Organizational Behavior Notes
Organizational Behavior Notes
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Date Created: 02/03/15
IOf I I August 28th 2014 Organizational Behavior starts from the bottom up Individual Behavior forms the organizational culture where you work Individuals are the foundation of a culture Mdynamics are affected by individuals which in tern affects the overall organization Study Powerpoint Slides for Tests Answers directly come from there You negate great ideas when you shut down diversity in the workplace In times of crisis the best rise to the top by taking action Study the names of the two classical systems and the points associated with them Manager Someone who gets things done through other people in organizations Leadership promotes a specific culture in a company as well However the individuals own experiences etc make up the culture September 2nd 2014 Reasonable Accommodation is problematic expensive September 4th 2014 3 components of an attitude 1 Cognitive 2 Affective 3 Behavioral The attitudes that people hold determine what they do Cognitive Dissonance is the incompatibility an individual might perceive between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes Social pressure to conform can also affect behavior Your attitude predicts your behavior and your behavior can predict your attitude Job Satisfaction is a feeling about the job resulting from an evolution of its characteristics Job Involvement is a degree of psychological identification with the job where perceived performance is important to selfworth Logical empowerment is belief in the degree of influence over the job competence job meaningfulness and autonomy 20f11 Organizational Commitment is identifying with a particular organization and its goals while wishing to maintain membership in the organization Three dimensions 1 Affective Emotional attachment to organization 2 Continuance Commitment economic value of staying 3 Normative moral or ethical obligations Chapter 4 Very little chapter 4 on test 1 Know the chart of Exhibit 42 in the book Emotional Intelligence El a person s ability to be self aware recognizing own emotions when experienced detect emotions in others and manage emotional cues and information We get what we project Myers Briggs Know the chart of Exhibit 55 in the book Understand what Emotional Intelligence is in concept Look at the first slides of every powerpoint to understand what you need to know for the test Perception is a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment Set and Setting has a lot to do with perception Time etc Attribution Theory is how we judge people It suggests that when we observe an individuals behavior we attempt to determine whether it was internally or externally caused Distinctiveness Consensus Consistency Know Exhibit 62 Can be caused by internal causation or external causation External Car Accident etc Internal Partying and being late etc 30f11 Focus on the charts in the book Fundamental Attribution Error We have a tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal or personal factors SelfServing Bias Individuals attribute their own successes to internal factors The Halo Effect Occurs when we draw a general impression on the basis of a single characteristic The reality of the halo effect was confirmed in a classic study aka label Traditional Way people look at management Top managers determine goals Middle managers planning how to meet the goal set by upper management Nonmanager employees physically striving to reach the goals Satisficing combination of satisfying and sacrificing Settling for good enough Exhibit 63 Rational Decision Making Model 1 Define the Problem 2 Identify the decision criteria look at relative data and inputs involved in the problem 3 Allocate weights to the criteria 4 Develop the alternatives solutions 5 Evaluate the alternatives 6 Select the best alternative Most decisions in the real world do not follow the rational model Exhibit 64 Reducing Biases and Errors 1 Focus on Goals 2 Look for Information that disconfirms your beliefs 3 Don t try to create meaning our of random events 4 Increase your options 40f l l Types of Bias and Errors Anchoring Bias Fixating on initial information as a starting point and failing to adjust to subsequent information Confirmation Bias Type of selective perception seeks out information that reaffirms past choices and discounts information that contradicts past judgements Availability Bias Tendency for people to base judgements on information that is readily available Escalation of Commitment Staying with a decision even when there is clear evidence that it s wrong Risk Aversion Stick with their established way of doing their jobs rather than Hindsight Bias Explain how individual differences and organizational constraints affect decisionmaking for tuesday Three ethical decision criteria 1 Utilitarian Criterion decisions are made solely on their perceived outcomes or consequences 2 Focus on Rights calls on individuals to make consistent decisions based on fundamental liberties 3 Impose and enforce rules fairly and impartially to ensure or an equitable distribution of benefits and costs Creativity component model 1 Expertise 2 Creative Thinking Skills 3 Intrinsic Task Motivation Motivation The processes that account fro an individuals intensity direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal 50f11 Two theories of motivation Theory X assumptions are basically negative employees inherently dislike work and whenever possible will attempt to avoid it They must be coerced controlled or threatened with punishment Theory Y assumptions are generally positive Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play Theory X Lower order needs dominate these individuals Maslow s Hierarchy Theory Y Higher order needs dominate these individuals Maslow s Hierarchy McClelland s Theory of Needs The theory focuses on three needs Achievement power and affiliation Achievement can actually be a hinderance on an organizations success because it can put the individual before the organizations needs Power strives for influence over others McClelland s theory has been the best supported Understand the different theories of motivation Test 2 Engagement Management Job Engagement the investment of an employees physical cognitive and emotional energies into job performance When you are so highly engaged in your job you may have a negative affect on your worklife balance GoalSetting Theory proposed by Edwin Locke Goals tell an employee what needs to be done and how much effort is needed Evidence Strongly suggests that specific goals increase performance that difficult goals when accepted result in higher than average results Management by objectives set goals for each level of the company Each goal is driven to reach the corporate objective 6of11 SelfEfficacy Theory Social Cognitive Theory Social Learning Theory Enactive Mastery Vicarious Modeling Verbal Persuasion Arousal Look up all the theories in the book Read Not every theory is going to exactly describe behavior in the workplace Equity Theory is simply what your influenced by Gender Length of Tenure level in the organization Professional ranks and higher education nequity can lead to judging choices by a person Chapter 9 Know the stages of Group Development Forming Storming Norming 4 5 Know the typology of deviant work behavior Role perception and an employee s performance are positively related Diversity is not always a good thing for group production and dynamics Chapter 11 Know what the 4 types of teams are and the characteristics of effective teams Encoding Framing a message is important and varies on a case by case basis Channel way of sending communication Noise barriers to communication a persons perception influences how they read the message assumptions people can make based on how they perceive it and the knowledge that they have Getting Feedback from a third party is very important before sending a piece of communication Communicate in headlines most times people will not read the whole email 70f l l Chapter 12 Leadership Charismatic Leaders example Steve Jobs 1 Vision and articulation proposes a future better than the status quo 2 Personal risk willing to take high personal risk selfsacrifice 3 Sensitivity to follower needs 4 Unconventional behavior Narcissism is hugely associated with charismatic leaders putting yourself ahead of everyone else self serving egotistical Transformative Leaders focus on changing an individual and a company s culture and norms Situational Leaders Transactional Management focus more on compliance leaders who guide or motivate their followers by in book Multiple leadership styles help to get a project done You have to lead by example No matter what type of leadership you have to live and breath that in and out of work Belief Statements or Expectation Statements are a formal way to promote a leadership style Understand the expectations of everyone within your range of influence Three leadership traits are that build trust Integrity walk the walk and talk the talk your actions reflect your thoughts Benevolence having your employees people your leading best interests in mind My set by example Formal Power Coercive Power Reward Power Legitimate Power Personal Power Expert Power Referent Power 80f11 The number one trait of an effective leader Humility Understand the dynamics of groups in chapter 122 Transformational leadership was effective regardless of country and cultural differences Ethics and Politics Chart of Politics in book Chart 132 Opportunistic has a negative connotation Sexual Harassment any unwanted sexual advance Power may exist but is not always used Power does not require goal compatibility merely dependence Leadership is about achieving goals Understand the different types of Power Experts Power Holding Information that people don t have but they need Coercive Power usually backfires Constant threats and undermining others You have to utilize power fairly Leaders pay greater costs for unfairness and reap greater benefits for fairness Don t become dependent on others Dependency is created by Importance Scarcity Nonsubstitutability As a manager who wants to maximize your power you will want to create some sort of dependency with your workers But you have to try to not put employees in a position where they have absolutely no power It is important to be politically astute within a company 90f11 Group Project Presentation What went well What went wrong What can be improved What was perfect etc Papers are graded on Thought and reflection How did I associate my experience with what we learned in class and what we did in our group project Reflection on the group project as a whole and what I personally got out of it 100f11 Test 3 Notes Chapter 15 Know exhibit 151 in Book about the Six Elements of an Organizations Structure 48 people is a good number a manager should have reporting to them Many organizations believe that enforcing the chain of command is productive It really depends There are different levels of formalization in different organizations Bureaucracy Very formalized very routine and a high level of chain of command Primary strength is in its ability to perform standardized activities in a highly efficient manner A Matrix Structure Combines two forms of departmentalization Functional and Product Puts specialists together which facilitates coordination Virtua Organization Understand exhibit 158 in book on the StrategyStructure Relationship Any organization s environment has three dimensions capacity volatility and complexity Don t have to know Exhibit 1510 Organizational Culture refers to a system of shared meaning held by members that distinguishes the organization from others Common Characteristics of Organizational Culture 1 Innovation and risk taking 2 Attention to detail 3 Outcome Orientation 4 People Orientation 5 Team Orientation 6 Aggressiveness 7 Stability 11 Of 11 Chapter 17 Human Resources and Policies Companies use software programs to scan resumes for key terms and key words These key terms and words are found in the job description When you apply to a job you must make sure you include key words and terms in your resume s and cover letters Take the time to write a solid concise cover letter Include why you would be a good fit for a company how you can do the job description and how your past performance is the case Then you interview Take a legal pad to write notes and ask questions Then you find out a timeline for a decision Ask questions at least three Then you send a thank you email Don t leave an interview with nothing always look at it as at least expanding your network Understand exhibit 171 How managers can improve performance evaluations 1 Have multiple people evaluate the employee and have different methods of evaluation 2 Evaluate selectively 3 Train the people who will be evaluating 4 Provide employees with due process Majority of test questions on last few chapters
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