unit 3 professional sellings
unit 3 professional sellings Mkt 340
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verified elite notetaker
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verified elite notetaker
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One Day of Notes
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
This 44 page Bundle was uploaded by Tori Block on Tuesday February 3, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Mkt 340 at University of Miami taught by Ian Scharf in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Professional Selling in Marketing at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 02/03/15
5315 1001 PM Marketing research 302 Marketing research obtaining and making sense of info for marketing purposes 0 Problem identification research is the most and identifies problems that are not apparent Qualitative more opinion Quantitativeobjective numbers surveys evaluative qualitative analysis long time past Big data predictive quantitative analysis real time now 1 Defining the problem decision prob research questions 2 Developing an approach to the problem finding variables 3 Formulate a research design what type of study will you use sources of data questionnaire sampling 4 Collecting data doing field work or in labs 5 Prepare and analyze data data cleaning hypothesis testing qualitative intretation 6 Prepare and present reportwriting report 0 Management decision problem 0 What should we do 0 Marketing research prob o What info is needed How do we obtain info How expensive Location Time See other competitors OOOO set of variables and interrelationships designed to represent real systemprocess redefined statements of the specific components of the problem 0 Hypothesis unproven statement about factor 0 Specification of the info needed Blueprint that specifies procedures to obtaining info 0 Sources of data primary vs secondary 0 Sampling 0 Questionnaire design Types of research Exploratory research discover insightsideas 0 Objective used to formulate prob develop hypothesis m initial stages Ex What makes a customer happy What benefits do people seek from the product Focus group What is the nature of any customer dissatisfaction I Ask for opinion open ended broad Method secondary data expert survey focus group interviews Descriptivedescribe market characteristics summary measure 0 When after exploratory or from first stage 0 Method secondary data survey panels observations 0 Examples Socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of a magazine consumer evaluation of new product on specific dimensions change in women s attitude toward vitamins Types of descriptive panels 1 Cross sectional sample survey 1 time collection of info 2 Longitudinal fixed sample measured over time Can descriptive study sometimes show causality No because you can control everything externalities 3 Causal cause and effect 0 objective determine cause and effect relationship 0 when after exploratorydesign research specific prob narrowed down 0 method experiment 0 Comparison across the 3 types 0 1 Researcher prior knowledge 0 2 statement of problem 0 What type of research is most appropriate 0 Do coupons increase salaries Casual How frequently do customer purchase products descript Want to know the demographic of peopledescriptive How they feel about exploratory Company brainstorming new idea exploratory O O O O 0 Data cleaning 0 Qualitative intretation 0 Quantitative techniques 0 Writing report present with graphs Article Want to live longer Turn off you TV 0 Conclusion TV lowers life expectancy 0 Research is descriptive based on survey and data no experiment 0 Method 11000 people Class 2 Qualitative research unstructured exploratory research methodology small of people non statistical Quantitative research large number of people structured end result statistical analysis Research Procedures 0 Direct 0 Focus groups interview conducted in a unstructured natural manner by a moderator among a small group 810 similar people identify problems Phase 1 participants size location Phase 2 Components select moderator begin session Phase 3 Activities conduct debriefing analysis transcribe discussions Adv stimulate new ideas client participations Dis groupthink bias misused subject to intretation Indepth interviews 1 on 1 place and time leisure flexible unstructured 0 Comparison of focus group and interviews 0 Focus group has more people group dynamics more creativity moderately in depth relatively inexpensive Indepth interviews are not influenced by other very in depth expensive time consuming candid can talk about more sensitive topics Both flexible qualitative richness of data generate ideas probing Indirect purpose disguised 0 Projected techniques unstructured form of questioning that encourages respondents to project their beliefs motivations and attitudes towards an issue Word association list of words first thought Completion tech Construction tech Expressive tech 0 Adv helpful if issues addressed are sensitive Help if motivations beliefs and attitudes are oprtint at a subconscious level May elicit responses that they would be unwilling to give if they knew the purpose of the study 0 Dis need highly trained interviewers skilled intreters intretation bias expensive Sources of Data 0 Secondary data been previously gather 0 Internal data from within firm 0 External data from outside firm 0 Primary data data gathered for specific problem at hand 0 Nonexperimental Qualitative Quantitative surveys observations 0 Experimental Field Laboratory 0 Low cost 0 Less effort 0 Less time Limitations 0 Collected for other purpose no control over data collection accuracy problem may be outdated may not meet requirements may not be reported in required form Sources of secondary data 0 Internal data source customers 0 Government sources US census 0 Syndicated sources firm that sells packages of data 0 Why might firm use syndicated data No time or expertise to collect data by themselves also can be cheaper o Shortcomings Everyone has access to the same data and you don t know how it was gathered Advantages of Surveys 0 Attitude motivation values 0 Highly personal into 0 Rare behavior Advantages of observation 0 Behavior no conscious respondent participations minimize interviewer bias data from children Survey method structured questionnaire Watch out for Sample Control ability of survey mode to effectively reach the specific units Response rate of total attempted interviews that are completed Social Desirabiity tendency for people to give answers that might not be accurate for social desirability Interviewer bias error due to interviewer not following procedure Nonresponse bias bias because actual respondents differ from those who refuse to participate Advantages of Survey Research Design 0 Accommodates large sample sizes 0 Generalizable to target population 0 Easy to administer and record answers Disadvantages 0 Questions that accurately measure variable can be difficult to make 0 Indepth data difficult to obtain 0 Low response rates Classification for survey methods 0 Telephone 0 Adv fast high sample good response rate cost is moderate 0 Dis no use of physical object quantity data is low 0 Personal in home mail intercept 0 Adv descriptive complex questions can be asked good response rate good sample control 0 Dis expensive takes time high social desirability 0 Personal has declined because less people have home phones 0 Mail 0 Mail panel bias because they are getting paid and wont care as much large representation who agreed to participate in periodic survey research 0 Adv low cost no interviewer bias social desirability is low 0 Dis low response rate limited to simple questions no control of environment 0 Electronic email internet 0 Adv fast high sample social desirability is low low cost 0 Dis low response rate low sample control moderate quantity of data Observation is the systematic witnessing and recording of behavioral patterns of objects people and events without directly communicating with them 0 use when info must be observable and behavior is repetitive Benefit accuracy detailed behavior data 0 Limitation cant explain behavior Observation methods 0 Personal observation research strategy when human observers record phenomenon being observed as it occurs 0 humanistic inquiry go under cover 0 Mechanical observation mechanical device that record the interested 0 Person can pick up what machine cant 0 Lot more flexible 0 Can get additional data Observer effect What sets experiments apart form other research methods Evidence of causality 1 Concomitant variation 0 if X changes then Y also changes 2 Time order 0 Cause X occurs before effect Y 3 Elimination of alternative explanation 0 could changes in Y be caused by changes in Z Experiment is effective approach to check evidences of causality can NEVER prove Independent variable IVS variables that are manipulated and whose effect are measured and compared 0 ex Price levels type of commercial type of brochure training Test units individuals organizations or other entities who s response to the independent variables are being examined 0 Ex Consumers or stores organization individual Dependent variable variables which measure the effect of the independent variable on the test units 0 Ex Sales profits market shares customer preference overall contribution agent sales Extraneous variable other variable that effect the responds of the test units 0 Ex Store size store location competitive effort Experiments can occur in o 1 Lab 0 artificial o more control over extraneous variable o guess purpose to respondents modify behavior 0 2 Field 0 more realistic 0 less control over other variables Validity of Experiments 0 Internal Validity elimination of other possible causes 0 Lab experiment 0 External Validity generalizability of results 0 Field experiment Practice Questions 1 What is marketing research 2 What is the most common type of market research 3 What are the six steps in the marketing research process Explain what you do in each step 4 When do you use exploratory research What is it used for What are the commonalities between the questions that are asked in this research Sample Size What methods are used 5 When do you use descriptive research What is it used for How big is the sample size What methods are used 6 What are the two types of descriptive panels Explain each Which one is used more 7 Can descriptive study sometimes show causality 8 What is causal research When do you use it And what method do you use 9 What type of research is most appropriate 0 A Do coupons increase salaries B How frequently to customers buy the product 0 C What is the demographic of people that buy the product 0 D How do the customer feel about the product 0 E Company is brainstorming a new idea 10 What type of research was done for the article Want to live longer Turn off your TV And what conclusion was made 11 What is qualitative research One advantage and one disadvantage 12 What is quantitative research One advantage and one disadvantage 13 14 15 16 17 What is a direct research procedure What is an indirect research procedure What is a focus group How many people are in it 1 adv 1 dis What is an indepth interview 1 adv 1 dis What are the main commonalities between a focus group and an in depth interview 18 19 20 21 22 What is a projected technique One adv One dis What is secondary data and what are the two types of secondary data What are primary data and the two types of primary data What is the benefit of secondary data What is the limitation What is syndicated data Why might a firm use this data What are the shortcomings 23 What are the advantages of surveys What are the advantages of observations 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 What is sample control What is response rate What is social desirability What is interviewer bias What is nonresponse bias Adv of survey research design and disadvantage Adv And dis of survey 0 a Telephone 0 b Personal 0 c Mail 0 d Electronic Why is a mail panel bias What is an observation Benefit Limitation What is a personal observation What are the benefits compared to mechanical 34 What is a mechanical observation 35 36 37 What is observer effect What are the three evidences of casualty Explain each What is an independent variable 38 What is a dependent variable 39 What is an extraneous variable 40 Where can experiment occur in 41 what are demand artifacts 42 What are internal validity and an example 43 What is an external validity and example Answers 1a Obtaining and making sense of information for marketing purposes 2a Problem identification research identifies problems that are not apparent 3a Step 1 define a problem through decision problems and research questions to identify the problem Step 2 develop an approach to the problem by finding the variables through the analytical model create research questions and a hypothesis and specify info that is needed Step 3 formulate a research design and design what type of study you will use where you will get your sources and what you will do for sampling Step 4 doing fieldwork and collecting data in the field or in labs Step 5 prepare and analyze the data through data cleaning hypothesis testing and intretations Step 6 prepare and present the report write it out 4a Exploratory research is used to discover insights and ideas and is used during initial stages Question that are asked are open ended and opinionated The sample size is small as well Usually done through focus groups or interviews 5a Use descriptive research either after exploratory or for initial stages it is used to describe market characteristics and it is usually a large representation Used through observations secondary data and panels 6a One panel is crosssectional which is a onetime collection of info This one is used more because it is easier cheaper and for longitudinal it is a survey done periodically with a fixed sample so some people fall out and the response rate is lower 7a No because you cant control everything and there are externalities 8a Causal is used to determine cause and affect relationships It is used after exploratorydesign research or when there s a specific problem It is used through experiments either in the field or lab 9A Casual 9b Descriptive 9c Descriptive 9d Exploratory 9e Exploratory 10a The research was descriptive because it was based on surveys and data from other 11000 people and the conclusion was that TV lowers life expectancy 11 Qualitative research is unstructured based on small number of people s opinions One advantage is that is has rich data and insights One disadvantage is that there s low reliability 12 Quantitative research is structured and has a large number of people 13 A direct research procedure is not disguised and the purpose is known 14 An indirect research procedure is disguised and the purpose is unknown 15 A focus group consists of 810 people and it s an interview conducted in an unstructured manner with a moderator One advantage is that it stimulates new ideas more group dynamics One disadvantage is that there s groupthink 16 An indepth interview is an interview with one person One advantage is that they can talk about more sensitive topics and one disadvantage is that it is costly 17 The main commonalities are that they are both flexible qualitative they generate ideas and have richness of data 18 Project technique is an unstructured form of questioning that encourages respondents to project their beliefs motivations and attitudes toward an issue One adv is that you can address sensitive issues one disadvantage is that its expensive and you need highly trained interviewers 19 Secondary data is data that has been previously gather Two types are internal from within the firm and external from outside the firm 20 Primary data is data gathered for a specific problem at hand There is nonexperimental data which is from surveys and observations and then there s experimental data which is from the field or lab 21 Benefit if secondary data is that it s low cost and less effort Limitation is that it was collected for another purpose 22 Syndicated data is data fro firms that sell packages of it Benefit is that it takes no time and can be cheaper shortcoming is that everyone has access to it and you don t know how it was gathered 23 Advantages of surveys are that you can get attitude and motivation values as well as highly personal info Advantages of observations are that you get behavior and data from children 24 Sample control ability of survey mode to effectively reach the specific unites 25 Response rate is the of total attempted interviews that are completed 26 Social desirability is the tendency for people to give answers that might not be accurate for social disability 27 Interview bias is error due to interviewer not following right procedure 28 Nonresponse bias is bias because respondents differ from those who refuse to participate 29 Adv of survey research design is that it is generalizable to target population and has large sample sizes Disadvantage is that there are low response rates 30 a Telephone Adv fast dis quantity data is low b Personal adv good response rates dis high social desirability c Mail adv low cost dis low response rate d Electronic adv social des is low dis low response rate 31 A mail panel bias because people get paid to participate periodically 32 An observation is a witnessing of behavioral patterns with out communicating with the thing Benefit is detailed behavior data limitation is cant explain behavior 33A personal observation is a research strategy when human observers record things as they are observed Humanistic inquiry is when they do this under cover A benefit compared to mechanical is that they can pick up what a machine ants and is more flexible 34 A mechanical observation is recorded by a mechanical device 35 Observer effect is when someone acts differently because someone is watching Hawthorne effect 36 Evidence of causality is Concomitant variation if x changes y changes 0 Time order x occurs before effect Y Elimination of alternative explanation could changes of y be cause by changes in Z 37 Independent variables are manipulated and effects are measured 38 Dependent variable measures the effect of independent variable 39 Extraneous variable other variables that effect the respond of test units 40 Experiments occur in field or lab 41 Demand artifacts are when people guess the purpose of the experiment and modify their behavior 42 Internal validity is when there s is elimination of other possible causes LAB 43 External validity is generalizability of the results which can be done in a field experiment 5315 1001 PM Marketing research 302 Marketing research obtaining and making sense of info for marketing purposes is the most common 0 identifies problems that are not apparent o help solve specific marketing problems Types of Info Qualitative more opinion Quantitativeobjective numbers 0 Defining the problem decision prob research questions 0 Developing an approach to the problem finding variables 0 Formulate a research design what type of study will you use sources of data questionnaire sampling 0 Collecting data doing field work or in labs 0 Prepare and analyze data data cleaning hypothesis testing qualitative intretation 0 Prepare and present reportwriting report 1 Defining the problem identify problems faced by the organization 0 Management decision problem 0 What should we do 0 Marketing research prob o What info is needed 0 How do we obtain info 0 How expensive 2 Developing an approach what are the variables involved 0 Analytical model set of variables and interrelationships designed to represent real systemprocess 0 Research questions redefined statements of the specific components of the problem Hypothesis unproven statement about factor Specification of the info needed 3 Formulating a Research design what type of studies will we do Classification based on objective of research Blueprint that specifies procedures to obtaining info Sources of data primary vs secondary Sampling Questionnaire design discover insightsideas Objective used to formulate prob develop hypothesis m initial stages Ex What makes a customer happy 0 What benefits do people seek from the product OOO Commonalities between questions above Can descriptive study sometimes show causalit Ask for opinion open ended broad Method secondary data expert survey focus group interviews Small sample open ended Exploratory is more flexible then descriptive summary measure 0 When after exploratory or from first stage 0 Method secondary data survey panels observations 0 Sample Large representation Examples Socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of a magazine consumer evaluation of new product on specific dimensions change in women s attitude toward vitamins Types of descriptive panels 0 sample survey 1 time collection of info Cross sectional is more popular bc cheaper doesn t deal with missing data 0 fixed sample measured over time 3 Causal cause and effect 0 objective determine cause and effect relationship 0 when after exploratorydesign research 0 method What type of research is most appropriate 0 Do coupons increase salaries Casual 0 How frequently do customer purchase products descript 0 Want to know the demographic of peopledescriptive o How they feel about exploratory 0 Company brainstorming new idea exploratory 4 Doing Field work or collecting data 5 Preparing and Analyzing Data data cleaning quantitative intretation hypothesis testing 6 Preparing and presenting the report Writing report present with graphs Article Want to live longer Turn off you TV Conclusion TV lowers life expectancy Research is descriptive based on survey and data no experiment Method 11000 people Class 2 unstructured exploratory research methodology small of people non statistical Advantage economical and timely rich data and insights Disadvantage lack of generalizability low reliability reliance on intretation large number of people structured end result statistical analysis Qualitative Research Procedures Direct non disguised 810 similar people identify problems Phase 1 participants size location Phase 2 Components select moderator begin session Phase 3 Activities debriefing analysis transcribe discussions OOOO Focus group has more people more creativity moderately in depth relatively Indepth interviews are very indepth time consuming candid can talk about more sensitive topics Both flexible qualitative probing Indirect purpose disguised unstructured form of questioning that encourages respondents to project their beliefs motivations and attitudes towards an issue 0 Word association list of words first thought 0 Completion tech 0 Construction tech 0 Expressive tech 0 Adv helpful if issues addressed are sensitive May elicit responses that they would be unwilling to give if they knew the purpose of the study 0 Dis need highly trained interviewers skilled intreters intretation bias expensive Sources of Data know chart 0 been previously gather data from within firm data from outside firm o data gathered for specific problem at hand o surveys observations and Benefits of secondary data lost cost less effort less time Limitations Collected for other purpose no control over data collection accuracy problem may be outdated may not meet requirements Sources of secondary data 0 Internal data source customers 0 Government sources US census 0 Syndicated sources firm that sells packages of data Why might firm use syndicated data No time or expertise to collect data by themselves also can be cheaper Shortcomings Everyone has access to the same data and you don t know how it was gathered Advantages of Surveys Attitude motivation values Highly personal into Rare behavior Advantages of observation Behavior no conscious respondent participations minimize interviewer bias Survey method structured questionnaire Watch out for Sample Control ability of survey method to reach the specific units Response rate of total attempted interviews that are completed Social Desirabiity tendency for people to give answers that might not be accurate for social desirability EDC concert people lied about who was playing Interviewer bias error due to interviewer not following procedure Nonresponse bias bias because actual respondents differ from those who refuse to participate Advantages of Survey Research Design 0 Accommodates large sample sizes 0 Generalizable to target population 0 Easy to administer and record answers Disadvantages 0 Questions that accurately measure variable can be difficult to make 0 Indepth data difficult to obtain 0 Low response rates Classification for survey methods Telephone 0 Adv fast high sample good response rate cost is moderate Dis no use of physical object quantity data is low Personal in home mall intercept Adv descriptive complex questions can be asked good response rate good sample control 0 Dis expensive takes time high social desirability 0 Personal has declined because less people have home phones Mail 0 Mail panel bias because they are getting paid and wont care as much large representation who agreed to participate in periodic survey research 0 Adv low cost no interviewer bias social desirability is low 0 Dis low response rate limited to simple questions no control of environment Electronic email internet 0 Adv fast high sample social desirability is low low cost 0 Dis low response rate low sample control moderate quantity of data Observation systematic witnessing and recording of behavioral patterns of objects people and events without directly communicating with them 0 use when info must be observable and behavior is repetitive Benefit accuracy detailed behavior data 0 Limitation cant explain behavior Observation methods 0 Personal observation research strategy when human observers record phenomenon being observed as it occurs 0 humanistic inquiry go under cover 0 Benefits can pick up what machine cant flexible Mechanical observation mechanical device that record the interested Issue Observer effect when someone is watching behavior is different Hawthorne effect What sets experiments apart form other research methods Causality Independent variable IVS are manipulated and whose effect are measured and compared ex Price levels type of commercial type of brochure training 0 individuals organizations or other entities who s response to the independent variables are being examined Ex Consumers or stores organization individual Dependent variable variables which measure the effect of the independent variable on the test units Ex Sales profits market shares customer preference overall contribution agent sales Extraneous variable other variable that effect the responds of the test units Ex Store size store location competitive effort Experiments can occur in 1 Lab artificial more control over extraneous variable demand artifacts quess purpose so respondents modify behavior 2 Field more realistic less control over other variables Internal Validity measures elimination of other possible causes 0 Lab experiment External Validity measures qeneralizability of results 0 Field experiment Week 41 Experiments test 2 Controlling Extraneous Variables Randomizationrandom assignment of test units to experimental groups 0 Matching comparing test units on set of variables before assigning them to treatment conditions 0 Similar on demographics 0 Statistical control measuring extraneous variable and then using statistical analysis to adjust for effects 0 Design control use experiments designed to control specific extraneous variables Random is good and the best way Experimental designs Preexperimental No randomization procedures 0 One time case study one group 0 Researchers control the treatment 0 True experiment 0 Test units and treatments are randomly assigned 0 Has control group Quasi Experiment 0 Appropriate when researcher is unable to randomize or control experiment 0 Treatment cant be controlled by researchers 0 Natural from natural disaster 0 Time series 0 Limitations of experimentation 0 Time consuming expensive Example What are issues with the experiment Bad because no randomization the first people that show up can possibly be more responsible therefore act different then second group Measurements assignment of numbers or symbols to characteristics of objects according to rules Scaling generation of continuum upon which measured objects are located Descriptivelabel male vs female 0 Order ranking of preference or age 0 Distance 1 to 5 disagree to agree 0 Origin income there s a true zero Nominal Lowest level or measurement least detail label to categorize 0 Numbers assigned to runners Ordinal Extent to the characteristics 0 To rank and put things in order according to preference 0 Rank order of winners 0 Ex rank from highest to lowest Interval 0 Scale to indicate attitude Individually ranked not ranking based on others 0 Absolute difference because each scale point 0 Performance rating on a 0 to 10 scaled Ex on a scale 0 to 5 rank each beverage Ratio 0 Highest level of measurement most detail 0 Has label order distance and origin 0 Has true zero which means it has a meaning and actual characteristic Ex how many cup of each beverage do you drink a day Comparative Scales have rankordinal properties where people make a trade off direct comparison 0 1 Paired comparison scaling 2 object and asked to select one based on criteria Ex Which coke do you like better Diet or reg 2 Rank order scaling ask to rank objects with criterion Rank from 15 least to favorite soda brands 3 Constant sum scaling allocate points to criterion 100 Complex need to keep tally lots of work Noncomparative scales each object scaled independently of others Interval or ratio scaled 1 Continuous rating scales rank from one extreme to another 0 2 Itemized brief description associated with each category Likert degree or disagree When arriving at a total score the categories assigned to the negative statement by the respondent should be scored by reversing the sale 0 Semantic Differential end points with bipolar labels Antonyms but can be difficult to find the right words to use Like love and hate are not antonyms Stapel presented vertically unipolar rate scale ReHathy Validity Things to consider 0 Number of categories 0 Categories affect the extent to which scale can pinpoint and measure underlying attitude Balance vs unbalance Balance same number of favorable vs unfavorable more objective 0 Unbalance is more objective 0 Good for unethicalsensitive topics Odd vs even Odd give people a neutral point 0 Even good for sensitive topics so ppl cant opt out Forced vs nonforced Forced required to give opinion 0 Unforced give no opinion Verbal description 0 Number of verbal descriptors increased give more ambiguity Extremity of descriptors can affect response Physical form Place an X on blank spaces Multiitem scale go more in depth multiple question about one topic Problems with scales 0 Total error systematic random error 0 Systematic error affect measuring in constant way AffectS Random error random changes that pop up each time the scale is used IAffects validity and Testretest test same person twice 0 Measure is valid then is it reliable Yes 0 Measure is not reliable is it valid No 0 Measure is reliable is it valid MAYBE 0 Reliability can be more easily determined then validity Questionnaire structured technique for data collection Procedures for developing questionnaire 0 1 Specify what info will be sought 2 Determine method of administration 3 Determine constant wording and response format of each individual question 4 Determine question sequence 5 Pretest questionnaire and revise if necessary Multiple choice options should be mutually exclusive and collectively exhausted Dichotomous question two response alternatives yes or no Choosing Question Wording 1 Avoid complexity vocab simple Incorrect Is distribution of snack foods adequate 2 Avoid ambiguity and vaqueness vague quantifiers Incorrect never rarely regularly 3 Avoid doublebarreled questions Incorrect tasty and refreshing drink 4 Avoid burdensome questions much effort on memory Incorrect how many times in past year did you eat out 5 Avoid makinq assumptions Think about who is receiving the questionnaire Don t just put do not know 6 Avoid leadinq question push you to one answer on purpose 7 Avoid loaded questions triggers emotions to answer How often do you floss per week Do you smoke pot Thirdperson technique ask about your friends first Determine question sequence One question can effect subsequent reaction to the next questions Go from Broadqeneral question to more narrow Pretest questionnaire and revise if necessary test on small sample first small group from large that will allow judgment to be made about larger group Sample describes population used to make accurate representation of pop 0 Representative accessible low cost Target population collection of people we want to know about Element individual that makes up the collection of the people Sampling unit unit you are contacting at what level Individual Household Sampling frame representation of the elements of the target population the list Sampling techniques 0 don t use selection procedures based on convenience judgment some elements of population have 0 chance of being selected 0 Adv less time consuming and less expensive 0 Dis not as accurate more bias g right place right time researcher decides the sample divide population quota for each convenience sample for each until reach quota selection of other members based on relationship to current one referrals 0 Benefits fast easy trust Dis more time consumer and expensive 0 Simple random sample each member of population has equal chance to be selected 0 Systematic sampling sample in systematic way every 3rd person 0 Stratified sampling population is partitioned into mutually exclusive strata elements randomly selected from each stratum interested in comparing across strata 0 Use to compare 0 Direct proportional equal to segment size 0 Disproportional stratified samplinq sample size not proportional to the segment size in pop 0 Benefits can get more specific group Cluster sampling population divided into mutually excusive clusters 0 Use when list of clusters not individual members Sample errors Sampling errors if average preference for beer from population is 44 and average preference for beer from sample is 54 O O O 0 Errors that take place because sample does not represent the population due to o Improper sample method noise in data variation 0 Random error level of sample size 0 Larger sample size leads to smaller sampling error Nonsampling error even though sampling is done correctly still errors 0 Systematic error 0 Level of it is not controlled by sample size Non response error units in sample don t respond Responsedata error systematic bias 0 Recording errors interviewer bias bad questionnaire Law of large number sample mean converges to a number population parameter as a sample size increase Central Limit Theory sample size gets larger distribution of samples means is better and better approximated by a normal distribution Parameter any number that describes overall population Greek letter Statistic anything about the sample normal letters Sample Error and sample size More people you talk to the smaller sample error will be will be more accurate Importance is intuition 0 Too small sample leads to large sampling error 0 Too large sample wastes time and money More accurate you want it larger sample size needed gt More diversified population larger sample size needed A mean income age number of purchases proportion of household owning 2 cars probability of purchase Confidence leve Z given Ex 95 confidence level Error E confidence interval of 10 E 10 Estimate standard deviation 0 Use what s given or o If min and max is give minmax6 Estimate Pie set it equal to 50 or use info provided Selection of field workers 0 You should recruit similar people same characteristics 0 In training big things not give people the chance to say no 0 Door in the face big request knowing they deny to then ask for more modest request 0 Foot in the door asks for small request to get in and then ask for slightly larger request Missing values 1 Casewise deletion delete the entire observation 2 Pairwise deletion keeps the information that was given and use for results 3 Substitute a neutral value fix problem by using mean average 0 go back to field Coding assign a code to each response Coding book provides instructions Dummy variable 10 value indicator for importance Nominal variable every answer gets a unique number Test 3 Describing a single variable 0 Tabulation percentages 0 Using graphs 0 Using statistics 0 Central tendency mean median mode 0 Dispersion standard deviation range Statistical analysis every set of data needs summary info that describes the numbers 0 Mean average value Mode most frequently occurring Median middle value Range spread of the data Symmetric distribution mean median mode are all centered Skew distribution mean is more effected by outliers and is a bad measurement of central tendency 0 Mean then median the mode at peak Variance mean squared deviation from the mean Standard deviation square root of the variance Null hypothesis Ho no relationship between variables what you assume to be true until presented with enough evidence to reject Alternative hypothesis H1 or Ha there is a relationship between variables Hypothesis testing at alpha 05 reject the null if results are less then alpha If pvalue results lt alpha 5 or 05 then reject null meaning there is a relationship Pvalue is the probability that result occurred by chance 0 The smaller the probability the stronger your evidence the less likely the null is true more likely there is a relationship One tailed test alternative hypo expressed directionally o Holt 4 or Ha gt 4 Two tailed test Ho4 Ha not equal to 4 Test static tscore zscore chiscore use to find pvalue when not given Reject Ho null if teststat gt critical value find on chart Hypothesis testing Test of association usage rate and attitude 0 HO no association 0 Ha association Calculate test statistic x2 statistic 2 Observed Expected2 Expected 0 Do for each then Add them all up r1c1 degrees of freedom take total of column X total of rowtotal pop for each box to find what is expected What is already in the box is what was observed 0 Determine critical value based on alpha a degree of freedom in table if test statistic is greater lies outside of critical value then rejected ho 0 Ex at alpha 05 with degree of freedom of 1 384 o If test stat is greater then 384 rejected HO no association Looking at averages 1 sample test of means Compare 1 sample 2 test and ttest Z test if population variance or stand dev is known 0 T test if population variance is unknown 0 Degrees of freedom n1 Ex claim something sample 20 people get an average Average X sample n claimmu Two tailed test so alpha2 0 Ho mu7 0 Ha mi 7 1 sample 2 test of proportion 0 Claim is 40 Sampled 500 found 220 of them floss find p 220500 Compare 2 samples two populations 0 Means ttest 0 Ho mumu2 0 Ha mu mu2 o Df n2 Compare proportions across two groups 2 test 0 of X vs of y H0 7T1 712 H17I1 i 712 Paired ttest n of pairs 1 Formulate the null H0 and the alternative H1 hypotheses 2 Select the appropriate formula for the t or 2 statistic 3 Select a significance level a for testing Ho Typically the 005 level is selected Find critical value of z or t associated with Cl 4 Take one or two samples and compute the mean and standard deviation for each sample 5 Calculate the z or t statistic assuming H0 is true 6 Calculate the degrees of freedom t only and compare the z or t test stat z or t score calculated for your sample to your critical values Analysis of Variance Anova Test two means for two or more populations Ho all means are equal Ha all means are not equal Correlation summaries the strength of association between two variables If r is close to 1 or 1 then it s a strong correlation R lt 0 negative correlation R gt0 positive correlation R0 no correlation Used to see relationships between dependent variable and set of independent variables To make predictions Simple regression YBoBlX Y dependent variable X independent variable Bo intercept Bl slope Hypothesis testing test slope Hob0 Ha b0 Test stat bSEb Strength of relationship rAZ Multiple regression 0 Testing of regression y is not related to any X gt rAZ 0 Ho rAZ 0 0 Ha rA2 0 0 Testing of coefficient Y is not related to any Xi OgtB o Hypothesis testing of individual coefficient 0 Ho Y is not related to X1 X2 X3 0 Ha Y is related to all 5315 1001 PM 2 At the IHOP you are explaining to a 10 year old how technology stacks work Using the pancakes as an analogy explain the advantages of using the technology stack 3 The FBI is considering using drones instead of satellites to protect the citizens of the United States Discuss the advantages and why Drones are on the market and everyone is talking about them They are the new technology that is taking the place of satellites The reason the FBI should use drones instead of satellites are because there are many advantages First using a drone can help locate and find a person whether they are the culprit or the victim If they are the culprit though this can help protect and saves lives as the FBI doesn39t have to personally go in to perhaps kill this criminal It can also find children suspect tracking provide tactical surveillance and assist in investigations Drones are also fast and easy to deploy and are a much lower cost compared to satellites Not only that but drones can also have pinpoint accuracy and allow for human interaction as they can fly the drone or let is go on autopilot Lastly drones can reach hard to reach places where satelites can only go so far Satelittes are also extremely expensive as well as big and it takes a longer time for them to be made 4 Virtualization makes Ms Pac Man video game playable on the Apple iWatch without much modification to original programcode How is this possible Virtualization is not only used for powerful servers but it can also be used to run two or more operating systems on one device It also makes it possible for a video game like Ms Pac Man playable on an Apple iWatch without much modification to the oringial programcode because now instead of the iWatch only running the Mac OS it can now run other systems such as Windows or the one Ms Pac Man is on the same device This is because virtualization allows for a virtual version of something rather then the actual hardware platform or operating system and enables the Apple iWatch to run mutiple operating systems and applications in one place without reconfiguring its codeprogram This is changing the whole world of gaming because now almost any operating system can use virtualization to operate any progam on any device Automically updates to the new and codes to automitaccly update itself Compare and contrasts bitcoins to apple pay How do you see digital urency evolving 5 Bitcoins are a new type of currency that was created about 6 years ago where transactions are made with no banks and no middle man Bitcoin is held electronically where there are also no transaction fees and no control You dont even have to give your real name On the other hand Apple Pay is Apple39s new mobile payment service that allows iphone users to make payments in stores and within apps It is a secure service that is aiming to replace the wallet and instead have all your cards in one place No need to search for a credit or debit card because it will already be installed on your phone and wont have to be shared The probem with Bitcoins is that the majority of people dont want a virtual currency that fluctuates wildly is difficult to understand and operates behind the scnes Instead they want something that is easy and convenient which is similar to Apple pay which allows for electronic mobile payments in dollars I see digital currency evolving to become one of the main forms of transaction and payments This can already be seen with Paypal of which huge companies like Uber and Ebay work hand in hand with them Personally many of my friends send and recieve money to and from paypal and even company39s have started to pay their employees through this site as well Being a Elite Notetaker for Studysoupcom the first thing they asked is if I wanted to get paid through paypal or to my bank account and I said paypal Paypal is convenient easy and a no brainer especially when it39s always being used to pay for multiple things in mutiple places Both Apple Pay and Bitcoins are going to help move the tradition quotwalletquot over to our smartphones Apple Pay will make people use their mobile device to make payments as well as use their device for mobile banking With Apple on board more people will slowly start to adopt this digital currency and it will become more broadly accepted Online shopping and venmo 6 Explain Strategic Inflection Points and why it s important to your career Strategic Inflection points shows the growth or lack thereto of where you or your company is going Every company goes through growth however its important to see when you are not making progress anymore This means its time to make a big change An example of this could be when Apple begin to fail once they realized there progress was no longer increasing that s when they made the big step forward and created ipods Knowing these strategic inflection points are crucial to my career because it will allows me to see whether or not I am growing or dying IfI am starting to level off it will be a key decision in my life to make a strategic change or else I may miss the next big opportunity and go downhill The definition of insanity is doing the same thing again and again and expecting something different so just like that if things are staying the same in my career or life and not excelling it time to make a change 7 Virtualization computing is so powerful that you can run more then one computer on one device This will play a role in Web 30 because since it is so complex and complicated we need several programs such as Siri to help find what we are looking for Having different programs working on one device through virtualization will enable people to play games run programs use Window as well as Mac all on the same device Web 30 represents the semantic web which means computers will be given the tools to search and apply data in ways that we as humans do Thats why we need ways to make sure the internet and the computer is organized and virtualization will play a huge roll in this by also making information easier to use and share 8 What are the key tenants of Kansei Engineering and how can you use it to build a more quotresponsivequot web site 9 At the request of FEMA you arrive at Nepal to assist in the recovery What are your top technology priorities in the first 24 hours 10 Elaborate on 2 business tools available to you in evaluating technology and why it s important to your career 11 Compare and contrast twiiter facebook and snapchat Who do you think will win th messaging war in the next five years is a place people go to vent about their own personal thoughts repost andor comment about what an individual company or news site said and stay up to date on their favorite people places and things However it is not a key site for most individuals concerning messaging one another Next snap chat is a place where one can send pictures or videos of something funny themselves and friends at an event or just themselves and then send those to individual friends or add it to their quotSnap Storyquot where all followers can view it This is fun because personally I love to post to my snap story and show over 200 followers what I39m cooking for dinner where I am going or what I am currently doing It allows people to stalker there friends or even acquaintances Recently Snap Chat came out with another way to communicate which is through private messaging where individuals can chat back and forth however after the chat closes the writing is erased as well as the posts and videos Snap Chat is used for entertainment and fun however it doesn39t allow for meeting new people speaking to strangers or having serious conversation Lastly Facebook allows for several forms of messaging whether is private in a group on a page or a fan page They have Facebook messenger which allows you to send pictures fun stickers GIFS and memes and then your messages are stored in your mailbox until chosen to delete Facebook also owns companys like Instagram which allows to direct messaging of pictures Add pictures and statuses Technology innovations what is the recorruing The reoccuring for success in technology innovations are finding ways for devices and technology to make tasks in our world more efficient effective and useful making the world flatter and creating more globilization For instance drons are being used to give remote areas internet as well as find collect data to further use for things such as traffic gps and even delivery systems Another technology innovation is what created having a scanner in your own house or even a button that allows you to check off or click what you need to buy next This elminates time wasted grocery shopping and gives people the opportunity to get their most essential items delivered in a matter of 30 minutes which is useful and efficient Other innovations such as robots are being used to clean houses the vacumm robot and are also being created to help with making work load more efficient Identify 3 most important lessons you leanred in C15 210 and how it can be helpful in your feature The first and most important lesson I learned from C15 210 and Professor Chun was about ethics Being moral and having ethics can take you extremely far in life whether its knowing not to give your friends the answers for a test or just being a truthful person ethics means a lot Just like Chun had said in class you can build your reputation up for as long as you want but it can be one action that will tear you all the way down This will be useful now and in my future because it has made me more aware of not only what I say but also the actions I take Actions speak loud then words so its important to always have integrity and keep ethic in check The second lesson I leanred was how to be not only a organized group leader and but also how important it is to be a mentor to my team Having to take charge of Danastree I was able to pull out the strengths of the indidivudals of my group and make the best use of what they could contribute It allowed me to oganize things in a way that everything got done in time and not onlt that but everyone cared just a little bit more I would push how important doing well is not just in a class but in life and let them in on my perspective of life Thats its important to show up not just when your at a job interview or speaking to someone important but show up with the same respect for your classes when speaking to teachers and when doing work The last important lesson i learned what how to deliver When doing the elevator speech it was important that things came out the write way Seeing everyone else go and learning from their mistakes it allwed me to adjust and then represent myself to the best of my ability 6 As the new of Zipcar how would you market the social mission of the company in appealing to a broader audience and competing successfully with Uber To appeal to a broader audience and compete with Uber I would market the social mission of the company to a greater extent This means enhance the marketing department and hire greater IT that will allow our company to show up more on the internet and on social media apps and sites Whether on google facebook or any social site it is crucial for our company ZIPCAR to show up I would push our emphasis on car sharing to attract those that support a more efficent green community but then I would appeal to a broader audience like students or any individual who are between the ages of 1824 are traveling and dont have a car This will appeal to them as it is extremely expensive to rent a car if you are under the age of 25 Also in a city such as Los Angeles and Miami the transportation systems are terrible Thus I would also put an emphasis of getting where you want to go even faster and less costly To compete with Uber I would show our benefits and also broaden our locations having a zip car sitting on every street corner I would make an app where everyone would know when and where the cars are located and they could also share their experience on social media once they enjoyed themselves and the ride Another cool idea would be to have nicer cars that way people not only look good when they are driving but they also feel good This would greatly attract more indidivudal even if they already own their own car because perhaps tonight they want to drive a Mercedes At Zip Car39s our vision is to have carsharing numbers outwiegh the number of car owners and thus elimate the need for your own personal car Our core values are to obssess over our mmeebrs experience be the best we can be deliver results keep it simple and have an impact 7 Identify 2 disruptive innovation studied in class and how it impacted society positively or negatively Disrupors are things that will dramatically alter devices of the future Some of these are books and music Things that will grammatically alter technology landscape it can highly effect carreers Books and musiccds t watches We are the cus of being overturned 8 As the newly appointed of a wearables app development company why should you be concerned with net neutrality and what are some of the precautions you can take against political changes As being appointed the of a wearbales app dvelopment company net neutrality is a crucial concern Since the internet should be used by everyone even if its a small company huge company likes g and netflix do take up tons of the bandwith that is avialable and thus the government wants to come in and charge them extra However if the government were to come and start charging these larger company it would be horrific as then they would have to charge more to their customers If the customers then have to pay more many of them will stop using the service and this will lower revenues for the company as well as hinder innovation from other companies If customers have to pay for the use of the internet depending on the site this can greatly effect the use of cutomer buying wearbles such as the apple Iwatch An example of this is when Budapest started charging a tax fee of 62 cents for every gigabite of internet This started riots and soon the government realized it was a bit exessive 9 Why is producing devices like Dash and Echo while investing in new clothing lines as well new TV series 26 The are investing in new clothing as well as new TV series because they realize their margins on these items are much larger compared to just selling books supplies or items that can be found elsewhere They have to be competitive and make these items cheaper then the last site so therefore they are investing in other places that will have a great impact in the future and make them more profit They are also produces devices like Dash and Echo to have a fast and easy competitive advantage over grocery and convenience stores This will allows them to move at a faster pace and get things ready to be delivered within a short time frame 10 Explain Moore s Law and how long you think it can be sustained Moore39s Law shows that every 18 months computer power are increasing So usually once you buy a new computer its already not worth it But a computers power will always increase as tehnology increases However we need cmoputer to figure out whats important and whats not 11 Why is important to corporate marketing and do you see remaining competitive 12 Clearly identify Systems and explain the compelling business use for the software Why should you refrain or participate in such projects You should refrain from such proejcts because they create more problems then solutions 39s major problem is that it wastes a ton of money and is not efficient According to the slides in class has 53 cost over run 61 duration over run and 60 of people said it wasn39t worth it Milions of dollars are spent and wasted on projects because they are used and then run over time and over board 14 you have been hired as a security expert by the White House because of the recent concerns over Russian Hackers having access to President Obama s email Where do you start and why Start buy hiring multiple layers of security Firewalls devices softwards 15 Elaborate on 2 available to you in evaluating technology and why it s important to your career 16 Where do products like Siri and Echo sit in the generational spectrum of web technologies 17 What are the key tenants of Kansei Engineering and how can you use it to build a more quotresponsivequot web site 18 At the IHOP you are explaining to a 10 year old how technology stacks work Using the pancakes as an analogy explain the advantages of using the technology stack Technology is always on stalks just like pancakes When you make the base of the pancake stack you start with the hardeward what keeps it in place and softares builds on things at the bottom And always allows you to stalk things or remove and replace I Describe how Valve39s Cabals work and why it is an effective working environment that promotes innovation Valve Cabals work by pushing innocation by creating chaos Also team members peer evluation each other which pushes individuals to not have bosses but still try there best 21 You are the technology consultant for JayZ famous singer What are some of the steps you would take to protect this celebrity s online reputation and data Taking away books jeff Bezos 22 Discuss how computing power is leading to miniaturization and why devices are getting smaller 23 Compare and contrast Innovation Disrupters that were created by Steve Jobs and Jeff Bezos What are the key similarities 24 What are the advantages of using social media versus traditional advertising medium Provide an example of a successful social media campaign with tangible results Social Media is a way to get more individuals connected and talking There ae so many more platforms that enable a company to reach out and voice themselves to many Tradition advertising can be catchy and not as interesting Since so many people on on the web it easy to catch a broader audience A successful social media campaign 25 Compare and Contrast Open Source and Closed Source Proprietary Software available to the public Which is better suited for business and why 26 Describe 4 technologies you learned in class that would NOT benefit from social media and why 27 You have been contracted by the Prime Minister of Samoa to modernize the workforce with technology What are your top 4 priorities and why 28 The FBI is considering using drones instead of satellites to protect the citizens of the United States Discuss the advantages and why 29 The digital divide is getting wider as technology innovations advance What are your social responsibilities as a new university graduate 30 Clearly identify CRM Systems and why it s important for the sale funnel and retention 31 Explain BI and why it s important for s 2 Compare and Contrast Bitcoins to Apple Pay How do you see digital currency evolving 3 As the newly appointed of a wearables app development company why should you be concerned with net neutrality and what are some of the precautions you can take against political changes Explain Moore s Law and how long you think it can be sustained You have been hired as a chief privacy expert to assist in setting up a summer program for disabled children Identify 2 chief concerns you may have around surveillance and 2 concerns that parents might have for privacy Justify how you would balance the two concerns Virtualization makes Ms Pac Man video game playable on the Apple iWatch without much modification to original programcode How is this possible The digital divide is getting wider as technology innovations advance What are your social responsibilities as a new university graduate Explain why ethics is important to technology companies and your career Elaborate on 2 available to you in evaluating technology and why it s important to your career At the request of FEMA you arrive at Nepal to assist in the recovery What are your top technology priorities in the first 24 hours
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