize tel aviv brasilia DEMARCATION precise location of alignment of border which is actually physically marked on the landscape ie wall walUpostproperty markers we should precisely know what the long and latitude of that DELINEATION description of boundary alignment in text or drawn on a map how we talk about it BOUNDARY FUNCTIONS inetnational boundaries mark teritoral extent control the movement of people goods and even ideas put tariffs and heavy taxes put restrictions control ideas at the border by fire walls BOUNDARY FUNCTIONS 3O 31 international boundaries restrict the entry of criminals and terrorists restrict the entry of persons with highly infectious diseases economic migrants and groups whose identities may not be accepted LINES IN THE SEA sea frontier concepts maritimes boundaries limits of maritime zones established for protection resource rights etc 1940s us and others began to assert rights to resroues along continental shelf 1982 adoption Of the UN LOS CONVENTION UNCLOS 3 gtxlt USA DID NOT Sign on it we didn39t sign on bc we don39t want to sign anything that will frigne upon our sovereignty we are already powerful we COULD sign on bc ice is melting rapidly in the arctic and we need to be able to make claims to pieces in the arctic there a many years battle trying to claim sovereign sea space we might want to sign because of alaska so we have a huge coast line so we want to be able to exploit UNCLOS covers territorial seas exclusive zones navigational rights international straits fishing deep seedbed mining pollution controls marine scientific research ad dispute settlement BASELINE mean low water mark of mainland or island shorelines low tide INTERNAL WATERS waters that are landward of the baseline 39 example Chesapeak bay TERRITORIAL SEA 39 12 nautical miles 1 nautical mile 15 statute miles out from BASELINE 0 zone of complete state rights and control 39 provisions for vessels passing through innocent passages permitted 39 exceptions for shape of coastproximity to neighbors and archipelago states 39 internationally recognized straights do NOT apply 39 example turkey and greece really close to each other and don39t get along very patrolled and monitored waters 39 example singapore and malaysia these examples you cant apply the 12 nautical miles CONTIGUOUS ZONE 39 from territorial zone another seaward 12 nautical miles 121 24 nautical miles 39 permits states to prevent or punish infringements of their customsfiscal or sanitation laws 39 pertaining to the territorial seas 39 customs and immigration 39 environmentpollution 39 Econ Tradetaxation 31 32 EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE EEZ 39 state has rights over resources on surfaces in water on sea floor and under sea oor 39 resource exploration and exploitation 39 other states may not exploit without permission of state 39 200 natuical miles out from baseline 39 or continenal shelf argumet 39 fishing zone customarily is 200 nautical miles out from baseline within the EEZ and fishing zones movement is free to all THE AIRSPACE DIMENSION 39 international boundary rightssoverign territory rights extends to center of earth and to top of atmosphere THEORETICALLY 39 over soverign territory and over water 12 nautical miles out from coastal baseline 39 no internatinall agreed upon height dimension 39 ranges from 186 to 62 miles are commonly used 39 international cooperative system for commercial ights 39 sometimes accidents and incidents occur REGIONS REVISITED Human created subject to bias exible must have location spatial extent and boundaries any scale commonalitydistiguisihing element may be hierarchically arranged formal region functional region metropolitan area works together as an integrated system CRITERIA OF STATES needs to be defined territory need to have independencesovreignty recognition by other states of worldinternational community effective governmentdegree of control capacity to enter into formal relations with other states economic resources humanitariandefensemilitary enforcement etc expectation of permanence we expect that it will be around 32 33 it should have a permanent population internal circulation system transmission of goods people ideas etc within borders organized economy CHANGES TO STATES AND SOVERIGNTY DEVOLUTION pressure diminishing governmental control centrifugal forces dividing countrynation etc ie resources colonialization war power vacuum integration not enough food and fresh water centripetal forces unifying stregthens government and identity ie war 911 natural disasters good leadership and good structure good effective gov t SEPARATISM phenomenon in which a group seeks to pursue independence from their country often ethnic cultural in nature linked to major grievances such as persecution forced assimilation lack of autonomy denial of access to countries power structure ethnicity poltical idealogy religion language economic ideology etc UNDERSTAND THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SEPERATISM AND SECESSSION MIGHT BE A WRITING QUESTION SECESSION actual breakingsevering connections between regional unit within a state and the state and breakingdisruption of the political space fragmentation of political hierarchy ethno national movements where ethnic groups or nations within states are actively operating against the state assertion of a newseperate polity goal to get recognition of new sovereign state IRREDENTISM argument made by a country often eXpressed through war that a minorityethnic groupnational group living in an adjacent country rightfully belongs to it and conveniently the territory they39re on which they reside also applies to separated group ie chechneya EXCLAVES AND ENCLAVES exclaves territories belonging to but separated from states ie ceuta spain enclave territory completely surrounded by another stateterritory could also be an exclave if its part of another state other than that which surrounds it ie llivia spain is surrounded in france so its an enclave in france and an exclave of spains 33 34 oct 16 revolution through geographic change partition divinde a territory to separate con icting parties example cyprus in 1974 UN created a buffer zone between greek and turkish parties new demarcation move border between con icting parties autonomy grant special status to an internal territory CHALLENGES TO STATE SOVEREIGNTY above giving up some sovereignty to join a larger international group and sign an international accord below sovereignty erodes because some groups circumvent it example international NGOs trnasnational corps terrorist organizations THREE WAVES 0F DEMOCRAT IZAT ION might be written on exam 1 17761920s reverse rise of facism after world war 1 2 19451962 rebuilding europes democracy in some former british colonies and latin america reverse 1950s military rule in latin america 3 1974 present 1980s sees globalization take off UN found that 140 states hold multiparty elections of those 82 are full democracies oct 23 CASE STUDY BALKAN PENINSULA this place has gone through so much geo political turmoil 4O 3O 20 40 boniamuslim 30 serb 20Croatians soviet union is degrading in the 1980s russians are close to the serbs PERCIEVED ETHNIC DIFFERENCES yugoslavia means land of the south slavs south slavs settled balkans in late 500s leerS Yi serbs CantS mUSth bosniaks slovenes hungarians maacedonians montenegrians and albanians ethnic albanian in kosovo are kosovars 34 35 SERBS cryillic alphabet gree basedO speak serbian same orthodox chirsitan CROATS latin alphanet speakcroatian same roman catholic the biggest difference is alphabet all south slavs they see themselves as distinct and don39t like each other BOSNIAKS slavic muslims of bosnia speak bosnian same latin alphabet islam intense fighting in the early 190s with the end of the USSR ussr ends ugoslovians end slovenia separates first and its the easiest separation BOSNIA BOSNIAK majority wanted independent Bosnia SERBS wanted Bosnia to remain with serbia CROATS wamted their majority territories to separate and merge with croatia serbs external and internal vs Bosnia and croats unity in common enemy unity didn39t prevail bosniaks vs croats BOSNIA EXTERNAL sovereign Croatia vs serbia serbiaquot territorial integrity NATIONALISM fought on many fronts 35 36 DATON OHIO 1995 croatiabosniaserbia leaders meet to re draw the maps of Bosnia USU N troops among other international involvement forge a tenuous peace croatia and serbia agreed to cease fire in bosnia along with bosnian muslims croats and serbs 1 incipient country federation two key political subdivisions 1 bosnnian muslim and croats 2 separate bosnian serbs entity although recognized not a truly stable sovereign polity croatia slovenia border and territorial sea dispute dragonja river gulf of piran NATO EU process affected for croatia binding arbitration CROATIA accepted into NATO O9 part of the EU in 2013 global economy issues but much better off than Bosnia tourismagricultureindustryminingmaritime transport BOSNIA economic stagnation mostar bosnia croatia aqua culture oyster beds textbook readings for exam census section takes a lot of resources and money to conduct a census you neeed money and massive man power people to conduct the census usa does it every 10 years for a very long time and sometimes even 5 years 36 37 india biometric censsus photographing and finger printing they can make identity cards a little scary challenges voluntray illegal migrants homeless people all these might be challenging and misrepresenting the actual s vital record resrouce differs from the census its unique they report events like births deaths marriages infectious diseases info like that etc population distrubution age seX pyramid democrafic transition crude birth rate crude death rather 31 intermarriage and a miX ancestry population its growing every year and one of the fastest growing in the USA 32 baby boomers how theres a decline at what was considered a baby boom it wasn39t actually due to world war 2 it declined and pick dup again it wasn39t just a direct product of the war lt suburbanization 76 baby boom largest cohort in USA history the younger generation has to deal with supporting the boomers chapter 9 300 308 states and nations 332 Supranational organizations an intergovernmental organization bringing together two or more govt representations and they are relinquishing some of their sovereignty to that org giving that org authority over them reapportionment redrawing maps for voting proposes all voting is geographically based gerrymandaring redraw specifically to win an election chapter 7 page 216 GNI purchasing power parity looking at what you can get for your money page 216 resoruces primary secondary tertiary 37 38 FINAL EXAM gt nov 4 URBANIZATION PROCESSgt lt of urban growthexpansion and dynamics and corresponding landscape changes movement of people from rural to urban change in lifestyle resulting from living in urban areas URBANISM end result and or all aspects of urban life different from rural what you have with an urban life and setting PERCENT URBAN portion of a coutrys population that lives in the urban area URBANIZATION IS THE PROCESS PERCENT IS THE PORTION the developed world higher percent urban but LOWER urbanization the lowest percent urban figures poorest countriesregion wiseafrica and asia we don39t have a universally agreed definition of WHAT IS URBBAN vs WHATS RURAL more people in china still live in rural areas than urban areas the world is urbanizing proportions of worlds population in urban places 1800 2 3 1900 13 200047 worlds population increased 25 times from 1950 2000 world urban population increased 4 times in the same period UNITED NATIONS 25 march 2010 with 50 percent or 35 billion of the people on earth living in cities graph the most significant changes in the future africa and asia More developed countries MDCs wealthiest countries have highest urban percentages 38 39 strong correlation between per capita income and percentage of a countries population that is urban the greats number of people in cities is IN DEVELOPING WORLD because we have more people in the developing world than in the developed urbanization pacerates in recent decades most dramatic in developing countries urbanization rates highest in LDCs less developed countries there are more people aggregate 3s living int he urban areas in LDCs because there are more people in general in LDCs how in uential are cities and whom might they in uene demographic transition and URBAN GEOGRAPHY stage 2 incipient urbanization stage3 rapid urbanization stage 3 5 high percent urbanization megacities megacity popgtlO million more than 10 mil 2010 20 megacities 15 of them in LDCs WHY SO MANY MEGACITIES IN LDCs more people are there higher wages eXpect to earn more political and econ power world bankMDCs fund large scale projects damsroadscapital buildings lead to cities desired location for industry and service companies because there a more diverseskilled labor pools and you have choices to choose from you want to go somewhere its readily available perception of better quality of life and maybe security ecourages massize rural to urban migration GLOBAL CITIES cities that dominate the global economy and are tied to ke global economic activites their in uence is far reaching the world feels their in uence in finance trade communications marketing consumerism informationmedia politics etc extermly linkedconnected globally globally and regionally in uential in uence the global economy culture politics headquarters of TNCs NGOs international media 39 4O centralize the ow of capital stock exchanges and info tech status highly coveted because associated with economic prosperity business elites gIObal mural leaderShiP importance accomplishment olympics HYPERURBANIZATION massive migration to a single city creates primate cities cities which dominate in all aspects of a countries human geography rank rules gt 2x next largest ORgt2nd 3rd and 4th largest or has 13 or more of a couture S total population IN THE USA DONT HAVE PRIMATE CITIES primate cities more in latin america UN REPORT worlds biggest cities merging into mego regions trend tOWElrdS endless cities could significantly affect population and wealth in the next 50 years MEGALOPOLIS MEG what is the impact of culture on cities urban planners often forget CULTURE cities are PEOPLE also physical geography may impact the culture CULTURE languages religion ethnicity customstraditions age education gender diversity economic actiVity food music recreationentertainment whats the impact of globalization what is the impact of migration nov 6 peranakan portraits used in admin positions when brits rules then became a community that became marginalized but because of tourism the peranakan culture is experiencing a resurgence issues population density and growth natural increase and 40 41 migration very significant factor effects most other urban issues SPACE IS CRUCIAL housing appropriate quantity and availability you build higher smaller spaces unit per family is smaller and we stack so they39re vertical cities can expand qualityconditi0ns urban space is more eXpensive strong correlation of eXpensive areas and the amenities available spatial distributionlocation aff0rdability home0wner rightsproperty rights m0rtgagesinsuracevary dramatically favella tours controlled by gangs coordinatedstrutured organized controversial gangs gets the money breach of privacy like visiting the zoo city of god bogota columbia many restaurants columbia drug trafficking singapore 80 90 government housing subsidizedgov t owned its completely planned with exception of lower income areas there is no space in singapore planned communities and subdivision high density space and water is isuee no natural resource its an entrapot used by the british an island with 51 53 smaller islands around it law uban island malay individual homes there cairo 41 42 city of dead people living in the mosoleum 500k to a mil people live here SCVereal cemetry cities largest may have more than 500k informal residents more recent estimates up to 1 mil some parts have amenities technilcally illegal disimmenteties zone lacks infrastructure such as electricity plumbing sewage portable water piped water sidewalks lacking urban aammentities historically these were honored places and it wouldn39t have been appropriate to have this kind of residents here and some people wanted to be closer to their ancestors but majority because of poverty and lack of housing 90 population of egypt lives near the nile river delta fresh water and good soil for agriculture healthcare in cairo its an issue gtkavailability enough docnursescan you get to it financiallyits it proximateis it difficult to get to major spacial issues gtkaffordability can the people who best afford the best care living near the best care prob how can some overcome the financial barrier should the city pay for this gt location proximity environment air pollution autosindustry most significant contributors to air pollutiongt lt washington dc auto water supply quality infrastructure distributionallocationavailability AVAILABILITY is there enough clean water most of the time in cities no aging water infrastructure its very difficult to replace because you curt off water supply to replace the water infrastructure its very expensive because its under everything so you have to dig and interrupt other things to replace it anything like that in the city will delay things and time is money delaying everything its very costly its also susceptible to environmental conditions in the ground we tend to get corrosion and leakage its challenged spatially and expensive infrastructure toxic waste soils ground pollution sanitation removaldisposal treatment of solid and liquid waste lack of formal removal infrastructure 42 43 vast areas of very high density that have no sanitation tranportation availabilitypublic systems affordable public systems locationproximity are the people co located with the transportation do you have acess nov 18 city of gods movie discussion usa gentrificationgtlt transportation availabilitypp nov 20 LA population high density immigrationdiversification wealth poverty ethnicracial spatial segregation transportation environmentpollution dealing with econ and socio econ challenges water challenges crime natural hazards it pretty much has everything arc of mountains all on the eastern sides walled in by mountains or oceans theres no freeway free of traffic issues in LA ground level ozone is huge most polluted in terms of air quality cities in usa physical geograpgy medeteranian climate overall climatic variation over short space geo zones coast montains desert valleys urban islands natural hazards earth quakes fires mud slides especially during winter rainy seasons tourism hollywood disneylanded beachessurfing 43 44 TRANSMILENIO BRT Bus rapid transit in bogotta bogota extensive bike paths and dedicated bike lanes ciclovl39a program where sunday will close main streets and will have just for recreation and people to get around on alternative forms mexico city subway system extremely extensive but STILL doesn39t meet the needs they don39t have enough constantly needing to add lines and to try to get to more people and move crowding issues during peak times and rush hour times many incidences of women being molested and bothered so they dedicated cars for women and children only NATURAL HAZARDS ooding impermeable srufacessloss of natural drainageabsorption most urban centers near coasts or river valleys ood plains poor areas often most ood prone geologic activity majority of people live near the coatsts tidals prone to river ooding sea level rise and ice melt near earthquake zones and faults even in the best engineered cities japan Urban renewal and gentrification gentrification began in l950s1960s in western europe australiar and then to the usa became common in US cities l970s l980s spread to Latin America and other regions 1990s and early 2000s GENTRIFICATION higher income families and higher dollar commercial enterprise move into materially impoverished areas of cities serve as the catalyst s for the physical economic improvement they will start to improve that place and creates a whole series of changes and structures in that urban environment positives increase property values less crimes to economy and the city grows 44 45 education can increase health goes up proximiyconvenience good locations going to work ie amenitieS culture entertainment economic development infrastruceture education crime reduction investing more in environmental architecture thinking more sustainable in a way we do areas of cities in terms of drainage ie negatives lower income families don39t get to benefit because we displace those people in that neighborhood cant afford to live there or literally displaces people creating some new problems for the urban to deal with increase crimes somewhere else loss of culture local cost of living rises dramatically impoverished residents cant afford to remain often no affordable housing available chain stores may replace local businesses new crime might emerge different econ concentration of rich people new awkward spatial patterns for education may emerge ie rich people send their kids outside location to private schools cities in competition cities as commodities marketing cities self themselves everyday to tourists businesses its all economic we can have officials taXing centers art and culture tourism sports franchises usa cpmpettitive in selling their cities cities want sports franchises planned communities and the new urbanism columbia MD one of the first planned cities 45 46 new urbanism neotraditionalism or new town planning planned urban community built from scratch with the intent on self containmet creating new economic growth and alleviating pressure on eXisting urban systems is this an answer to sprawl the columbia mall center columbia MD census designated place lacks governmentincorporation administred by the columbia association basically it is a company not a City although it has a population of approximately 100000 kentlands super restricting everything designs of the homes ie its extremely eXpensive neighborhood to live in no one who lives in the kentlands works there they commute to DC its very dense not spread out green cities and LEED certification LEED leadership in energy and environmental design US green building council can have solar power trash disposal good insulation rooftop also cool the building if you have shade city infrastructure there are diff ways to be green and eco friendly it can help cool the city HUMAN IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONMENT case sturdy arctic geopolitics CRYOPOLITICS geo politics of the region is changing and has been for the past 15 years ice politics human impact on the natural environment in turn impacts human and its all POLITICAL the environment effects us and we effect the environment the overwhelming majority of the scienti c community is that climate change is happening and its anthropogenicthe majority agree that climate change exists controversy over shell S il CXplOI atiOIl in arctic continues alaska dispatch news russian LNG tanker takes on Arctics northern sea route BACKGROUNDPHYSICAL MECHANICS 46 47 meteorology science that study the short term weathers atmosphere SHORT term change the weather channel ie its parent discipline is physics Climatology sub field sub discipline of GEOGRAPHY so climate experts climatologists are geographers so they39re making long term predictions green house gases naturally occurring gases in the lower atmosphere of the earth water vapor carbon dioxide methane nitrous oxide ourocarbons occur naturally in earths atmosphere trap heat energy in lower atmosphere carbon is the basis of all organic substances earths natural green house effect lower atmosphere solar radiation heats ground LOWER atmosphere some escapes it creates habitable temperatures HUMAN enhanced greenhouse Effect thats problematic NOT the green house effect antrhopogenic increase in GHGs we are using carbon based fuels fossil fuels burning things etc us anthropgenic greenhouse gas emission in 2001 carbon dioxide 76 ourocarbons 5 methane 13 nitrous oxide 6 c02 culprits 33 power plants 33 cars and trucks 22 etc 3 main factors directly in uence earths energy balance 1 2 3 total energy in ux depends on the earths distance from the sun and on solar actiVity chemical composition of the atmosphere HUMANS ARE DIRECLTY EFFECTING THIS which actually effects 3 changing the albedo albedo ability of earths surface to re ect light the chemical composition of the atmosphere has changed significantly in the last 100 years anthropogenic GHC increase ALB EDO ration between amount of light that a body re ects or scatters and the amount of light absorbed ex a body with an albedo of 03 re ects or scatters three tenths or 30 percent of the lights that falls on it while absorbing the rest 47 48 soil absorbs a lot of radation water absorbs over time ice and snow have a very high albedo and very re ective so it will bounce back the radiation it DOESNT absorb the radiation it bounces it back off negative feedback if number 2 is changing then how are we changing the albedo more heat in the atmosphere there will be more warm temp then we will have less snow and ice because it will melt from the heat so we are not re ecting much sunlight back and we are absorbing more light albedo different surfacesconditions have different re ective properties snow highly re ective the albedo is also changing WHY feedback loop IPCC major body tied to the UN brings scientific members and politicians to effect change in the intl environment policies still controversial with laws biggest orbs that brings communtities aound the world together to look at climate change VAST MAJORITY of scientistsscholars in the earth sciences reached consensus in the 1900s there is VERY SMALL and decreasing who disagree and have garnered disproportionate media and political attention INTENSELY POLITICIZED china surpasses the usa in who puts out the most GHGs one of the leaders in green technology in the world however they39re majority of energy production is old fashioned they still create a new coal fire energy plan once per week massive producers of carbon pollution they consume so much so they consume so much energy CAVEATS areas where data is not collected lack complete coverage over the oceans natural NOT anthropogenic climate changecycles different temperatures and humidities in different areas and elevations dont record in every inch of space increasingly collecting data but still huge areas where we aren39t getting info there are limitation to our science and math the earth has its own heating and cooling controversy Not really climate gate UK atlas company greenland 48 49 strong positive correlations in methodologically and statistically research in all fields at nearly all latitudes and altitudes point to the same conclusions antrhopogenic climate change is occurring faster than any climate change even in our understanding of earths climate history faster than originally predicted 25 30 years ago ozone depletion different issue than anthro CC climate change more appropriate than global warming because some places are COOLING not all are getting warming the overall temp are increasing in the lower atmosphere but not all polar vorteX when you have cold air move down front he arctic so what sea level rises we are all living near the coasts species changes food chanfood web changes food security changes in fresh water supply security loss of icesnow actually intensifies climate change feedback stromsdroughtprecipitationocean currents hurricanes exclusive economic zone fishing zone customarily is 200 nautical miles out from baseline within the EEz and the fishing zones movement is free to all new geopolitics in the arctic opening of sea routes northwest passage decrease distance from nyc to tokyo by 2500 miles commercialstrategic significance distancetime in shipping SUMMER ICE natural resources marine resources marine life oil and gas obvious econ and securitystrategic significance 49 50 regional state players geologic claims UNCLOS continental shelf argument not to exceed 350nm lomonosov and other geologic ridges russia arguing for the lomonosov ridge as an extension canada same denmark same greenland norway other ridging svalbard gakkel ridge usa none yet UNCLOS not ratified sleeping in 90s and early 200s while others very proactive why russia planted ag on sea oor resource exploitation plans well underway already big oil player with caspian sea oil canda building an arctic navy building military bases in northernmost territories building ports and resources processing infrastructure in arcticfar north arctic council and indigenous communities arctic council IGO of arctic states AND peoples indigenous groups are permanent participants don39t have a say in the politics other NGO and the environmental groups greenpeace and others natioan states citizens etc will be on the exam from the first part of the semester but not specific case studies un convention and laws of the sea will be tested on that revisit it multiple choice short term writing or listing fill in blank no lengthy writing textbook chapters 50 51 chapter 4 pages 104 11 end where us enviro philosophy starts geography maaters pg 112 1 13 120 139 122 123 read carefully chapter 10 all chapter 11 pg 384 396 skip sections 397 403 on european cities and islamic cities 404 405 read it 407 slums of hope 409 POs notes NVEMBER 4 Urban GeOgraphv MeXico city one of largest metropolitan urban areas High altitude city surrounded by mountains and volcanoes Rio famous city very poor land settlement very close proximity to rich and poor often times ghettos and parts of Rio controlled by gangs Even though have huge settlement one part is completely rainforest Urbanization Process of urban growth eXpansion and dynamics and corresponding landscape changes Movement of people from rural to urban Change in lifestyle resulting from living in urban areas Urbanism The end result the condition what you have with an urban setting or urban life All aspects of urban life different from rural Percent Urban Portion of a country s population that lives in urban areas Singapore a city state Japan Germany the more developed world higher percent urban but lower urbanization rates Lowest percent urban poorest countries like Africa and Asia Places like China still have significant rural population Don t have a universally agreed definition to agree what are urban vs what is rural China still have most people living in rural than Urban but what we think of China are its cities think that everybody is in cities but also very high density rural Rural suburban sprawl small property but defining by rural it is rural despite being quite urban The world is urbanizing Proportion of world s population in urban places l800 2 3 l900 13 51 52 2000 47 World s population increased 25 times from 1950 to 2000 World s urban population increased 4 times in same period More Developed Countries MDCs Wealthiest countries have highest urban percentages Strong correlation between per capita income and percentage of a country s population that is urban Highest urbanization rates are in developing parts of world Greatest number of people in cities are in developing world Urbanization pace rates in recent decades Most dramatic in developing countries Urbanization rates highest in LDCs There are more people aggregate s living in urban areas in LDCs because there are more people in general in LDCs Demographic transition and urban GEOG Stage 2 incipient urbanization Stage 3 Rapid urbanization As moving into cities which starts in two would have high urbanization rates And in late 3 have more urban percentage of population Late Stage 3 5 High percent urban Megacities Megacity Population gt 10 million Really big city 10 million as threshold Mega city can assume dense but don t know density is it in uential Don t know quality life or income doesn t know anything Only tells us the increase in urbanization 2010 20 megacities 15 of them in LDCs Why so many Megacities in LDCs If it s a developing country high fertility and birth rates but also growing in terms of migration at least the perception that there are more opportunities across Assume eXpense is high but earn more eXpect a job perception is that it might attract more educated people etc Political and Economic power World Bank MDCs fund large scale projects dams roads capital buildings lead to cities Desired location for Industry and Service Companies Wide labor pool but also need own services as well Perception of better quality of life and maybe security Encourages massive rural to urban migration Global Cities more than just a number Cities that dominate the global economy and are tied to key global economic activity the world feels their in uence in finance and trade communications marketing and consumerism information media politics etc Extremely linked connected globally Globally and regionally in uential 52 53 In uence the global economy culture and politics Headquarters of TNCs NGOs international media Centralize the ow of capital stock exchanges and info tech Status highly coveted because associated with economic prosperity Business elites Global cultural leadership importance Accomplishment Olympics Olympics very significant short term in ux of capital during and after with longer term investment in your city and prolonged tourism Doesn t turn out financially lucrative as they wanted Strain the economy but upgrade infrastructure and workers get jobs employment rates go up Hyperurbanization Massive migration to a single city Creates Primate Cities Cities which dominate in all aspects of a country s human geography Rank rules gt 2x next largest OR gt 2nd 3rd and 4th largest cities added together Or has 13 or more of a country s total population US and Europe doesn t have Primate Cities have already several large cities Latin America and Africa has more Megalopolis and Conurbation same terms big cities and suburbs growing in a continuous chain Trend towards endless cities could significantly affect population and wealth in the next 50 years What is the impact of Culture on Cities Urban planners often forget culture cities are PEOPLE Also Physical geography may impact the culture Culture Language religion ethnicity Customs traditions Age education gender diversity Economic activity Food music recreatior entertainment What is Impact of Globalization Of Migration In Cairo Egypt massive middle class neighborhoods Shopping mall is no different also have localized avors and cultures etc Carrefour Wal Mart like chain with huge produce and supermarket Istanbul the most European city in Turkey has Dunkin Donuts uniforms in them are stereotypical clothing but in heritage sites not really If look at places have carnival celebrations have a catholic history Rio multicultural city carnival is based on neighborhood sometimes economic or ethno very geographic largest parties or celebrations in the world Done location in metropolitan area based on neighborhood etc 53 54 Singapore significant Malaysian population the religion of Malay is Muslim also majority Chinese heritage of Buddhist also southern Indian as well due to British rule and also more Pan Indian population Three big groups Chinese Malaysian and Indian Also Indonesia Europe Japan United States etc The government tries to give a national imprint to the population wants people to look as Singaporean and not as race not as great or complete success yet a challenge phenomenon Because of their diversity their love of food and pride of Singaporean food 150 food stalls in one food hall All of religions represented on landscape also depend on areas as well Peranakan people combination people historically of ethic backgrounds and soon became a unique community British recognize them as a population that is better educated and can put into authority but then became a community that is marginalized and because of tourism and wanting to create a national imprint and individuality Peranakan culture is rising Issues Population density and growth Cities are people a bunch of people on landscape and that what makes them Have to have resources and infrastructure Even most advanced cities in world have parking and transportation issues DC and LA number 1 and 2 for worst cities for traffic longest commute times in country huge rich metropolitan area though Natural increase and Migration Very significant factor affects most other urban issues Natural growth of number of family units and attractions to the city of better quality of life more opportunities etc EXperienced a while with urban from cities to suburbs after world war II more people got automobiles more building of suburbs middle and high class move to suburbs with inner cities became territories of lower class impoverished social problems run down buildings etc Trend has largely reversed in US and the world DC in on going gentrification process number of pros and cons controversial Housing Appropriate quantity and availability To solve it you build higher create a vertical human landscape Can have smaller spaces with condo so unit per family is smaller and so stack up to have more Revitalization for areas of lower rent knocks down and builds new structures to increase price Can turn old factories and non houses into houses Cities can eXpand further and further out Transportation also helps Quality conditions 54 55 Theoretically the quality and cost should be correlated but all sorts of spatial issues to go along with that Can have a wealthy city but still significant impoverished communities Spatial distribution location Want green spaces good transportation good groceries close to jobs no low income housing with other people like you security etc Affordability Homeowner rights property rights Can buy the rights to the view environmental regulations number of different regulations based on cities township state and federal Mortgages insurance vary dramatically Varies dramatically from country to country don t have mortgages somewhere problematic for not having one so not taking a loan mortgage can help Rent is going to increase over time more than mortgages and doesn t work in your favor in this case NOV 11 Favela Tourism Two forms Van or convoy certainly very guided and can be controlled by gangs those who control the favelas control the tourism Slightly controversial doing business with nefarious groups A gang in control can use to be protecting certain areas Getting a controlled view more of an exposure of a country than usual but still an exposure Privacy violation Celebrated film of life of the City of God Mexico City Most live in organized slums government tries to disperse population by making uniform houses elsewhere Bogota Colombia Northem third wealthy middle third is downtown and historic and southern third is extremely impovished generalization Increasing malls in this city a lot of narcotics related or drug violence in Colombia and malls became a quasi safer safe and family space and also just a trend as well Slums and wealthy does not live far from each other quite mixed Cities are much safer than before Bogota still a primary source what it is and still rural areas which needs to be taken care of while now most of the drug control shifted to Mexico Istanbul 55 56 Waterfront connects Black sea to Mediterranean sea waterfront properties are million dollar property Istanbul is famous for bulldozing slums whereas other cities those turn to amenity zones Istanbul a sprawl city Singapore Cairo 80 90 government housing subsidized funded or owned Completely planned except lower income areas Income areas are guest workers controlled by government so not much slums Way that this is planned is that the idea in which everything is around you some kind of shopping in there bicycle network but not a ton of parking widespread distribution clean safe public transportation majority use public minority used automobiles Commercial space some people work and live in same neighborhood For most part neat cleaned well ordered very structured efficiently run space space is an issue water is an issue no agriculture Singapore takes other people s goods improve process and ship goods Major center of finance banking regional center of services etc Pinnacles have platforms connected with outdoor space Singapore is an island with 53 smaller islands around it which has some malay single family homes ten minute trip from condensed to dramatically different to a tourist rural attraction city of the dead Takes residence in the mausoleums 500000 to a million people live here since the Arab spring numbers has gone up some people live here because wanted to live with deceased ancestors but most live because of poverty couldn t live else ware Technically illegal but still consider part of city Some people from Cairo didn t know this eXists Several cemetery cities largest may have more than 500000 informal residents some recent estimates say upwards of 1 million Numbers increased significantly since Arab Spring Some parts have amenities others do not Disseminates zone is a zone of a city that lacks formal infrastructure lacking as electricity plumbing sewage etc When have rising cities have rising disseminates zone Sometimes became amenities zones Technically illegal under Egyptian law Historically cemeteries were honored spaces Today views are slightly more Western some live here to honor ancestors Views have become more westemized in the sense that the stigma is different there should be very negative feelings towards this whereas now it is not Most here due to poverty Make shift informal housing Some have lived there for decades Some few urban amenities 56 57 City of the dead is lowest income Cairo other housing lower income has big families in small apartments government planned high density problem in building over agricultural land 90 of Egypt lived on the Nile River River oods give nutrients to land Cannot keep up needs of population Middle income houses very similar vertical heights Upper income huge houses small families living together in house Health Care Issue for everybody especially in the US can t fiX it not everyone has it not everyone wanted to pay for each other s health care Availability Do you have doctors Nurses Can you get to it financially Is it proximate to you Affordability Spatially the same People who can t afford best care goes to not best care Location proximity Harvard medical care used in wealthier people in Istanbul Air pollution Major problem in DC why as a service city Cars Autos Auto emissions for Washington for some cities it s autos and industry Industry Environment Water Why have problem Because of population very high density places too much people and not many stuff there Do we have enough water Is there enough water for everybody Supp1y Quality Infrastructure Cities density and water distribution infrastructure Aging water infrastructure very difficult to replace have to stop the water supply to replace and very eXpensive because underneath most of the density delaying movement of goods people etc Because underground also suseptical to environmental changes underground tend to get erosion etc MeXico city have water from rural areas pipe it up and over mountains and into cities not remotely cost effective Distributior allocations availability Have to have an adequate water supply a challenge infrastructural Toxic waste Soils ground pollution Also finds its way to the air Sanitation 57 58 Removal disposal treatment of solid and liquid waste Lack of formal removal infrastructure Vast areas of very high density have no sanitation or regular trash pickup these are luxuries and a lot of cities in the world take up residence in the trash cities Some cities of Latin America Africa and India devoted to trash picking and trash is no dollar space little to no cost to live but also constant food source living by picking out of trash Transportation Availability public systems Congestion what types what s available Affordability public systems Location proximity Are these places co located Are there taxis Easy to drive One of the most increasing transportation is van transport especially in Mexico City and South America ride sharing More and more bike share spaces increase in bike riders Transportation issues everywhere Forefront of most city agendas For the city to function the city is people Congestion Time equals money Pollution Either because of industry or pretty much of auto emissions ground level ozones Parking major issue in most cities why Issue in most cities regardless takes up space where you could be building other stuff no scalable not getting same return commercial space is high dollar space and even though stacked still cannot get return commercially Parking spaces are not going to change vehicle size rarely change etc Mexico City Majority of taxis are Volkswagen have four rush hours a day because of afternoon siesta Most cities have changed to adapt to western schedules but rush hours were so bad in Mexico City that they limit car miles driving Some people got around it buy cheaper rundown more polluted cars to drive around still to use as an extra Safety No traffic laws in Cairo massive city tons and tons of vehicles bad for people to drive or walk Pedestrian Friendly DC is most bicycle friendly cities but also most bicycle accidents as well Los Angeles best and worst problems DC is second to worst commuters waste more time stuck in traffic You can t fix traffic in one article due to people always living here and always driving there Population High density 58 59 Distribution of the density arc of mountains on eastern side and west side Pacific coast walled in by mountains or oceans to very high density Immigratior diversification High birth rate and increasing immigrants Wealth poverty Ethnic racial spatial segregation All the northern areas between mountains and downtown are high dollar wealth and also have very immigration and segregation around as well allegations of profiling crime prevention crime combating etc Transportation One of the most infamous high degree of car ownership per capita and not much space for cars insane number of freeways leading into the district while DC has none or very few LA is covered in freeways eXpressways highways and still given the number a high amount of traffic still There is not a freeway of free traffic issues Environment pollution Ground level ozone and because of arc of mountains have air trapped not just huge car ownership Geo zones Coast mountains desert valleys urban islands Cold water and wind than east climate is Mediterranean warm dry summer climate variation over short space Very dramatic over the whole area on the beaches versus on the mountains Natural hazards Famous for earthquakes San Andreas fault small faults in San Diego for comparison Fires are infamous With huge housing and light vegetation can easily burn through Have steep slope Hazards are infamous try to overengineer and overcome Tourism Hollywood the most significant land of biggest film industry in the world dollar value is higher compared to Bollywood which produced more films Beaches and beach culture Combined with pretty good climate and therefore a huge intake of tourists BRT Bus Rapid Transit above ground subway many lanes dedicated to buses increasing model used in cities and Bogota Bogota extensive bike paths and dedicated bike lanes Both in terms of work and for hobby Sundays close down major streets and allow people walking and bikes for recreation in increasing cities around the world Panama a lot of private owned buses 59 60 Mexico city subway system extremely extensive and cheap but does not meet the needs though still a lot of people extending in central valley and still need to add lines There are overcrowding during peak times and rush hour times in subway Women and children only cars increasing to prevent crime also do that to buses too More success than limiting license plates Cairo is number one craziest city for transportation no traffic laws but has significant investment in infrastructure Natural Hazards Flooding Impermeable surfaces loss of natural drainage absorption If a lot of vegetation a lot would be stored but if take away vegetation roads are not permeable so have to build drainage system Most urban centers near coasts or river valleys ood plains poor areas often most ood prone Prone to river ooding and also sea level rise and ice melting Geological activity put cities near earthquake zones and faults even in best engineered cities Japan has best earthquake engineering in the world we still see quakes in Japan have extensive damage l989 Loma Prieta earthquake double Decker highway collapsed a lot of people were killed very severe A lot of cities have soft soil or make soil and put landfill in and create new land Tokyo bay has tons of landfill some landfill When earthquake landfill would be first to liquify buildings can sink Urban Renewal and Gentrification Gentrification Began in l950s1960s Western Europe Australia and the United States Became common in US Cities l970s l980s Spread to Latin America and other regions 1990s and early 2000s Gentrification Higher income families and high dollar commercial enterprise move in to materially impoverished areas of cities Serve as catalysts for physical and economic improvements Invest in the sections knock down buildings and build new ones etc Positive aspects Proximity convenience Amenities culture entertainment Economic development Infrastructure improvements Education Crime reduction Negative aspects Local cost of living rises dramatically Impoverished residents can t afford to remain Often no affordable housing available chain stores may replace local businesses 60 61 New crime may emerge New awkward spatial patterns for education may emerge Cities are commodities sell themselves to tourists businesses and marketing Can do it through taX incentives bring in art and culture tourism sports franchises we will tear down only in US a perfectly good stadium and rebuild them invest huge amounts of money very competitive in selling our cities cities compete Cities want big sports franchises because the income is huge Planned Communities and the New Urbanism New planned communities James Rouse Rouse complexes everywhere in American cities mostly east coast cities transform downtown with Rouse development headquartered in Columbia Maryland whole planned city but not legally a city Doesn t have mayors or city council people have giant neighborhood with a neighborhood association Also called Neo traditionalism New Urbanism Neo traditional or New Town planning Planned urban community built from scratch with the intent on self containment creating new economic growth and alleviating pressure on eXisting urban systems Is this an answer to sprawl Heart of Columbia Maryland Columbia Mall surrounded by commercial buildings development around the mall is increasing each neighborhood has its own shopping center this is almost entirely higher dollar residential and commercial space but also mixed housing in town houses and single planning homes Very little material poverty here Census designated place lacks government incorporation Administered by The Columbia Association basically it is a company not a city though it has a population of approximately 100000 Traffic is so much better in here but navigating is tough Kentlands Maryland most famous of urban circles urban planning really new urbanism in the intention of spreading up population alleviating traffic Kentlands went overboard on extremely restricting neighborhood while have all the services there but not on the metro line and nobody who lives here works here it really hasn t solved the traffic problem or provide housing for different classes tremendous amount of commutes There are people who work there but mostly from Virginia so still a lot of traffic Many urban geographers have been critical of this type of development especially early on why Many residents are very satisfied living in this type of community why Green cities and LEED certification LEED Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design US Green Building Council Can have solar power provide solar water heaters more skylights want to let in outside light but let in certain amounts like heating and radiation trash disposal good insulation 61 62 can put same kind of efforts in city structure better draining water good spaces for people adds to quality of life can help cool the city urban heat island effects cities are warmer than suburb or countryside more ground level ozone try to find ways of cooling the cities LEED popular and increasing trend financially motivated in urban design not perfect but seems like win win maybe NOV 25 Human Impact on the Environment Case study ARTIC GeoPolitics Cryopolitics Human Impact on Natural Environment In turn impact Humans and it s all political Should be science but became intensively political but turned a corner and the scientific community years ago reached a consensus with an overwhelming majority agrees that climate change is occurring over the years some politicians wanted to assume that there was debate but the truth is that the majority agrees about climate change Controversy over Shell s oil eXploration in Arctic Continues Ice is melting frozen waters thawing of sea ice threatens polar bears Russian court jails siX more Greenpeace activists for protesting Arctic drilling Considers them terrorists Dymond not with Greenpeace Lots of stuff in news about LNG LNG is natural gas more and more natural gas Russia has world s largest maybe in its arctic coast and liquidfying it is more convenient Even put through tankers through the summer times I Background Science Physical mechanics Meteorology study of short term weather atmosphere parent discipline is physics Meteorology in contrast with Climatology is the short term Climatology Study of long term weather patterns atmospheric patterns Climatology sub field sub discipline of GEOGRAPHY So climate eXperts climatologists are Geographers If watching weather channel shows American and European model of Meteorologists for short term Climatologists look for five years are models practice runs and guesses but try to improve the models take all different climate centers they have their own models take all of them and average them to improve the general Greenhouse gases GHGs Water vapor carbon dioxide methane nitrous oxide uorocarbons occur naturally in Earth s atmosphere trap heat energy in lower atmosphere General we generated this temperature change on the planet 62 63 Carbon about how carbon is basis on life on earth carbon based attitudes Earth s Natural Greenhouse Effect Lower atmosphere Greenhouse effect is not bad need it to have temperatures to generate human life the change or increase of the greenhouse effect is what is bad Solar radiation Heats ground lower atmosphere some escapes creates habitable temperatures Human enhanced greenhouse effect Anthropogenic increase in GHGs increase lower atmosphere s ability to trap heat less radiation is escaping eXhaust from industry cars burning things a number of different practices add up to supercharge greenhouse effect Fluorocarbons 5 Methane 13 Nitrous OXide 6 and Carbon Dioxide 76 US anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions by gas Perfect example how we can cause recognize and respond to it good ozone is coming back Culprits or causes of C02 power plants 33 cars and trucks 22 etc 3 main factors directly in uence earth s energy balance Earth is not always perfect distance from sun 1 Total energy in uX depends on the earth s distance from the sun and on solar activity 2 Chemical composition of the atmosphere Humans directly affecting this which then affects Albedo 3 Albedo ability of Earth s surface to re ect light Chemical composition of the atmosphere has changed significantly in the last 100 years Anthropogenic GHC increase Albedo ratio between amount of light a body re ects or scatters and amount of light absorbed EX a body with an albedo of 03 re ects or scatters three tenths or 30 percent of the light that falls on it while absorbing the rest Black absorb heat white re ects soil absorbs radiation provides heat energy water absorbs over time specific heat from the earth ice and snow has very high albedo so bounce back radiation doesn t absorb actually re ect back literally bounces back because of the re ection have sunburn in snow If changing chemical composition then how are we changing albedo If more heat in atmosphere has more temperature which melts more snow and ice and if decreasing snow and ice decrease albedo and then earth absorbs more light Not re ecting much solar radiation absorbing more of it a negative feedback loop Different surfaces conditions have different re ective properties Snow highly re ective 63 64 The Albedo is also changing why Feedback loop IPCC Major body that ties with UN that brings science and politicians together to do something with climate change highest level joint panel that eXists still have controversy with law others feel bureaucracy and therefore ineffective nevertheless it is largest group Vast majority of Scientists scholars in the earth science reached Consensus in the 1990s Scientists might have different beliefs but most have the same exact conclusion of climate change Happening decades not propaganda it s not just people who study climate but also those who study plants water etc There is a very small and decreasing percentage who disagree and have garnered disproportionate media and political attention East and south asia has two biggest population in world most freshwater came from mountains Himalayans and Tibetan plateau and the snow is melting snow melts reforming of the snow during monsoon if decreasing that then decreasing the water villages losing water Who puts out most greenhouse gases Rest of the world then China then US then EU then India then Russia then Japan then Canada then Brazil China still one of the leaders in producing green technology in the world but making them also emits a lot of gases might use old technology which outputs more gas Caveats Areas where data is not collected lacks complete coverage over the oceans Different temperature and humidity in different areas and elevations don t record temperature in every inch of space many areas where not recording information and it is just logistically impossible But still create more new models better recording but still some parts not recorded Natural NOT anthropogenic climate change cycles Cool warm cycles Don t know what is going to happen if gets into cooling cycle then it is good if heating cycle then it is horrible But still today s emissions had huge change than a long time before Controversy However not really of controversy Climategate Watergate or scandal of climate change Top scientist eXperts on climate saying each others works is crap criticizing each other and therefore are egoistical and liars of climate UK atlas company Greenland Strong positive correlations in methodologically and statistically sound research in all fields at nearly all latitudes and all altitudes point to the same conclusions Anthropogenic climate change is occurring 64 65 Faster than any climate change event in our understanding of earth s climate history Faster than originally predicted 25 30 years ago Ozone depletion different issue than anthro CC Climate change more appropriate than Global warming Because some places are getting cooler as well But overall average temperature is increasing in the atmosphere Amount of salt depth configuration of the coast is factors that may affect results help change temperatures As heat up the earth low pressure battle between hot and cold etc Shorter period 50 100 years may have more storms battle between heat and cold not everyone is heating evenly B attle between polar vortexes temperature situations etc So what Sea level rises Concern of that problem of being put in harms way marshes going away situation getting worse for New Orleans etc More dramatic storms does seem like insurance and even risk assessors seeing more extremes on regular basis heating up and create greater energy imbalance Coral dying around the world changing whole marine food web might destroy tourism Precipitation patterns and temperature changes affect on agriculture If throw off biodiversity change food webs does have impact on people One of the most aware populations of the world but then the most greatest carbon emission Only recently seeing other factors that affect hurricanes etc Bigger view is looking at energy and hurricanes are the release of energies Bigger concern is that we are increasing energy and therefore stronger storms Sea level rises Species change food chain food web changes food security Climate change agricultural change food security Changes in Fresh water supply security Loss of ice snow actually intensifies climate change feedback Storms drought precipitation ocean currents Hurricanes Artic Ice melt 65
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