ISS 215 lecture
ISS 215 lecture ISS 215
Popular in Social Differentiation and Inequality
Popular in Human Development
This 17 page Bundle was uploaded by Carly Daiek on Tuesday February 3, 2015. The Bundle belongs to ISS 215 at Michigan State University taught by Dr. Hussain in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see Social Differentiation and Inequality in Human Development at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 02/03/15
ISS 215 Lecture 1 Right Hand Perspective Structural Functional Persoective VVhatisit Main features Pioneers 0 August Comte 0 Herbert Spencer 0 Emile Durkheim o Talcott Parsons In all societies around the globe people look at things the way they see them Need analytical amp critical skills to see what is really going on It is usually not the same as how you see it Structural Functionalism a framework that sees society as a complex system Society is interdependent amp functional you do things for other people amp they do things for you For example 0 When the president gives a speech it may look like it s coming from the heart but really he is told by experts how it should be delivered to impact people 0 News gives us stories why we go to war but not always 100 true 0 Elections Main Features Societies are always systematic some more efficient than others economy education politics etc Society does not exist without individuals 0 Germany France Poland etc are losing population gt results in nonexistent Dysfunctional elements are functionallead to social integration and equilibrium 0 Lead to law enforcement priests judges etc People make a LIVING out of deviants ampcriminals Examples to raise We against them Acts as a force to UNIFY people Ex 911 united people Makes society THINK 39why OOOOO Social change is EVOLUTIONARY 0 There is always resistance to change by the people older generations but still change continues 0 Older generations may not accept the lifestyle you are living 0 Evolution v Revolution Social Integration 0 By de ning what is right amp wrong in economy education daily etc Punishment system Social Strati cation is good 0 Inequality is goodcreates competition Pioneers Society as Organic Whole Social Organicism Society as an Organism o Functionalists say societies got through stages of development 0 Rise amp fall of Roman civilization Egyptian civilization Chinese etc o No civilization lasts forever Decay process somebody else will replace the functionalist perspective 0 quotHuman bodyquot Social Darwinism All functionalists believed in this 0 Darwin in Biology Survival of the ttest Organisms best adjusted to their environment will survive and succeed Herbert Spencer In society those who succeed are those who are best tted 0 Best tted physically and mentally t 0 Inequality by birth Gray area of assumption Ex Height depends on height of parents If height helps you get a good job Social Darwinism applies Presidents in America starting from 6070 years ago were all over 6 ft tall Biased as a society All are saying society is a living organismhas life Can be compared to a child growing up The circle of life Size of population in human societies has increased dramatically People who live in these societies tend to be different from other people Relationships become very complex Bigger the population the more complex the society Difference in structure physical and social leads to difference in function 0 Gender roles 0 Size of families Used to need more people for labor now we don t need as much August Comte 17981857 0 Society as Organic Whole 0 Individuals are functional 0 Law of 3 stages Theological stage People believe in super natural things Metaphysical stage People believe in super natural things Scienti c stage Metaphysical stage we start talking about logic Scienti c stage start to believe in knowledge based on proofobservations Herbert Spencer 18201903 0 Social Organiscism Social Darwinism Population Dif in structure def in function Durkheim 18561917 0 Social organism o Interrelationship of parts and the whole Talcott Pearson 1902 1979 o Socialization amp control 0 Society controls you in formal and informal ways Formal Rules and laws lnformal Society singles you out 0 Functional Imperatives Adaptations to environments Goal attainment People need to have goalssomething to work for 0 Need means for these goals Integration Latency maintain patterns 0 Belief that we should maintain our lifestyles etc 0 People who enjoy the bene ts of current culture will always resist change ISS 215 Lecture 2 quotSocial Strati cation is Goodquot Social Differentiation Classi cation of individuals into socially recognizable groups Can be natural or manmade differences 0 The way you look manwoman race 0 Man made religion likesdislikes culture etc Some inequalities are associated with these differences Social Inequality and Social Strati cation A system of ranking people based on their accesspossession of valuable things 0 United States Money gold education etc Access the mechanism you use to achieve these valuable things Possession those who actually have valuable things If you don t have access and possession you will not enjoy equality Strati cation Systems Law does not dictate culture Modern ranking does not depend on religion it is based on education etc 1 The Caste System 0 Hindu Caste System based on story of creation God disassembled himself and converted it into groups of people HeadgtFeetgtquotUntouchablesquot Belief God created us unequal it is something you are born with 2 The Estate System 0 Based on birth Nobility 0 Ex Landlords in Europe Emperors Clergy Ex Priests religious leaders 0 Used by the nobles of Europe to remain in power Justi ed the evils and injustice that was imposed on poor people by nobles used Bible as evidence Peasants Ex Farmers 3 Social Class System wealth education occupation The Dimensions of Social Strati cation in the US 1 Economic 0 Occupation Americans rank jobs on their perception Doctors v Waiters American perception of college professors quotnoble Ranking in America is not always tied to money 0 Income 0 Wealth When your money earns money 2 Status 0 Personal Prestige Those who are ranked high because they are quotgoodquot Charismatic individuals 0 MLK 0 Association Informal always pick the people that are similar to you 0 Friends 0 Example A homeless man will probably not be invited to your birthday party Formal There are rules and regulations sometimes in writing as to who and who cannot be a member 0 Example American Medical Association Must be a doctor 0 Example Bohemian Club Only for men billionaires expresidents etc o Socialization Example 18 years of socialization it is not likely that you will accept beliefs that are different than yours 3 Political o All societies have a political system 0 Powerless people and powerful people based on politics Gilbert and Kahl Model American Class 0 Capitalist Class 1 Upper Middle Class 14 Middle Class 30 Working Class 30 Working Poor 1315 50 million people in America live in poverty 0 Underclass 1012 Physical health problems mental health problems old people people who have adopted it has a lifestyle OOOO Over time the wealth in America has been going up ISS 215 Lecture 3 Davis and Moore on Social Inequality Criticism Claim inequality in a society is functional Around the globe cannot nd a single society where there is no inequality it would be a utopian society Businesses have class systems as well certain positions are more important and require more training In every society everybody knows the occupations that earn more respect Everybody has means and mechanisms to assign occupational positions Davis and Moore say that people make choices to become that occupation they do so that is the respectclass level they deserve Money is the force behind everything Who is functional and who is not functional What is and what isn t Functional signi cance is a cultural phenomenon Ex gender women didn t receive a paycheck for their work staying at home taking care of children so it was considered valueless Unequal access to resources people are rich people are poor In a society it s not easy to break the cycle of prosperity between classes If you are born into a class generally you stay in that class The powerful class controls everything in society around the globe ex media education etc including development of favorable self image while blaming the poor class for their own situation When the gap between rich and poor continues to grow it produces con ict rather than integration in society Classical Theories on Social Inequality Emile Durkheim 18581917 Two types of societies 1 Mechanical Solidarity small ruler simple traditional simple division of labor 0 postman teacher doctor few basic jobs Homogenous Similarity of Individuals 0 Everyone is very similar to each other ex immigrants coming to America were 90 farmers Collective Conscience o More emphasis is put on the family opposed to one s own success Individual Ego not Prominent 0 Society works as a whole 2 Organic Solidarity large complex modern society Complex division of labor 0 foot specialist heart specialist so many occupations Differences 0 Difference race ethnicity cultural background educational background Interdependence o Depend on other individuals to ful ll needs Increased Individualism 0 Competition succession is generally at the cost of another s failure Dehumanization 0 Individuals become less important Anomie when social norms break down Most of life is regulated by social norms ex smoking marijuana even though it s illegal vs not coming to class in a bathing suit even though it is legal Durkheim and Social Inequality 1 Division of labor a Complex division of labor will have more inequality 2 Internal and External Inequality a Your own choices and effort vs Impact caused by the system 3 Class Revolution a Whenever there is a revolution based on class inequality will change Max Weber 18641920 Bureaucracy vertical vs horizontal associations Impersonality In an organization there are positions that can be occupied by anyone Hierarchy Powerful people and powerless people Written System of Rules Clear Division of Labor Contains precision speed unambiguity knowledge unity produces less friction and is low cost Weber and Authority 1 Rational Legal Authority law of the land ex police officer 2 Traditional Authority group of people who get power over you because of religion ex parents priest 3 Charismatic Authority Individuals who do not have any legal or traditional authority but who have great personal charisma and so people respect them Weber and Social Inequality Classes Position of an individual in the stock market that determines their class position Property Classes Socia Classes Commercial Classes People respect you and give you higher status based on your social class Status All aspects of life determined by a social estimation of honor a Restricted pattern of social interaction 0 Interaction within your own quottypequot of people bSharing the bene ts within groups 0 They make other people believe that they are powerful Delivering a message c Status conventions and traditions o Rituals d Monopoly over certain economic opportunities Party Power within an organization for its leaders in order to attain ideal or material advantages for its active members Pareto Gaetano CW Mills Anthony Giddens quotIn every society around the globe there is a small group of people who can be labeled as elites Those are the ones who rule and control the political power quot a Elites in Ancient Societies Certain families have power b Elites in Agrarian Societies 0 People who own a lot of land are in power c Elites in Industrial Societies Those who own the corporations have powerpolitics Rich people Senators and Congressman o WalMart ISS 215 Lecture 4 Left Hand Perspective In uenced by Karl Marx Founder of Socialism A Con ict Perspective Society is a complex system made up of inequality and con ict that leads to social change 0 Inequality is not good not functional and relates con ict People don t understand the real reason why things happen around the world in the way that they do B Main Features Various parts of social system do not t together harmoniously Social order through force 0 Forced upon people by the ruling class 0 Ruling class wants to keep order because otherwise their rule is in danger FEMA cof ns jails etc Competing goals of individuals leads to con ict 0 Any war or problem that has ever happened is based on an economic nature Limited resources lead to con ict Con ict is the major source of real change in society 0 Resolution is a result of con ict Con ict theorists try to analyze who bene ts from particular social arrangements 0 Family is based on a social arrangement 0 General Motors is a social arrangement C Karl Marx and Con ict Perspective Evolution of Society 0 PreclassNatural socialism societies Huntinggathering No ownership no inequality no exploitation o Asiatic societies Early farming Beginning of inequality and ownership Beginning of classes quotWho owned more than whoquot 0 Ancient societies Royal families Pharaohs of Egypt Beginning of slavery system and inequality Protecting royal family was the main concern 0 Feudal societies After last empire fell apart Europe Based on feudal laws Poor were the farmers Ended as a result of industrialization Led to urbanization and mass migration 0 Capitalistic societies 0 3 types of Capitalism a Cooperation Ownership of land was by communities and villages b Manufacture Gradually occupations began to develop and individuals made pro t c Modern Manufacturers don t own what they manufacture anymore Capitalism Forces of Production 0 Labor 0 Raw Material 0 Means of Production Capital money machinery building knowledge infrastructure etc Classes in Society 0 Bourgeoisie Have Means of Production 0 Proletariat Have Nots According to Karl Marx Rich get richer by paying the worker less Class Con ict 0 Con ict between bourgeoisie and proletariat leading to social change 0 Socialism and communism that took place around the globe were not quotrealquot because they were like a quothalf baked cookiequot Therefore the fell a part HaveHave Nots Middle class not mentioned by Marx because in a capitalist society middle class does not matter They are the middle class between the bourgeoisie and the proletariats They are given special training to manipulate people in order to increase the wealth of the bourgeoisie Alienation Marx says capitalism is a system that is alienating 0 From work You can be hired red Ethics and morals are not taken into account at the time of hiring and ring No moral responsibility to feel guilt Marx believes this is not natural 0 From the product Whatever you produce you may not necessarily own it Ex you may work in a fancy car company but you may never actually own that fancy car Marx says when you as a worker produce things and are not guaranteed ownership it is alienation 0 From other workers Ex Assembly line People in the line do different jobs You must match up with the people in front of you 0 Selfalienation You try to understand the purpose of your life and why you are doing it Random shootings at work why is it most common in America Marxists says it s because selfalienation D Criticism 0 Too much emphasis on economic organizations I Religion education etc are important to people too other than money 0 Societies are not always under con ict 0 Social con ict is rarely bipolarized There are multiple parties people argue not just 2 0 Power is not always associated with property ownership Pope police of cer etc 0 Con ict does not always lead to social change Ex Egypt Social Inequality Reading Review 1 Examining Inequality a Social difference People are different from other people i Natural Skin color gender age ii ManMade Religion language education b Social Strati cation Ranking people into different classes i Based on the access and possession of valuable things 2 Sociological Mode Tries to look at things analytically not just on the surface 3 Levels of Analysis a Description i Lowest level of knowledge b ExplanationAnalysis i Higher level of knowledge c Prescription i When you re asked to x the problem ii Highest level of knowledge iii Ex When you go to the doctor you give them a description of what s wrong he collects evidence to explain the problem and with that knowledge he gives you the prescription Nobody can write the prescription for that problem except for him He has the highest level of knowledge 4 Some Basic Terms Theories of lnequality Chapter 2 1 Karl Marx a Change in mode of production changes to structure of society 2 Max Weber a Class b Status c Party 3 Functional Functionalism Chapter 3 The American Class System Inequality Trends 1 After WW2 a Cities in Europe had so much destruction but in the US there was no destruction and US economy was booming because we were sending aid to Europe We enjoyed the bene ts of WW2 b After war millions of people in midlate twenties There was a boom of marriages of people trying to settle down Then they had families and had babiesbaby boomers Housing industry was booming US overall bene tted until the 19605 2 19605 a Vietnam War i quotWar on Povertyquot ii Poverty iii Unemployment iv Chaos v Pres Johnson War on Poverty 1 Welfare programs Social Security Medicare Medicaid etc As a result from these programs we were OK 3 19705 a Economic recession 4 19805 a Economic recession b Wave of poverty 5 19905 a Computer revolution i Suddenly people from nowhere are getting super ch Marxists on Religion Not at institution that God created God did not create us we created God Religion used to exploit people Gives people hope The ruling class imposes this idea on you Not only a law that tells you to obey them it is your religion that tells you to obey them Even in today s society you can t detach yourself form religion Ex No political leader is going to criticize religion When proletariats are divided they are weak and they ght with one another ISS 215 Lecture 6 Chapter 5 The Middle Class 1 Industrialization a Wealth of people in upper class own class to half of what the entire population owns b Industrialization created a large middle class 2 PostIndustrialism a Expanded education sector working sector etc 3 Globalization a International investment became possible b Jobs started moving out of America c We were the nation of exporters d America is no longer a manufacturing economy it is a service economy i We as a nation have more jobs made for serving other people 1 Teaching health care insurance government etc ii Bulk of manufacturing is done in other countries iii We created huge middle class in China because we sent all our manufacturing jobs there iv Problem with Service economy As a result of technology it does not require people to help you directly 1 Customer service over the phone 2 Cheaper to pay someone in a different country Chapter 7 Strati cation Systems 1 Strati cation Systems a Slavery b Caste c Estate d Class 2 Social MobilityMoving from one social class to another social class a Vertical i Ex Assistant manager at one company to a manager at a different company b Horizontal i Ex Manager at one company to a manager of a different company 3 Determinants of Social Mobility a Structural Mobility b Individual Mobility i Birth 1 Ex Just being born in middle class gives you more opportunity than being born poor iL Educa on 1 Ex College education gives you more opportunity than no college education iii Ethnicity iv Situational 1 Ex Wrong time vs right place and Right place vs Wrong time v Luck TEST QUESTIONS 5 questions from in class quiz 2 questions on society as a whole 1 question on Herbert spencerevolutionary changerise and fall of civilization Stages of development Durkheim August Conte Herbert Spencer society has life society as a living organism Social inequality ampSocial strati cation Different strati cation systems 2 questions on class system of India American class system and structure Davis and Moore claim that inequality is good and creates competition what is the point of Davis and Moore Criticism on Davis and Moore from Marxists 1 question on Herbert Spencer Bureaucracy social Darwinism evolution Durkheim Social norms society organic and mechanical Max weber The power elite model elites are the ones who ruleelite theory and social strati cation Bohemian club NYC stories Karl Marx Con ict perspective Hunting and gathering to modern capitalism FORCES of production vs MEANS of production Classes in society proletariats etc Class con ict Alienation Criticism on Karl Marx Assignments on D2L 3 points Infant mortality Fertility Expectancy Literacy GNIPP Test Questions 5
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