Lecture Notes - J320: Gender, Media & Diversity
Lecture Notes - J320: Gender, Media & Diversity 27020
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Date Created: 02/03/15
J320 Ideology Hegemony amp Social Construction ANNOUNCEMENT 0 Change to final exam 0 Online open book timed format 2 hours 0 On BB Monday March 16 8amMarch 20 1215am POP QUIZ Q s EXAMPLES Hegemony the powerdominance that one social group holds over others Lull 39 0 According to Judith Lorber society relies on men and women being perceived as different IDENTITY External markers of identity social group race gender 0 Invisible markers of identity name origin student 0 Ideology a set of ideas consciousunconscious that constitute a particular worldview o Ideological analysis is when someone is thinking critically and can decode messages that exist in media text amp culture that you don t see on the surface Metaphorically putting on the glassesquot 0 A lot of different ideologies worldviews and beliefs 0 Dominant ideology the most powerful and influencing quality 0 Ideology concept comes from Marxist theoretical roots MARXIST THEORY 0 Karl Marx 18181883 0 German philosopher economist social scientist and historian 0 Was writing during the industrial revolution 0 When hearing the term Marx typically think of communism 0 Core ideas of Marx Theory 0 Class dynamics and economic power 0 Marx talks a lot about capitalism economic system built on private ownership which has a relationship with bourgeoisie factory owners own means of production and proletariat s working class do the labor 0 System encourages inequality and allows people to be exploited WK 1 0 Working class aren t paid full value of their labor capitalism is all about profit and making factory owners the most money there s a gap 0 Proletarian revolution would end this hierarchical class system gtcommunist system communal ownership 0 BaseSuperstructure Model of Theory 0 Base Economy means of production owners relations of production relationship between employeremployee Idea that people with the most money have most power 0 Superstructure Ideology comes from politics religion media education family where we learn our valuesbeliefs Base shapes the superstructure while the superstructure maintains and legitimizes the base HEGEMONY 0 Antonio Gramsci Italian Marxist theorist 18911937 0 Hegemony is a word to define the power of a belief system as well as a process through which a group maintains social power 0 Idea that hegemony as a dominant ideology o Emphasis on superstructure s power to produce and perpetuate ideology Idea that hegemony as maintenance of power 0 Hegemony does this by asking us to consent support and believe that dominant ideologies 1 Are inherently true and natural even if they aren t 2 Operate in our best interests even if they don t 0 Consent is won through negotiation INTERPELLATION This is how hegemony gains our consent 0 Steps 0 We re addressed hailed by an institutional power 0 We recognize that we re being addressed and recognize our place in the social order 0 Our acknowledgment legitimates the ideological system and our place within the system Example addressed by police officer and stop and acknowledge our place in the system Acknowledgment reinforces the idea of the ideological power SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION 0 Certain ideas about certain identities are constructed socially 0 Combination of social construction hegemony interpellation What is race 0 Race is NOT biologically determined race is not based on biology it s an idea we ascribe to biology These ideas have been so powerful so the socially constructed meanings have stuck around 0 Race is a social concept Social Construction of Race 0 Racial formation 0 Highlights difference in order to o Justify a particular worldview 0 Establish and perpetuate power of one race over another 0 Biology becomes justification for social differences gt slavery land amp property rights Social Construction of Gender 0 Gender vs Sex 0 Lorber describes gender as process stratification system and structure Creates a hierarchy of men s qualities vs women qualities men s are more desirable than women s 0 One is not born but rather becomes a woman it is civilization as a whole that produces this creaturewhich is described as femininequot Simone de Beauvoir 1953 0 Learn to navigate our world through Gender Binaries 0 Examples woman are more maternalsensitive men are more athleticaggressivepassive Representation WK MONDAY JAN 12 Representation the use of language and images to create meaning about the world around usquot Sturken and Cartwright 12 The way that we recreate images of the things around us and how they don t just show us the world but helps us understand it Representation and Reality 0 Just because we see an image of something it doesn t mean it is the actual object ex A pipe vs a digital representation of a pipe 0 Photography Ideology and Images 0 Visual culture is not just a representation of ideologies and power relations but is integral to themquot Sturken and Cartwright 23 The Power of Images 0 Have a way of taking all of these things going on packages them up and simply displays them to the world in a short spaceversion 0 Images can compress some of the complexities and debates Textual Analysis Interpreting the meaning behind a text 0 Text anything we make meaning from 0 Film TV video games advertisements books etc o Textual analysis uses evidence description of what s represented and how to unpack the meaning and ideas behind them 0 Composition selection and arrangement of the miseenscene o Miseenscene everything that appears in front of the camera lighting setting props blocking costumes acting 0 Framing 0 Shot distance the distance between the camera and the subject closeup medium shot long shot 0 Camera angle the direction from which the camera films the subject highlowcantedheadon angle 0 Camera Movement 0 Pan camera is stationary but rotates on a horizontal axis 0 Tilt camera is stationary but rotates on a vertical axis 0 Dollytracking shot taken while the camera movesfollows an imageperson 0 Editing assembly of shots Look for different kinds of cuts and shots with different lengths Texts make meaning 0 Parallel editing putting two scenes together to make a story within a film Ex The Godfather parallel meaning when main character is baptizing his child and welcoming God into her life while numerous murders are happening that he ordered Semiotics the sciences of signs how they work and the ways in which we use themquot Fiske and Hartley 22 0 Key figures 0 Charles Saunders Peirce 18391914 American philosopher o Ferdinand de Saussure 18571913 focused on construction and the meaning of language 0 Roland Barthes 19151980 0 Three orders of signification based mainly off of Barthes 0 1st Order gt Denotation Signifier physical object or word ex stop sign Signified mental concept Doesn t exist in the world the meaning behind a word Sign combination of signifier and signified Iconic sign a seemingly natural relationship between signifier and signified o The image looks like what it s representing ex Photographs Arbitrary sign the most significant sign are out words 0 There s no clear reason for the relationship between the signifier and the signified other than an established convention The connection is often culturally specific Examples photographs of a duck and the word duck in green and yellow are connected the Nike symbol in green and yellow is connected with U0 and the swoosh itself is connected to Nike as a company Making Meaning 0 Denotative literal explicit meaning 0 1St order of signification signifier Connotative what s implied under the surface 0 Ex diamond ring means you re together forever 0 2nd order of signification signified MythConnotation signs become attached to cultural meanings as thought by Barthes 0 3rd order of signification sign Mythologyideology cultural values around marriage as a patriarchal institution WEDNESDAY JAN 14 Relationship between signs Paradigmatic ex Words in the English language letters in the alphabet o Paradigms medium photos TV film genre theme 0 Syntagmatic ex Assembly of words in a sentence the letters selected to spell a word 0 Syntagms story argument sequentialspatial arrangement overlaps between texts in a genre Key concepts for Semiotic Analysis 0 Difference between sign signifier and signified Difference between denotation and connotation The connectiondifference between 1 2nd and 3rd order of signification 0 Myth and how signs become attached to cultural meaning Representation D Acci believes these two points don t exist in isolation 0 Social representations learn from role models people around us 0 Cultural representations produced through language art entertainment what we actually see and consume through media EncodingDecoding Model 0 Created by Stuart Hall in 1973 focuses on identity politics issues of raceclassgendersexuality Complicates older models of communication senderreceiver model Encoding person creating the content to be shared ex producer of TV show decides what message to encode Decoding done by consumer person receiving the message 0 Hall says there are 3 ways to decode media texts 0 Dominant reading Reader accepts and reproduces the preferred reading a Understands the message and fully accepts it o Negotiated reading Reader broadly accepts message of the show but adjusts certain aspects to reflect their own position and expenences n Understand the message but doesn t agree 0 Oppositional reading Reader understand the dominant message and rejects it n Understands the message but doesn t like it or agree with it and fully rejects it o How do we decode 0 Knowledge of conventions Familiarity with the codes of a medium 0 Knowledge of cultural codes Shared assumptions about society Circuit of Culture 0 Developed by D Acci Suggests that there s a relationship between the following and that they all will somehow intersect 0 Representation 0 Identity 0 Production 0 Consumption 0 Regulation Integrated Approachquot Emphasis on how multiple sites work together to construct a representation 0 Studies who works gender malefemale Anita Sarkeesian 0 Media critic creator of video blog Feminist Frequency Damsels in Distressquot Tropes vs Women in Video Games March 7th 2013 0 Subject to campaign of harassment 0 Received death threats threatened to the point where she had to leave her home 0 Gamergate A movement of people with concerns about industry corruption mixed with or used as an excuse for attacks on critics and critiques of gaming for pushing a poHUcalagenda The Gaze amp Stereotype Analysis MONDAY JAN 26 Midterm gt short essay Q s take home exam writing about concepts due on Tuesday Extra Credit Mon Feb 2 at 3pm in Gerlinger lounge 1 page reflection on Lynn Spigel s lecture showing that you attended and engaged with her ideas 5 credit Review Pleasure in looking without knowing scopophilia Pleasure in identifying narcissistic scopophilia Men look women are looked at Men advance the narrative women freeze time Men are screen surrogate for spectator women are object for spectator s gaze Investigation followed by punishment and saving sadistic voyeurism Fragmenting fetishizing women s image fetishistic scopophilia The Oppositional GaZE bEH h00k5r 1992 Critical of Mulvey s stance because she talks about another way of thinking about the gazequot o Broader cultural critique Her argument is closer to Stuart Halls EncodingDecoding model than Mulvey s Answers the question what happens you DON T want to see someone on screen Addresses how a person can resist identification with filmscharacters by actively critiquing them Look BACK as a way to resist hegemonic power structures One of few positions available to black female spectators Way of arguing for agency of spectators Talks about historical film Talks about 2 absences 0 Absence of black female characters 0 Absence of theory that accounts for black spectatorship Ethnic Notions 0 Early 19305 blacks depicted as irresponsible and had a childlike life 0 TD Rice 18205 white comedian who acted in black face Jim Crowquot 0 Inspired 1005 of men and did this exaggerated comedic dance known as the Jim Crow Dancequot 0 People who had never seen blacks thought this was a true image and a devastating image 0 Images depicted slavery as a good thing that it was good for the blacks and that they were happy Zipcoon appeared during civil war attempted to mimic whites Mamie older black woman that wasn t viewed as a sexual object o If viewed in sexual way she would ve become a threat to the mistress of the house and the entire system She would be admired by the master of the house Would cause much tension in the plantation household WWI Blacks went into war with hope that they d be accepted after it was over 0 The beginning of race riots began when blacks returned home from overseas and were treated like servants and not soldiers 0 Black is ugly and to be yourself and be natural was considered the same 0 Black is savage images in cartoons made it seem like they came from savage cultures 0 Believed through reconstruction and civil war they became more docile and without white control they d resort to savagery Blacks are happy servants believed they were happiest when they were serving whites dressed in a uniform and with a smile showing that they re happy serving the white population 0 Depicted as not being upset about being oppressed WEDNESDAY JAN 28 The Power of Looking and the Spectacle of the Other 0 Gaze isn t just about objectifying women 0 Can also objectify in order to emphasize difference 0 Gaze power imbalance between the activepassive Regime of Representation Repetition of particular images to establish an ongoing trend in the way peoplegroups are represented o Emphasis on differenceotherness 0 Power to represent others 0 Stereotypes o Unconscious effects 0 Counterstrategies Difference and Otherness 0 Difference as a way to make meaning 0 Problem relies on binaries power relationships one is always perceived as dominant preferred 0 System of classification us vs them gt the other 0 One dominant group is perceived as normal everyone else is othered Binaries White Black Men Women Masculine Feminine Upper class Lower class American Immigrant Inequalities of Power Ethnocentrism the application of the norms of one s own culture to that of othersquot 248 Symbolic power power to represent someone or something in a particular way 0 Requires hegemony to function Orientalism 0 Edward Said theory developed in 1978 o The division between the West and East known as Occident and Orient is an ideological product of Western Hegemony 0 West has the power to define notions and boundaries of the orient as exoticized Other Stereotyping Naturalization of difference 0 Classification of differences through binary oppositions II 0 Representation of those differences as key essential characteristics essentialism 0 Reduction of particular groups to their essence reductionism o ie turning people into signifiers of difference Naturalization Meaning floatsquot Preferred meaning gt how do representations work to privilege one dominant meaning over others Naturalization is an attempt to fix meaning and make it seem natural 0 Key way to do this is through intertextuality Essentialism and Reductionism Essentialism representing a person or group as being defined by a core set of unchanging attributes Reductionism understanding a person or a group only in terms of these essential qualities Typing vs Stereotyping Type simple vivid memorable easily grasped widely recognized where change of these traits are kept to a minimum 0 Dyer quoted in Hall 247 Stereotype takes above characteristics and reduces everything about them Fantasy 0 Stereotypes are about fantasies that are imagined to be real 0 2 levels conscioussubconscious 0 Representation of stereotype often work to suppress underlying fantasy Fetishism Allows for a representation of fantasy behind stereotypes 0 Part stands in for the whole 0 Fixation on a body part stands in for a whole person 0 Substitution of an object for something perceived as dangerous and powerful Disavowal indulging and denying fascinationdesire Often manifests in a sexual way and makes it okay to be a voyeur the one looking and objectify Contesting Racialized Regime of Representation Transcoding taking an existing meaning and reappropriating it for new meanings gt meanings cannot be fixed 0 Happens in a few ways a Reversing stereotypes a Positive images a Critiquing stereotypes from within
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