Family Life and Work: Child Development and Family Relations
Family Life and Work: Child Development and Family Relations CDFR 1103
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CDFR 3150 Introduction to Early Childhood Intervention
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This 6 page Bundle was uploaded by AmberNicole on Thursday April 7, 2016. The Bundle belongs to CDFR 1103 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Alan C. Taylor in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Marriage and the Family in Child Development at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 04/07/16
Chapter 12: Family Life and Work: A Balancing Act Objectives Transformation of American Homes Couples and Work The Balancing Act The Government’s Role Marriage and Money Relationships and Money • Money as an Emotional Issue – Causes Stress and Strain – Communication is vital The Transformation of American Homes • Women enter the workforce – Gender equality – Glass ceiling • Different pay for comparable work • Discrimination • Lack of family-friendly work policies • What are factors that can affect women’s participation in the work force? • 12% of workers have access to paid maternity leave through their employer • 59% of workers have access to unpaid, job-protected 12 weeks of leave • Black and Hispanic women earn less than white and Asian women • Dukes vs. Wal-Mart Pay Equity: Why It Matters • Women are the equal/main breadwinner in 4 out of 10 families • Women comprise almost half of the workforce • Pink collar phenomenon • Which jobs are considered “feminine”? • Teaching, secretary, nurse • Which jobs are considered “masculine”? • Doctor, firefighter • Part-time work • Pink-collar phenomenon: women tend to be concentrated in certain occupational categories; e.g.: in 2000, 2/3 of all U.S. women were crowded into 21 of the 500 occupational categories Dual Earner Couples • More than half of married couples in the U.S. are dual earners • 5% of dual-career families are on professional or managerial positions • Influenced by education level, urban living, unemployment, and discrimination Others Factors in Workforce Transformation Service Men and Women Deployment Planning Financial Difficulties Single Parents in the Workforce Child poverty (approx ½) 13 million single-parent mothers Increasing # of single-parent fathers Of the 13 million, 40% make less than $10,000 per year Most single mothers have not completed high school Single parenting impacts the economic well-being of the family Trying to Make Ends Meet • Family Budgets • Shift Work (57% of couples) • Overtime • Unemployment • Family instability • Decreased family interactions • Increased levels of family violence • Increased mental hospital admissions The Economic Context • Economic stability is a measure of family well-being • Working families in in the U.S. – Employees work 1,978 hours per year – 65 million women in the workforce • 3/4 have children under 18 • 1/4 spend a least some nights or weekends at work – 3/4 of employees have no control over their work schedules • How does this affect families? • Number of hours worked in a year has increased by 36 hours since 1990 • One half of all women who cohabitate work different schedules than their partner • One half of working families have childcare expenses (16% of income for two-income families, 19% for single parent families) Family Budget • On average, working families with two parents and two children require an income of $48,778 to meet a basic family budget – 30% of families fall below this level – Also varies based on geography Division of Household Labor • Unequal division of labor referred to as the Second shift • Division of labor determined by: – Women’s employment – Men’s employment – Earnings – Education – Presence of children Child Care • Over 71% of American children live in a home with a working mother Child Care Options 1. Working different shifts 2. Extended family members provide childcare 3. Daycare centers or preschool • 1/2 of all women work different schedules than those with whom they live • 1/2 of working families have child care expenses • Over 54 million adults provide some degree of care for aging, disabled or ill family members Stay at Home Parents • If paid, would earn $134,121 annually (moms) • Child care/home responsibilities: 49.8 hours per week • Sleep about 6 hours per night • In 2009, there were 290,000 stay-at-home-dads The Triangular Theory of Balancing Work and Family Conflicting Demands • Role conflict – Contradictory demands between roles individuals must perform • Role overload – When spouses take on roles that have excessive demands Work-Family Spillover/Crossover Can be positive or negative Levels of well-being are higher for men and women Women experience less anxiety and depression Women report better physical health and higher self-esteem Husbands are more involved with children Children have stronger network of social support Two wages increase financial stability Marital satisfaction is high when the woman’s employment is consistent with the husband’s and wife’s gender role beliefs Strategies for Family/Work Balance 1. Value Family 2. Strive for Partnership 3. Derive Meaning from Work 4. Maintain Work Boundaries 5. Be Focused and Productive at Work 6. Prioritize Family Fun 7. Take Pride in Dual Earning 8. Live Simply 9. Learn to Say “No” 10. Value Time The Government Context: Family Policy and Family Life • Family Policy – governmental goals and/or programs that seek to support and strengthen families • Policies address – School readiness and literacy – After-school programs – Parenting and childrearing – Childcare – Care of the elderly – Equal housing opportunities – Substance abuse/use awareness programs Healthcare • Attitudes toward health and wellness are formed in the family • Emotional and psychological health are closely linked • Declining physical health can have a negative impact on marital satisfaction Social Welfare • War on Poverty: Economic Opportunity Act • Created welfare programs such as: – Head Start – Medicare – Medicaid – Food Stamps – Housing assistance Marriage and Money • Are you… – A spender or a saver? – A worrier about or an avoider of moner issues? – A risk-inclined or risk-averse financial personality type? Key Money Conversations • Debt! • Beliefs about money • Goals • …..Also, in couples, financial issues are often a catalyst to revealing underlying, hidden, or deeper couple issues
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