Bio 100 Notes
Bio 100 Notes bio101
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Popular in Biology
This 10 page Bundle was uploaded by Kwasi Porterhill on Monday February 2, 2015. The Bundle belongs to bio101 at CIMBA - Undergraduate Study Abroad in Italy taught by Dr. williamson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 173 views. For similar materials see biology in Biology at CIMBA - Undergraduate Study Abroad in Italy.
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Date Created: 02/02/15
Chapter 1 intro to Biology 82614 0 We are in a quotgolden agequot of Biology 0 Scientists are studying a myriad of questions relating to our lives 0 We see great diversity of life on earth 0 Biology The study of life Deductive reasoning Reasoning based on facts or principles previously established Inductive Reasoning Reasoning based on observations and testing 1 Primary tool of scienti c method Scienti ic method is based on asking questions and making predictions making hypothesis Characteristics common to ALL life forms Organization order Regulation homeostasis Growth and development Energy processing Response to environment Reproduction and heredity Evolution Cellular organization Subatomic particles Small Atoms Molecules Macromolecules Cell organisms Cell Cells and DNA 1 Two types of cells Prokaryote and Eukaryote 2 Eukaryotic Cells a Larger b More complex c Nucleus membrane enclosed d Many types of organelles 3 Prokaryotic Cells a Smaller b Simple structured c DNA concentrated in nucleoid region d Lacks most organelles 4 DNA a Genetic instructions are called a genome b Four chemical names of the building blocks AGCT c Average size gene is 100 s or 100039s letters long FP P PP N ewewwe Large Zooming in on life 1 Biosphere includes all life Iquot Ecosystems consists of all organism in one area where there is soil water and light Commmunities all organisms in a tide pool Population groups of interacting individuals of one species Organisms an individual living thing Organ systems in the body of the organism there are several Tissues several tissues are used to compose our organs similar cells in a function 8 Cell the cell is the smallest unit holding life 9 Organelles are functional components of cells DNA houses 10Molecules and atoms chemical level clusters of atoms FP P PPquot Emergent properties at each higher level within a hierarchy structure ts function in the organism Three domains of life 1 Prokaryotics a Bacteria b Archaea 2 Eukaryotics a Three animal kingdoms Plantae Fungi and Animalia Regulation Homeostasis All life forms strive to keep their internal environment the same regardless of external environment 82814 Growth and Development Energy processing All organisms must be able to obtain energy and use it for diverse tasks Chemical ATP Response to the environment Predator to prey interaction Need for nutrients Follow the sun plants A habitat and shelter is required for all animals Reproduction Heredity and DNA All living organisms must pass on their traits DNA inheritance The Genetic structure changes as it is passed the variation is an essential evolutional component Evolution Diversity is a hallmark of life Ecosystems a All the living organisms in a speci c area b Also the nonliving organisms c Dynamics are two main processes energy and nutrients recycling 1 Nutrients recycling a Producers are photosynthetic organisms plants b Consumers are that organisms that feed on plants or things that eat plants c Decomposer break down waste and the deceased organisms fungi 2 Energy Flow Not recycled Most are solar powered ecosystems Enters as sunlight Absorbed by plants Passed through consumers animal food chain Passes also through decomposers rhrDonm Chemistry The nucleus The electrons move around the nucleus negative charge Protons positive charge Neutron no charge of protons of electrons Isotopes Two atoms with the same of protons but one les neutron Radioactive isotopes unstable Decaying later into stable forms Eg C14 C12 energy Chemical bonds One atom donates electrons to another atom One atom receives electrons from another atom One atom shares electrons with another atom lonic bonds giving an electron and another atom receiving the electron Covalent bonds two atoms that share one or more pairs of electrons Nonpolar covalent bond equal sharing Polar covalent bond uneven sharing Hydrogen bonds when polar water molecules are attracted to oppositely charged areas of neighboring molecules 8312014 Matter elements and compounds Nitrogen Hydrogen Carbon and Oxygen compose 96 percent of our bodies Matter anything that occupies space Element substance that cant be broken down by chemical reactions 3 Trace elements are required in small amounts but are important nonetheless to the body Compounds the combination of 2 or more elements Nucleus normally composed of a proton and a neutron Electrons normally surround the nucleus Atomic number number of protons in an atom Mass number sum of the of protons and neutrons in the nucleus Only electrons are directly involved in chemical activities of atoms of electrons in an outershell determine the chemical properties of an atom Most negatively charged ions have names ending in ide Chemical reactions the breaking down of reactants and forming of new bonds as products Water and life Water cohesion the tendency of molecules of the same kind to stick together Surface tension a measure of how dif cult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid 3 physical states of water ice fog and liquid water The temperature of water only goes up once the water molecules speed up Evaporative cooling after a substance evaporates the liquid remaining cools down Solution a liquid containing a homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances Solvent dissolving agent Solute the substance dissolved Aqueous solution when water is the solvent Acid a chemical compound that releases H pH of 16 Base alkali a compound accepting H equaling a release of OH pH of 7 14 pH Scale a measure of the hydrogen ion concentrated in a solution 1 Each pH unit equals a tenfold change in the concentration of H 2 The pH in most living cells is close to 7 Buffers susbstances that minimize the changes in pH by accepting and donating H 922014 Polysaccharides 1 Starch plants polymer of glucose 2 Glycogen animals polymer of glucose in liver cells Structural material 1 Cellulose 982014 Carbon Chemistry Carbon atoms are able to form large complex diverse molecules by bonding to four partners Organic compounds vary in presence and locations of different functional groups Giant molecules Composed of 1 Short polymer 2 Monomer 3 Hydrolysis dehydration 4 Longer polymer 0 Large biological molecules l Carbohydrates a Dietary energy storage plant structure b Examples monosaccharides glucose and fructose disaccharides lactose and sucrose polysaccharides starch and cellulose II Lipids a Long term energy storage fats hormones and steroids b Fats triglycerides and steroids testosterone and estrogen c Hydrophobic d Triglyceride 3 fatty acids joined by a dehydration reaction to glycerol e Most animal fats are saturated f Plants are mostly unsaturated g Cholesterol and the sex hormones lll Proteins a Enzymes structure storage contraction transportation etc b Examples lactase an enzyme hemoglobin a transport protein c 20 types of amino acids monomers of proteins d Linked by dehydration reactions forming polypetides e Proteins consist of one or more polypetides f Four levels of structure I Primary sequence of amino acids ll Secondary localized folding lll Tertiary overall shape lV Quaternary found in proteins with many pepUdes IV Nucleic Acids a Information storage b Examples DNA CGAT and RNA CGAU c DNA bases Cytosine Guanine Adenine and Thymine d RNA uses Uracil instead of Thymine e Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides Tour of a cell Microscopes as windows 1 Magni cation increase in an objects size 2 Resolving power the ablility of an optic instrument to show two objects separate 3 Cells rst described in 1665 by Robert Hooke British scientist 4 Cell theory mid 180039s all living things are composed of cells Two major categories of cells 1 Prokaryotic cells found in organisms of domains Bacteria and Archaea 2 Eukaryotic cells plants animals and fungi also protists All cells have 1 Plasma membrane a barrier surrounding the cell a Composed of lipids and proteins b Most lipids are phospholipids related to dietary fats contain 2 acid tails c The third tail replaced by a phosphate group phosphorus and oxygen d Phospholipid layer 2 layered membrane e Fluid mosaic uid because the molecules can move freely 2 Cytosol a thickjelly like uid inside the cell 3 Chromosomes one or more that carry DNA made genes 4 Ribosomes protein builders a Can swing their locations b Cytoplasm is their workplace c Responsible for protein synthesis Cell surfaces 1 Animal cells contain Extracellular matrix a sticky coat secreted by the cells 2 Cell junctions structures that connect cells together in tissues Nucleus 1 Nuclear envelope separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm 2 Chromatin a ber formed by DNA molecules and proteins 3 Nucleolus a prominent structure within the nucleus ribosome maker DNA controlling protein production 1 DNA programs protein in the cytoplasm through mRNA 2 mRNA exits through nuclear envelope and travels to cytoplasm binding to ribosomes 3 the ribosome moves along the mRNA translating genetic message into a protein Endomembrane system 1 The Endoplasmic Reticulum a b C d e One of the main manufacturing facilities in a cell Producing an enormous variety of molecules Connected to the nuclear envelope forms a labyrinth of tubes to the cytoplasm Smooth ER i Synthesis of lipids ii As liver cells are exposed to a drug smooth ER increases Rough ER i Ribosomes that stud the outside of the membrane ii One function consists of membrane creation iii Transport vesicles sacs made of membrane that bud off rough ER 2 The Golgi Apparatus 1 9 h i Receives re nes stores and distributes chemical products of the cell One side receives vesicles from the ER Proteins within a vesicle are modi ed by enzymes The shipping side a depot for nished products 3 Lysosomes a b C d e f 9 Is a membrane enclosed sac of digestive enzymes Not in plant cells Developed in vesicles off the golgi apparatus Enzymes break down large molecules Destroy helpful bacteria Release amino acids that nourish cells Help sculpt the body in embryo form 4 Vacuoles a b C Rough sacs of membrane budding from the ER Golgi or plasma membrane Variety of functions Contractile protists uses to pump out excess water and central plants versatile compartments Basic Energy Conservation of Energy 1 Energy the capacity to cause change 2 Kinetic energy energy of motion 3 Conservation of energy its impossible to create or destroy energy 4 Potential energy the energy an object obtains because of location or structure Entropy 1 1 2 3 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 Ani Entropy measure of the amount of disorder or randomness in a system Chemical energy Chemical energy arises from the arrangement of atoms and can be released by a reaction ATP and cell work ATP a Adenosine triphosphate b The transfer of a phosphate from one of the tails to other molecules provides energy for cell work c Cellular respiration chemical energy harvested from fuel molecules Enzymes Metabolism total of all the chemical reactions within an organism Enzymes proteins that speed up chemical reactions Substrate the certain reactant molecule an enzyme recognizes Active site shape and chemistry of the substrate molecule lnduced t the entry of the substrate induces the enzyme to slightly change shape Activation energy a Activation energy activates the reactants and triggers chemical reactions b Enzymes lower activation barriers c Enzymes are currently being engineered O Membrane Function Duncp Transport proteins Transport proteins are membrane protein that helps move substances across a cell membrane Passive transport diffusion across membranes Diffusion the movement of molecules spreading out evenly available space Overall diffusion is usually directional More Less Passive transport passive because the cell does not expend any energy for it to happen Concentration gradient more less Dynamic equilibrium molecules moving but as many dye molecules move in one direction as in the other Facilitated diffusion assisted transport molecules that are slow assisted by proteins Osmosis and water balance Osmosis the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane Solute a substance that is dissolved in a liquid solvent A membrane separates two solutions with different solvent concentration Hypertonic the solute of the higher concentration Hypotonic the solute of the LOWER concentration mal water balance 1 In a hypotonic solution gains water swells and possibly bursts 2 In hypertonic solution cell shrivels from water lost 3 ln isotonic solution ideal environment 0 Plant water balance 1 In a hypotonic solution ideal environment 2 ln hypertonic solution loses water and shrivels 3 ln isotonic solution accid 9914 Diffusion Nonpolar items are able to be diffused through the membrane 0 Cell membrane is semi permeable Energy and Chemical reactions The capacity to do work energy de ned Energy exists in many forms Unit cal or kcal Making bonds requires energy A chemical bond is a form of potential energy ATP adenosine triphosphate 1 Main carrier of energy from one reaction site to another 2 The quotenergy currencyquot of the cell Enzymes 1 Made up of proteins 2 They speed up the reactions catalyst 3 Reusable 4 5 6 One enzyme catalyzes only a single reaction speci c roles Substrate interaction substrate binds to active sites in enzyme Enzymes are proteins with a 3 dimensional structure 9112014 0 Cellular respiration 1 Obtaining energy from food 2 Generating ATP 3 Glucose oxygen c02 h20 and ATP 4 Metabolism chemical transformation process of energy 0 Types of respiration 1 Glycolysis Lisis breaking down of a substance Glucose has 6 carbons C6 Converts glucose to Pyruvates PGA 2 C3 Fermentation 02 missing respiration 02 present Duncp
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