New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

EABS physiologych1-2

by: Kathleen Quijada

EABS physiologych1-2 BME3403 EABS

Kathleen Quijada
Broward College
GPA 3.46
Engineering analysis of biological systems EABS

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Hello! So this class is like an intro to physiology, but for engineers! I hope these notes are helpful! Enjoy!
Engineering analysis of biological systems EABS
75 ?




Popular in Engineering analysis of biological systems EABS

Popular in Biomedical Sciences

This 27 page Bundle was uploaded by Kathleen Quijada on Wednesday February 4, 2015. The Bundle belongs to BME3403 EABS at Florida International University taught by Dr.Brown in Fall2015. Since its upload, it has received 213 views. For similar materials see Engineering analysis of biological systems EABS in Biomedical Sciences at Florida International University.


Reviews for EABS physiologych1-2


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/04/15
Ch argb G 0mm taxman i Mug a Melawtql out 390 l HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY AN INTEGRATED APPROACH Study of the normal functioning of a living organism Literally means knowledge of nature N Organization of life Ch apte1 1 Dee l39nglaub Silverthorn PhD The cell is the unit of life ape 1 1 z 7 Cells tissues or ans or ans stemsamp instinctlon LO 4 i1 yvsloiogy orgar lisms g g y W wvsxxoev Em mv MG EULA r a Pocmnucm nl cosyflem o Boschquot cne macs I filerm soton i 1quot MW1 WWW 33 W gAan39x Mulecu es P if Tls rci ssues Organs S m O39 mm39i l i Pouerl oim Lecture Slide quot Dr Howard D Booth l l39nl39cwt l39 lVBltvlugfn r391 suncliigzm l niwxsiI Figure1Levelsofopgpnjzmjonandthcrclmad eldsofsxudy E 950w can be Skate 0 normm g WW3 that 5 ss wmma a 154mm Clinic PUYCHWJS ililCt Mpevg rf OWhlbh lIZC M043 4 64thqu hm bn emu s 5mm P tl bplmvjsialoij 06 WWW V00 gmwr to lost one or am About this Chapter Just SOME of what 6 s t m o r F 01 ll 4 haw oltSCQK What is physiology Biochem students have to learn A review of organ systems Evolution and integration from cell to human and what professors The concept of homeostasis is introduced have to make sound Themes in Physiology My The science of Physiology L a W I A Experimental design r A Data 1 8 WW Clgmcat MLAtctm MW WW1 m m 39 h In E m quotquotquotquotquot quot Q cm are m o rte Mm imd 70 U gtvawj Luv 1 101le PNCUS 4 C50quot T o m ainfam m in mm amalgam it 1 CU out otf39r twin Enzymes s s botlt3 80W WCwiooms hr o si emJ I Og sii39StaSCS iiiLe ringsbill Aggyany iquacg givingKn it39s taxi SN 1 39 513 rt 1 I Concept Mapping Structure and function Integration across Cells 0 Tissues Organs Flow charts Follow process In sequence J5 4i Mm A n 539 w nJ 960 00 Smar fix uhuhmgx39 c ninmm123115 atticmt low Mb big as W a twee Pmbm W M but we met Concept Mapping 33 Che 75910 5 wt step W quot Organ Systems In Review Circulatory mm saw SMDUny W5 Personworkmg omsldeonahok aryday o Dlgestlve r i p Miamimien I Lges body digger 39 x 39 3er Endocnne 1 A c39cui y n v 39glcnlq i SANDWICHES lv Immune l g l I i a l T Integumentary jig 7 w a miss 139 l y we x In commratm i Musculoskeletal pi r j E j V t i v m 39 Thirstpathways i t v V xquot 39 Wraps Vegetale Cheeses Meats stimulated J Nervous s x 4 2 J wiJ F4 1 5 quot1 3 xx nm 39 p t Reproductlve j Fwal w Urinary t Figure I3 Mupsl39or physiology i mugme Figure 1 2 The integration between systems of lhc body 1 p14 him um 3219 39 concentration 39 vrmghi i39 NITw f loo musesth WM r 9391 gal Aid mQme ME My CitR anellclar lhsiAg orgamlus Cl39twagh mm meta 39Extmcettutar out 1 meals 1 as rte CLO Flame Evolution of Physiological Systems Homeostasis amp Controls Cell enema New 39 Intracellular uid Wm 233523231011 rag orgamsm ll H reestablished 3h 39 PrOteC ve Cells l 39quotli 39li r39a T Failure to compensate l Exchange cells means 39 WW lama External environment hem lggglv g m 39 Illness Homeostasis De ned 39 home D e ath mnsiaumfais manslama Emergent properties Figumimmm gdmmnlmmm UTFW UIW j m VOW lolOocA PW l CempoHrmzmlr s quot1 MUEECQ MM biog Tb can C00 lb ll39ll t 3r HSSUC J mud 012 is cLLQ wt Art more boomLox girl3900 calm Uralfogl39on bCl le 4 gt Cu 1 amp Homeostasis amp Controls 1 3 39 Themes in Physiology Homeostasis TM 3 0 Pl a 0 w i Structure function relationships V Integration of systems v 3 amp 9 External or internal change Loss of homeostasis To maintain constant level output must equal input Communication 0 Physmloglcal attempt to correct Membranes amp Sensors integrating center exchange Response of cells amp organs Energy 0 XV 7 all f4 J m Cm n H Qt l l ln Mass balance quot W s u C 3 30 3 VS Mass ow amp resistance mm 1 7 Mam mm 7 V r39rled 7 D i1 ml innmm W 2 A mum lmz39m mr quoturxrzgl39z wzrsxr u lulu m In ful lquotnln Iw amu z mtmzn i ran 5 Fail we sea 5 time New 39 sleetme rm ESL96cc meal mum di wt Charm 0 final We 50 obSovbS Mir 3003 Scienti c Inquiry amp Knowledge 0 Observation amp experimentation Hypothesis Variables Independent Dependant W1 Nev Controls skim mmwpulotlrc Data Replication Theory M Publish Models When you drink Vodka over ice it can give you kidney failure When you drink Rum over ice it can give you liver failure When you drink whiskey over ice it can give you heart problems When you drink Gin over ice it can give you brain problems Apparently ice is really bad for you Warn all yourfriendsl Mgam ml Cl ow AALair CCW 5e a SS 0 1 cube in d O t S 39i Wowl blag674 LCwSC O y baf erial W s in onb mlon mg in 393 I b ch Cami St allow quotquot A va iii plwrvo mm on z i ism 0M quotmop yeah aWc Umbra I m Sillb lwlKLLL H 0W 8 W t on sl Human Experiments Formats of Experimental Design m we malwwn l ammo 7 ii Placelos mvp Whig 9 dlcon Onew t Genetic variables Crossover study a Placebo effect Na 1 39quotH f brain Blind studies kc I Nocebo effect a n o b km 75 Double blind studies 3939 W Ethiis ace196 b 6 Double bllnd crossover swag a 1quot 6 WWW m 5 was cumcm Ohm K in 0 QYlCCkl 39 J 39 v 39 i I 39 c on THCHS 0 Comm0 DY wm Wlalg gt 61 OmCU 9m WWW w a hen grou gm WWWp m 366de Wotng I Y nclom 129 U3an Pm De 047m 4 9k quotLotlow brig plowloo iconMM Mela ohulvisis Combination of Sheloi ixtoils Wt walvtts o to WOW 03 bq Glaciva 6 4 VS Stan sh39cai Hating1U 139s amtaw s WAQ Factors Causing Variation Time Duration of Experiments L g A T I j l39bfm 00SUOYZ llOQKrncj no 0 Val OK on 6 th Long1tud1 a1 studJeS Prospective studies uY V mg 6 A P N W LM Cross sectional studies Qopt mh39on A to GM prom 0 WM rsr 39 Genetics Nutraceuticals 39 Metabolism Liver function Age Kidney function Gender Diet Weight Drug drug interactions Time of day Retrospective studies lo QV p39 1956 Lorr eLQ39l CS QB extWrit 9mm in time Metaanalysis JQW High 2 1 11 Blown i mean irks Wv OD D399Dol I 39 m mus anal COW tip 3 ib lot 69 uni 51 hotrt rem chem citgm UL ilom Chan 1C0 H v PEOPLE b t tV i i quotl i r MinnaFt bids i 3 t bLIFQJF P war own senI39m 11 Minn2 n Hm i n my i39LquotH quotI 39 39 r to hot r 4b C S k y C a Decade Milestones in Health Care interventions and Delivery Strategies Milestones in Research Methods 39 940 Antibiotic agents penicillin and streptomycm ludney dialysis general First largescale randomized ontrolled trial anesthesu radiotherapy rst heartpump machine in uenza vaccine 9apanicolaou Pap smear to detect cenncal cancer cortisone mlraocular lens implants for cataracts 19505 Cardiopulmorary rrsuscrtaiion kidney lrnnsplnntalirm vnrtmatinn against Case control methodology KaplanrMmcr survrval palmmyclilis Chiarpromazmc for schizophrenia Zciss uorescence micro estimaxm scope antitubcrcular therapy cardiac pacemaker 3nt al heart valve successful openheart bypass su39gEry quot 1960 cm 39 39 L i L b hm Inns 5 I I d 0 mic r a xp anatory versus pragmatic tn concept it A W V NEW plantation oral curr ra ceptive pll prenatal diagnosis of Down39s syndrome and safety monitoring growth ufobservational g E research methods committees g N 19705 Cure for quotL quot Iltvnutu u 739 Cox y y quot 39 h 4 model 39 39 3 I c D 39 L I I I rs 51Mquot 1rn surgery asrendancy of randomized controHed trials vaczmations against smallpox measles mumps rubellaarrd pneumonia stalzslrcal stopping Hall s III 1980 insulin therapies for diabetes rrwilmus thrombolysrs for heart attacks anti Propensity score large simple trials prognostic hypertensive rugs imaging v thz models cg Frarmngham risk score growth nent arti ciaLhean implant quot 39 39 39 t39u 4 upset rst A 39 3M quot r 39 quotHiKM laser surgery on the human cornea hepatitis B vaccine 1990 Coronary stents triple therapy for the acquired immune de ciency syndrome Evrdcncebased medrcmc cumulative metaanay introduction ofbiologics quotphysician extendersquot famal transplantation 55 reporting guidelines CONSORT statement vaccine agamst hepatitis A rst rotzvuus vaccmes ascendancy otregrstrres eiectronic health rec ords Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling for Bayesian Inlcrcnrt 2000s quot r39 4 7 v FDA guid Trial registration Chmcall nalsgcv comparative ancc on rat 1 n 39 39 L L M edmncss research implementation science ingotsr 39 39 39 r largmsuie genomic research reproducible research 2010 Genomics cpigcnomrcs 39ndN rduJIEZCd medicine health nt39ormation ech Patientcentered outcomes research nology emcrgcnce oftcleheaith meaningfuluse initiatives Ai39deable Care Act becomes law a iniormalron on health rm lnll n l lili n t and dcivcry Strateg t s are iron in lmn CONSOlll denotes Cormi dated Standards of Ropnn rig llials and FDA Food and Drug Admimstratiorv Hbe l if ll iii unfitNR 3lCiS or Ctntgol infant Wm elem iw h e WW Eiffi e Quloke biin Pl CAUbe gt Sth m anaemia at twoJ Plotme 164304 can143 ma 40 av gt Q 1 6W Yl hin m R 1 MM 7 fh V b 70 Chgom le Ci Crmstsuver SW 7 o A C re 2 a39 lL balm HJH PWu la hoh W W 51QO cf Organ systems 3quot lib Cl SN 5 9 What Structures ampfunctions 406 Sn L14 Ow MW of The cell the organism the outside environment 0 timid my t hug U h Homeostatic balancing b 0 ka J l C Er mambo Review of themes communication energy c quot M M L quotR membranes body compartments ow and Hf k1fd P Ci t j lo 0R5 S a b 614 balance aweawth I Vim LViquotOLWJ Scienti c inquiry good science w 9 I r Dub 0 I r Experimental designs Representing the data HC F HT DCij m C D Otifimenv za rmIO WI 2444 l 39 iv A I hqu Win a l 3 39H Y 6639 M PC C In Claim QM If i a I 9F l i 6 qu g mg quot39 P qupcd ve anel emiu duob m tom plqcmbn 39quot a l 1 Lbnm quotT 41Wth W 9C3 Oi m lQhOW MC g 4 i a mme 39 n6 Lhnfga NEON lS quot UU quot3 66m t Pargtc Guna Cwh 3 W on Jare wpeg we radiohaw mt a lawa OP ra t a bm Ht A mixed has on lpm ng C CKVbQMC LV39MRS H w l jj Qi WxW M JIM clemayQ 7 ChicW343 I wkqu wt Normal About lly Mm the St WAXgt8 f eli w39xl Annch l hCil l C S Cw lwmbslas zs swamx quot di m i t New a f Midgetits i MM oonuyv l M39l39 BY Mme Cx Lambs M awoke 1g Aq A I n W Mommo Lackh rc quot us 5 J Luau imamnth TR l b w mm Ages 4 New wlwtti quot WMCM XS U5 i Q is CQA 5 A Q gem eraif pqu39m has amms tx 1mm 6 6 045 H WCUMH 1 mm u A n o 6 Emw ch21 ICCtwo fm outij mots le 39 a quotl THIRD EDl39l39l Atoms and Elements HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY AN INTEGRATED APPROACH 39 Structure Of an atom Deelnglaub SilvcrthornPhD Protons Electrons Neutrons 0 WC Chapter 2 Mass mm Ana47mm Charge m DUNS Nucleus 3 quot T N 4 quot 7 13 Atoms 10118 laLoleetnes Electron orbitals Elements Al39 lhgv S h mu lt1 P W JI IuQLeuJ I Proton Neutron Po erl mm Lecture Slide Presemauon by Essentla amp trace U Dr Howard l iimzh E nl39lt lt nl l39liulug Zfirlci fl a cltiuzm l nncmlj Clements Figure 2 IAlmnicslmcnn e OBS Jr bf Jun lDOLi39fCL O HrC llvmbcr39 a tu wo mg a CU39Mm atwa A We mom17303 Wholly wettest m wth OCCV M J 0mm Sc l v p65quot NC 3 met 6 Wlml Ft About this Chapter All the Elements blunt LE ParladicTableolmeaements 1 Pram 1 2 V M m 0 Atom nuan 77 6 J H 15 Is It 7 l0 mmoevmmmm Name 5 a 7 n 9 m 39 P V ymtnl39 vc l 39 Mom WW1 atquot 0 No If m u so I c N o l I N 213 9 Mquot n 39quot quot quot 19L 121419 39 u19292 quot 2 um wmmlmltcrinu 3 u 5 m n 396 3 TlmWIMm Na Mg 7 7 quotWV 7 w W N N s o s c k M k f 39 amp 1 1 230 24 1 4 F a 7 a 9 10 11 12 270 251 am 321 355 99 39 a e 11p 0 atoms lOIlS mo ecu BS as m i m a 2 24 25 1 26 21 2 29 I 30 m 2 x 34 as l 15 4 39 z 39 j 1 l x ulSc n VICI miFCa NIICqu n GoOn quot tquot to 1543 39 450 115 5095510 49 l as 599 597 Lea Les 697 120 143 799 we no 37 as 39 39 1 t A i 42 43 u 45 wquot ii to 3919 so 1391 52 39ra39 54 Bonds comblne atoms form molecules l t n y l t l m 3r39vl2r m23un Tcll h m Pd A on h al sn r 11 52 I I 99994 F 1 95 9 A 0 quot52 J92 9 3 L quot33 33 39Eiquot J 55 quot4 39EF 72 Ta u 15 76 n 19 an n n w ea as l as ConcentratIOns g V 1 l l 1 I ci aiLl l ngw mo quot noun 1 a Bl Po Al Rn 1amp3 quot3 I1389L7 5 B LD j 519 1362 I NZ QZ 195 1 1970 ZWG 2944 2072 Em l 2119 1 mm m 7 i M 7 mquot i quotM us me mi 106 1 1m no 1 112 quot4 0 I I i l u 39 f I 1 gt t 4 739rr RaiAclmOhsg nhr skl lluujlhnuub um r223 ima 22h 1in can I209 goth 2617 age pp H212 271 l 3939 53 l II51365 5 395 6539 he 67 Ri e 7n 71 quot quotquotquotquotquot quot 5quot l c Pr ua PIn39Sm Eu on n by No a mgvn wi 3 Emma A l 5 quot1 VQP JEYHIQIwEALJM Lszn t5 9 imzlgtu wa the Q19 quot0quot MW 9 50 m 2 a In 95 so 91 98 99 you 1m ma I maxaumKnkm x w I 39 39 i l smun Natnum n Pa u no Pu Am on Bk 1 Fm us No u t 2229 3quot o 1 mount 7 4244 quyf 317 gm ma mm psaL use my Mu Figure 2 2 Periodic table oflhe clemean u mm hu 2 A pg l39um1hl39L1vv39m ufnng u hLGE39l IrufllnlJLuhm pillquotixnljllh39nn39nnl39xrimmg39 Cal mum o WSMCA Elements of the Body TABLE 2 I Element of the Human Body Ions and Is opes Ions have charge A s In Element Symbol illKg Rumn Comments 071ml mallrr and u39alrr Oxygen 95 5 lg Found in unit chemmlx and um Carbon 12 5 lg Found in mum htmints 0 Alllons llnlrugen H 70 I Found in mm themes amt ualcr xtrogtn NI 2 l u round in nudrlc mas and aznim And l39lmphomus F 0 7 kg t nund m nudnr and Am many metabolites tmnlxuienl n bones and llN lh Sulfur S t1 175 kg mm in DYNPIM Ind rutmow mut Ahlnlunl mineral Calcium C 1050 g Conulluenl a bones and lcclh nmracrllular second maxnu triggers EXDQlOHS and mustk onlmnan N l nmnuu K 245 g Principal innmlluh axiom bi r 391 in lql r 1 r Na IOS g Principal ulrm uLu ration 1 I05 g Major extnrrtlulu Inian mimic must Magnesium Mg 15 g Cmubunle for ATP and all nuclenlidquot mutants calcium anugmun lmth F E g Immm hardness of tune and teeth execs pmduns dental l39lmnusii Tran minerals 39 i39 x r39 kdsm 39 139 1 Iron Fe 3000 mg F031 hcrmglnhm luMl bl Qlofhmm Iron sulfur pm mm d money a a mK39 X39 K g e Lim Zn 211 mg Helmet or ralbuoir Anmilr I39 rmnpcphd w and qlmalk suprmxidt dismutme Cowquot tu IOU mg Component cl muhrmno an and quualir supt mnde dismal o o 0 Mac Mn 20 mg Colatlur or mitochondml sup unde dusmuuu lulu n 5 mg vunwm 1 ul ulnar ll Hutan Mo I mc umpcmnl nl unmlne lk llingfnm in purine nwlabolism and aldehyde uxldase in mommam 39 mrlnbollun d 1 a n r T ymmdmm Me 103 uses as tracers Elvmu Ne Trnrr ullnw LCM u itiuIM39mn39r n 1 sum Y spinl n 1 h7 1 ul ll39l39m5 rHUUJHUHl ltmmmgu quotupvrxgh a Hd39l e rmnlsfxnu H li lxquotIUi lI39J39l ELl 1141inl lilltnilllgquot GUS LMMKW OJ iiiCh busc on SQH M unvIUamp w mnrsaw Hi Elements other than C H O and N in Humans Priman Elements 11 ufall body weight Ions and Isotopes Calcium Ca Bones teeth muscle and nerve action blood clotting Phosphorus P Bones and Teeth DNA RNA ATP Important in energy transfer lag 39leulgnts I less than 1 of Edy weight slings ng W A I I Poulssium K quot ll voltage 39 quot nerve action l Sulfur S Component ofproteins quteinc and other organic cons a molecules t 39 Sodium Na Osmotic balance cell voltage muscle and nerve 39 m0 Electrons Protons Neutrons Chlorine Cl Osmotic balance cell voltage muscle and nerve action I l Magnesium Mg Co faetur for many enzymes 4 3mm mm M atom that An am quot3 e Iron Fe Hemoglobin and many enzymes gains or loses gains or loses 929m or loses Copper Cu Cofactor of many enzymes gleam atom mm Zinc Zn Cofactur of many enzymes becomes an becomes a becomes an Manganese Mu Cpfactor of many enzymes i i Cobalt 39 Co Io factor of many enzymes and vitamin 8 the Eggml Chromium Cr Cofnctnr of many enzymes and potentiates Insulin same element element same element Selenium Sc Required for nomial livcrfunetion Molybdenum Mu Cofaetor of many enzymes Figure 23 A map showing the relationship between elements ions isotopes and atoms 99 K rboos NoH 9 m quotIrritl 3mm rmxtl 2m I 39 i39rxtnr inl unmwrrz 1 whom Jo 1mm lt 39mm 12 Molecules and Compounds Molecules and Compounds H J a Hydrogen has one pzolcn tn the nucleus and n temrc r n n the lowest enemy lc39ml Common in biosystems he 39C i5 Carbon C 39 Oxygen O Hydrogen H Figure 2 6 lilectmn con guration nt lhe lhrw most common elements in the y 39 n5391n quot1ch 0 Carbon has aux electrons lwo in the rst Shetland tour In the spkscu second she39ll 5119 2 a lo Oxygen has 81 electrons two In the lust sheil and 51x m the second A she is most small when lled wch electrons pl vl llg 39 tooems Um WK Wu g Ol mu Wt h l Om Wm Bonds capture Chemical a 5 grams 0 So ar Ill b Glucose Cono has a ring of five carbon atoms 1 and one oxygen atom LO h I H v a 1 energy Bonds link quot43390quot C O H H atoms 3 C 39s the same as quot TI 39 06 HO HO Molecules H OH OH This glucose molecule is HO OH drawn with all of its carbons and hydrogens shown OH weight In the shorthand versuon the carbons at each corner 5 1 k b of the ring are omitted as M are the hydrogens attached to the carbons 1 quotrquot 39 formula Figure 271 Chemical sumlms and formulas of some biological molecules mgrm j i clr ulint la 4411pm nlv m quotly m tars S llClWSl W ll 1 Um DQ b tc own Types of Chemical Bonds Reactive oxygen species unpaired electrons Oxygen z 456 39db39 int Four W anion Peroxide Hydroxyl radical Hydroxyl ion 05 02 2 OH on m m 3 rt OElectron from hydrogen oElectron from carbon DNL prth CCUan Wm Covalent bonds Common in biosystems Share a pair of electrons Ionic Bonds Transfer an electron Opposite charges attract pm 393 huh 90W AQD Qv l lhg Ionic Bonds and Ions Ionic Bonds and Ions Gain 1 positive charge for each electron lost Gain 1 negative charge for each electron gained Dissolve and disassociate in polar solutions Important ions of the body CDl Sml X Pllbl L 131pr Cipmf in FWVUPOFES l lowpolar SUbSl tICQJ g a flu m l Cirbale tHW can OURt pelur Powlg 5 lth non POLOIquot perhim Hydrogen Bonds Hbonds m gives up as one weakly held electron to chlorine mung MIN and uoride long Na and Cl39 6 quotff A Chlor lnehlom Strong polarity Attracts to self Sodium alom V 51on 2 The scam and chloride ions both navo stable aura shells mm are ldlec wlm e ecuons w v v a Surface tens1on 39 i dr Samquotmm W Form oplets Na39 and 2139 runs are attracted to each i Volrer because ol he39r opposne charges w J 1 t Sodmm chlnrlda Nacll molecule Figure 2911 210115 and ionic bonds fimuglu r mum duca u n ln I whim54 24 umn i39ultimnga padgm allows Lucilefquot in forms CM Mp wi Polarity of Molecules Partial charges on regions of molecule Soluble in polar solvents i e H2O Non polar molecules No regional partial charges Do not dissolve easily in water ie lipids Wyn lL Negative L pole 5 r V7 5 1quot 1 11 iii viLl J squot 119 if I 39 5 Weak partial 39 401 l S 5 bonds aquot Water surface f Hydrogen I l P T tension mm l 03 we 39 pole x A Water molecule i a The polar regions of adjacent water molecules allow them lo form hydrogen bonds with Figure 2 8 Wainr is a polar molecule one another i l D NW bl CCLN i Yl vx locmS 3N Co lip i Hydrogen Bonds Hbonds i 57 bonding a The polar regions of adlacem waler molecules allow lhem lo lorm hydrogen bonds with me another solutes dissolving b Surface tension crealed by hydrogen bonds holds a drop 01 water in a hemispheric shape Figure 210 Hydrogen bonds of walcr nvruu 39 39 nu u a 1 1 21m lipid 3L carbt lvvoLWOd CS Solution solute dissolves in solvent Solubility ease of Hydrophobic 39 Hydrophilic w ogreC Solutions Water is the main Solvent in Biosystems molecules Sodium chloride in solution 1 1 D J Figum 211 Sodium chloride dissolves in am a S Ufa3 Ohm L H30 9 C02 Copytlghl 61 The MonwHlll Companins Inc Permisslan required 10 venroduczion or Gsplay 5 end 3 CATIONS K Cazquot H l Mgz Sugar phosphate back nequot 3 HQ C53 HCO3 Hquot CM bom b Amiwarm 8 3 Ionic Bonds and Ions 9H bl 19100 3 739 Ur Table 22 Important Ions of the Body r u unis u ANIONS sodium M 3139 Cllloiido Eotassiuni r r r iv llilziar bonat o Calclu m V H V W Hm l liosplintc Hydi39ogcn l 39 56i quot slllr3i39 39 Magnersiumr r 777 Table 22 lmporlanl Ions of lhe Body I log Functional Groups Hydrogen Ion Concentration pH in Biosystems Table 21 Common Functional Groups mm cm 1 Notice that oxygen with two electrons to share sometimes forms a double bond with another atom 0 Direct reactivity of SHORTHAN norm Stkccrunn 3 a mOICCUIC Carimxyl acid coon in Common examples 39lquot 39 5quot 7 397 7 or quot7454 4 39 H 1n blosystems mmquot WARquot N V V W on Phosphate Pro A U l VU on Table 2 Common Functional Groups Concentrations Mole de ned 602 x 1023 atoms ions or molecules of a substance Molarity of moles solute dissolved per liter of solution 1M NaCl 58g NaCl H2O up to 1 liter Molality of moles of solute dissolved in 1 Kg of solvent 1m NaCl 58g NaCl 1 Kg of H20 Equivalents of an ion equal to the molarity of ion times the number of charge of the ion N a 3 v 7 d i 715 7quot Q n H43 c39 1to d3 an L 3 Lin rllllt Weightvolume Milligrams or Grams solute ml dL or Liter solution ie mgm1 mgdL or grams Liter Volumevolume 01 HCI Add 01 ml of cone Acid to water to give nal volume of 100 ml Percent solution 5 glucose 5 parts of solute glucose per 100 parts of total solution v uh m m 39n Acid contributes H to solution CO2 H20 ltgt H2CO3 ltgt H H003 Base decreases Ht in solution NH3 H20 ltgt NH4 OH39 Buffer minimizes changes of pH So et 1 l3 1m S39UloSt39Cni Q1 14 Uh ts tsft l VbLzerdQ g Changz in pH N I r i x mm 339 5 m m pukinmn n Hydrogen Ion Concentration pH in Biosystems t Cmmnmmm P H 1 We Household ammonla Soap solutions 5 V 9 85 1 Baking soda 7 Pancreatic secretions 397 I Compatible with human lile 0 JJ H 55 Saliva 6 5 Urine 45 7 4 Tomatoes grapes 3 Vinegarcola 2 4 Lemon juice quot Stomachacld Figure 242 pl scale CONN l 6 VOTE lj xpmoltcokag r COMOOQ Carbohydrate Biomolecules Carbohydrate Biomolecules Carbon Hydrogen amp Oxygen Carbon Hydrogen amp Oxygen l Polymers x 1005 or 10005 l Complex carbohydrates polymers polysaccharides quotSimple sugarsquot monosaccharides glucose ribose S 1 m quotw So 4ch 393 i milllJLO S e LW 39 Notice that the only difference between glucose and galactose ls he spatial arrangement ol the hydroxyl grou Figure 2132 Carbohydrates r r n va m n I rul lvlu39rg v llLrlutur39Iquotmumlg Iz b l39r3939ylll 4 Lll39rr nnl iulrquotr rm rul llthr xtl rrq39m39nl 39II39r139nlj r h 1 JzQ M 0 0 3 6 u Mike9 87039 jMCOf ls r Muscle I t log AmnB U a no Ctl Carbohydrate Biomolecules Carbon Hydrogen amp Oxygen Lipids Mostly Carbon and Hydrogen little Oxygen HONOSACCHARIDES Fructose Glucose ldexlrose Galaclosc39 Hocm HUGH men 0 OH 39 0 HO 0 lt9 r quot quot 1 CHZOH rquot quot HO OH H OH OH OH OH Triglycerides GlycerolFatty acid chains DISACCKARIDES Sucrose table sugar quot39quotm m Eicosanoids Steroids amp Phospholipids gt 9 V A N o I a or Momma L A 39m evnb mm on o n AM HO on 0 OH on 97 on W l Carlson Gal J43 a M era 85 loUr aft MAD Lg S FigmcLl312Carbohyrhans L l 0 Um DA imam 3903 can l39x C l YWJQ lb us me h Wm S VD W 1 gVCXOW 96L l q V UL U r rm M A gamma 5 Wm CY DULSM 0309 The Chemical Differences Between Li ids Mosth Carbon and Hyclroven little Oxygen EPA and DHA LIPIDS LIPIDRELATED MOLECULES 2 7777739W7775 7 o lEx b AubnbE L 39 c4 csrc in tarm HNAA CLI coon Pairnut sold a sdtumted mm and r L H 0 OH 9 1 Proslag andzn NEED c quot a o 39L V W L Grycem Olen acvdFaAmonuurmedValfy ecu H c VWWVQL H quot39 5 double bonds 3 OH icfycuoc me and I Choieslerol CgH quot1 L 777quotquot w c crg crq cn ccn 39 re Ta 3 EL EPA 205 n3 O r51 7 r r v NC MONOGLYCEHIDF Fair105 V wequot 3 Cf am quot g O o 6 double bonds 2 3439 I Omega3 DHA HJC W0 ochEWDE 3i lam l DHA226 n3 rRIGwCEI IIDE J jhuyaw Sam 3517 it 1 39 LU 1W 7vuz MeowM HR 4quot mm 5 4 J v k Figure 214 Lipids and lipidrelated molecules quot 1083 quot Aw Ssmnw Lg a 4 hut3Ler Aug gq wvwra U m S HimW3 o O 0 a 5 0quot gt HM V g m 39 A g fl 5391 MW 370 X 50 U V b 1 A 0653 n Omega 3 Fatty Acids 13435195161 m aheirfL dm39d may 1 quotNaomi Omega3 fatty acids that are important in human Amemdomc am gt 2235Egi iifii physiologyare alinolenic acid 183 n3 ALA V eicosapentaenoic acid 205 n3 EPA and fi tquotquotquot quot0 I ovariaan Ura 4 mmme docosahexaenoic acid 226 n3 DHA These I PUD Gluinihgmu 39mm three polvzmsanrates have either 3 5 or 6 double quotm Prosiaglandin H pen mum bonds in a carbon chain of 18 20 or 22 carbon mg if Wm atoms respectively As with most naturally 9mm 11 39 rmuzfrwnc D produced fatty aczds all double bonds are m the l LAYconfiguration P61 numr nnm F Gmtc PumaCm ThrCIFCCIEH L39 mrothmw I Q 9g Cab 01 mm m a x 39 v s Ix 1 In 3135144 l m m39mm w CL AS a ahhbwahb Quiz 1 cm Chap 5L4 2 My 5m 7 w m multr huhn Wt mm 39tw g M cur ltdJr R PIERW55 536441701 OMMD crow ttpz39A ssmvh m Fox Hf acids Viimnm n v Waltfquot Wt mm L mate quotHAiS outquot bCJj Nucleotides DNA and RNA Proteins Amino acid polymers m Composition 3 9409 gmpNHzandahvdrogon HCR quot e tn Base J m39wUL 39 WW I Ammo Ac1ds 35 Sugar I r S m UL essential amino 3 Phosphate 39 95001 39 1 group acid group 4H2 5 W SNOW cums coo H H H Transmlt and store h r I Prltem fitgucture H H Information genetic code WM rt 39 awZ P0 YPeP es CW primary 3033217 m s 00M gt3 a r Energy transfer molecules quaternary f WWW 3 E39E39S39E39H ATP Cum39hrxb W1 3 mm W 900 a Cyclic AMP A HeAc ou thg Du CL 4W quot5 m H r NADampFAD tor 1 Lo ic MW e M tCA N 5 Pawsc mm s w 5 ON ammo Q CjWLPs C CUFC J Cl10l SEQ 2 W M Arman 3 Poem MLDL 360d 3 l quot r I 0 01M W LDL 39 W n n V m Mch o Lu v vDL rFDL 3er Lani Tbr m Choker Hub Lipoproteins blood transport molecules 39 j Lb L i H DL DBL I Glycoproteins membrane structure 39 p an 39 39 39 39 V L 3 L Glycolipids membrane receptors p 1 p Nitrogenous base bk 0 K2 37 0quotquot shF3 rL o 1 L Lt 041 A 39m 43972 quot Ax e Utam 1 r Tn 0H 1 0 N or more ycoprotems COleldS r I u UV D5 v PKOSQKCAJ Q grew I igun 219 Chemistry summary 36 V39II lil unl Julxquotx L39u pul39lr39ht5r11cjxmnl39 ml 39 Z C quotman quot 5 a Nu m u due 1 at 5 W 6 Carb0n lhm xa YVK A C n 1 M03 9M 0 5 b CL C Erma 3 GIACJEMQ I Q bk Hrtrw dL39 f ermwl OctOHS COM 0442 1401 dl w 01mins AC39dj OQ 39 39 S T lt 13W Q c3 w m a V 1m a Copynghlc quotAquot 39 39 IUV 39 display c Evamap quotWWI0m mama k C z 39 Q n wquot u39 gt JM 4 1 I quotquot 3 E H Hquot 5 3 nwt li Q Mix Ii T ll r g E V 4 cn L K I I i a E n C39J 39u ll Ill Jim at A l I r AMI HI 0 l 11 r 0 H 39 f H I u 139 1 339 v u H n zquot 39 Ilk quot n Il zquot H 39 v on I 1 i 1 J i E II L u HA 4 Itx I AAsn I 1 quotn E l l x 1 1 3 r U I n 1 QT 33M I I a m 22 g g quot 3 E3 7 5 K 1 1 g d x 37 quotPAW J 0UO1fP1Coxmq Cm gimm J mosavms lt i C AU J Loa sf 0 1 C7 dovaL 1h paw WHML Kt39n39moxclnm CALT SXMJU quotm9 393 s39ewo Nucleotides DNA and RNA 0 I Tquot 29 G 12 3 9 a M o 439 139 339 239 O H 1 DO CH q E o O C A Adenim Oaxin n CNz 1x X V I o I 1 anoh X T W 0 OH H a Rumor model or RNA 1 Rabbon model 0 DNA igum 218RNAand DNA A l k 39 h R v I h mug4rmuvmmHum u Vpulvhn ur gvquot43vvmn39himmg n maulM m 0 bomb G Swat c 0amp0 n iquot Pru 67 u l 5 6 3 sin Coclovw quotth I P Hle f O U 67 l U w UH3 3 5 r t U A C Ctr 3 i39lrt k ignom tbw H EHACML A L OC LQK P m W o S ls94mg 3 CO V 3 5 iii Q W L U Cquot C4 5 R5 r 1 b b 5 0 WW Fright 28 UCCOSCWLQ 2 DAM Hinton tamer Flgure 1 The Nucleosome The basic functional unlt ot chromatin is Iv H the nucleosome Panel A which is 39 composed at a hlstone mamer around thumb which DNA is wrapped Oclamers are separated by linker DNA The histone octamer is assembled train a histone H3H4 tetramer and two HZA39HZB dimers The histone tails of all four core histories are sublect to a vanety ol posttranslational modi cations Panel B These include methylation Me acetylahon Ac phosohorylatlon lPh ubiquitylatlon Uh and prollne isomerization Isoll all of which occur at the site 0 a speci c amino aCid such as K4 and K9 on the histone H3 tail he same histone amino acid ma be H sublect to ditterent posttranslational modi cations which may lacilitate quot1 di erent biologic outcomes Visualization of DNA Double Helix Nudmscmz Unit DNA Crystal nnrclun with nucl coso htcmpanick u n w r tgg m 3339 an YD E ladyv14 C S altsrabbits 39 OF EMA HZA it 3 owj Lotti on T i a who lwr motifr wag PVCMikmlQ stagWei lt4 W FHA I DU i li g e40 chyetL qgh g Ml9 TJS e Nit 0 dishi jut sin media 2 w n mum 39 3i mt luluAt in incl an a i lyunnn Iquotirrngr A A EmFunscrean 9be 1 cltt co 030itrhb j l O A v The main epigenellc regulators Panel widemu quot l A can be broadly categorized as i lt epigenetic writers which include the chromatin enzymes responsible tor the Figure 2 Epigenetic Regulation t deposition of covalent modi cations on law11 j histories and DNA the epigenetic 7 399 erasers enzymes that catalyze the 7 removal ot the covalent modi cations or V histories and DNA and the epigenetic w a t 39 readers proteins with specialized 39t binding domains that recognize and 2 bind to covalent modifications 0 histones and DNA Epigenelic reader domains Panel B consust oi mm quota rquot39 quot 1 Wm specialized pmteinpmtein interaction motifs that recognize and discriminate between various posttranslational modi cations Domains within a Class or family can have subtle variations that alter their preterred binding substrate For instance some plant homeodomain u PHD ngers preler binding to either l l o 39 unmodi ed or monomethylated tysinesl l whereas others show a binding PHOSPHODIESTER LINKAGE c H H preference for trimethylated lysines I The primary epigenettc reader domains H H shown represent those described in the 0 WE literature to date Panel B is adapted 4 AD NH lrom Bannister and Kouzarides14 N 39 H A O c 00 H II N ATE 0 P39 cquot quot c ya PYROPHOSPH I u l l M O C H H c we I l H H on E 339 END quotquot SW64 SWQMQ asthmatic can wt QiROL col 39 h 01 tBbS MNAVURWL edla nmg U quott hSRU 0 i e mui ri39ioos y V VUS NOKL H m mim ii39tstrllxalcr 7cr75 WSW t W W Mam comwwcmm PH 1 MW 4 man Mi m iMs M HEREIN ENDPOINTS quot v quot 39 m 39 Atoms structure mass charge amp orbitals Bonds covalent ionic hydrogen Solutions solutes solvents concentrations o pH hydrogen ions acids bases amp buffering Biomolecules carbohydrates lipids proteins amp nucleic acids SUbSTQRU S that Jim th 39 w SM m be 8 m5 S LCLVC 1 p Ez H H un 0F c ON 7 Aron1 COW 4 CHEM g i mmc 01th 050 3 W Th t Mold 3 MW wWoln i Q Wont k polls I or mm HM J S m C LOW PUL39HLj W M W j l39 3 0 if quot If gt A M0216 aftache We Lomhmo o at SWW 39tssmvccl m tome hm 393 1 M w ohm 4 U 01W Vltavbquot OYVJ39 Mkgtng of P Oahuy Acety39atfd lysine 7 21 L 39 i i r a i n angi C r c Lysine 23 lHYCLOiLMM A fl U dun i DT NH Acetylation by rim w arm S i H b W f i CBPHAT J m NHZ 0231 NH 32 vj QW OVWS N DnmtSa Ifquot I Deacetylatign sz 0 j W CAN I l3 by HDAC NCac DKJA mechanism DNA H 8 H O its 0t m on a 0 MW LAX5 tm wm I b39 A w Miaz W1 w m bub such Cm Ail tomb nixL1 Am 65 V5 gum WW 0th M MalC i C5 Vim Saccwi M9 CW 0 w dad C N 65 mom Parmags W earthLuge 033 80mmm was 0 X rat g O nfUWni amp flfd m S 02 PVQNAS O OHM CL hazard wiw inhal g 0 CimHj alpha MM er DNS39ILC LH 6me 0 Q rackLO LCJHK C 0 U iiLm39VLo M r043 g I 4 W l W 650 v gem 0 buzz q Ququot V C HPCH Q fm 3 55m a C4 8 6 Pm bo n HAOH erm 7 WW 0 9quotth 4 Ladw ln a Pbs m n A VLU39NWW I Such R lgggng S 9K 1 BANE Pm vnny I b H zqmsir ffcur blc 3 on bL39oLpfj39xcai 155m 234th panM246 quot10 i CCLUS t 0 1er Lama X135 Ohmle q b m A HiGCgJ j a haw kw fch M 66ml Gui17 WAS 34 3970 U3 9 1r ac imam a WS rumCue Hug M l quot o tmc DNQ SWcm J5 306 U W I 395 M 0 cause m om b F Mcmyg 15 Q n 0 lexaw g43 in busts 9W7 WAS maian m soymvs 7 39 qd um 15 QEW faqungol u N I mambmm OU 09M U 2 cau g a 39gm chjst X H PCS 1 S a potsmn mi955 increase nom Pagemm Tweak Mam momma DNPrf 9133 sugars pmwt39m J begth ML Chhkal VLYlOl Pm SPtOhVC Fam nmim icLOU lo39Lo ohm Magma o blp g Mpe 02 grant 6454930 l Calam VQXLLW meeoafasis MM SMK BF Wm 1W6 Wu riS W a mw thWUUWV paramokf H L WPOPQ M emm39wo WNL 39 Wva omo Mm 004 Tb WWW 4 Cm 1 va TH musm Tb JUL v Damage 05 0 Com m USCCQ 1 9 0 er m lt3 S U63 1 0143th elm g 05 i nvcggc bezick 7 d I g 3 f5 quot ave C5 75 39 0 4 52B WVYQZS pCQhAK bengg Mm hm DNA A QAU A PmTeLMLC OLQLKWWWL 0 mmo OLQJJ 50 Ji i rem motions a 5 pkgk cieozyh Ewe Sugar W C mo 7 DP g MWQH bC U J G m 01 xi Cut Civian CL Cl j Q l 1 M1 OH 0 7 1 m U Hiqu waxa ng quot39 SCcurbUn sugar I Cowbom yak 5want Q a r iotm MOW b SOLCCkuz i f HVMW quot POM Sacchqmjdm V mmos mocha Wit r W 0 LULOSJLC 0 m1 W wb b 56 C H 2 n Mon liMmlt3izn WW3 for comaiquot l3 unite in lwfom by 3 O In m3 Ol OWNi O r i 03 l m wokr is ox awe Solvent W s gown L pmm Four Primary Types of lonlzmg lons and Isotopes Radiation lons have charge Beta Particles Cations CUC Anions e O l L a t 3 Beta Particles Electrons or positrons having small mass and variable energy Electrons form when a neutron transforms into a 39 ISOtopeS vary m mass YTle LAJ pr on andanelectron or when a v quot 39 Neutrons Mala Mj 33961quot Radioisotopes Unstable nuclei 39 Emit energy radiation lhf l l 7 039 Y1 A4 LQ h 49 4161st Medical uses as tracers and treating disease a gicw lh cll K13 le u s elmUlvoviS lXCllrL On f 80M CineHer 39 i quot r39 3 A lAl lCOnWmif lY LQLp 4 l amp n U m h Pm lv cl 6 3 f Ms afrox P C Sinkquotoil I 9me txrongHbrml 39 Prl hm Ur39h OUS PEST ltSCon v 8cm powthu U CV C3CH QMQX Cujs smelt CltLltltcl rm P cs l i sz emil39an 39lcluroliLe M C39 i 3 Wm MUFY OVN S OutquotPrimary lypes a emztng Four Primary Types of Ionizmg Radiation Radiation 82 noum n S lt1 o I i proton S G R quot llCllf incite f l a amma ays aw KC 1391 Alpha Particles Hilltum Wm 44 39 Ox quot xi femlj Alpha Particles 2 neutrons anderotons f l 39 The travel short distances have large mass F QM VC Gamma Rays or photons Result when the nucleus releases Energy usually after an alpha beta or positron transition Wlxu s A L GA o 7 quot 1 CLlfos Dixl5 145 i Sugar 7 lt JWRAR S hugLch WW Stow Levn LQr 0tle ireming Four Primary Types of Ionizing Radiation X Rays XRays Occur whenever an inner shell orbital electron is removed and rearrangement ol the atomic electrons results with the release 0 the elements characteristic X Ray energy Four Primary Types of Ionizing Radiation Neutrons Neutrons Have the same mass as protons but are uncharged The behave like bowling balls Four Primary Types of Ionizing Radiation Q 144 quot J to n CG u 36 i attire ng quotin 1 539 C 1 LO1 X Ionization Ionizing radiation is produced by unstable mm atoms Unstable atoms differ from stable atoms because they have an excess of energy or W A Unstable atoms are said to be radioactive In order to reach stability these atoms give off or emit the excess energy or mass These emissions are called radiation N o r m it all M Types or Products of Ionizing Radiation Ionizing Radiation at the Cellular Level on 393 neutron Sm on C 53 a ems FOvL o ihaibp 63 J l Chfsl 6 XV fCZijg DM939 ticmucle DNA and Radiation at cancm is Coustcl Mul Lth39OlU 9L DOCS Y or Xray CW 0 FCjC THE STIIHCTIJHE 0F N Causes breaks in one or both DNA strands or Causes Free Radical formation HE notj gsr lump Ptr chjS39 by iiiWC Ccll Q la 01 L3 J i m 5 huhMm Uta n 815 W b C1 if V A m l 5 3913 5 KGr 14mg Fataltied Rx macthey m On Commonly Transported Radioisotopes Americium 241 Diagnose thyroid disorders smoke detectors Cesium 137 Cancer treatment 0 Iodine 125131 Diagnosis amp treatment liver kidneyheart lung and brain 0 Technetium99mBone and brain imaging thyroid and liver studies localization of brain tumors rad 1 rad 1 Roentgen rem o Boentgen Equivalent Man 39 The unit of dose equivalent for any type of ionizing radiation absorbed by body tissue in terms of estimated biological effect 911 pl dose eguivalent Dose in health record is in units of rem 1 rem 1 Roentgen Quality Factor Q The specific value that accounts for the ability of different types of ionizmg radiation to cause varying degrees of biological damage Xrays gamma rays amp beta particles 1 Neutrons amp High energy protons 10 A g n 7h 20 ll39b 8l tted on bi39oigcgwcii ti ss we Units of Radioactivity Curie Ci 222 E12 dpm or 37E10 dps Becquerel Bq 1 dps Maximum Doseyear 5 REM or 50 mSv Maximum Doseyear for Declared Pregnant Woman amp Minors 05 REM or 5 mSv Half Life Calculation ng O The time required for the amount of radioactive material to decrease by onehalf Half Life 8 Activity 4 New 2 Half 4 Half lees Lives 2 i N Mt quotJl liWL it fella s wem initial lahm H 4 0 Noah hut C Dir w39lrxc ivlw c303 er Annual Dose Limits Limitsforf 39 ExDosed39 quot quot Adult gags Minor lt 18 yrs Whole bodyquot 5000 mremlyr 500 mremlyr Lens of eye 15000 mremlyr 1500 mremlyr Extremities 50000 mremlyr 5000 mremlyr Llt1 50000 mremlyr 5000 mremlyr Or an 50000 mremlyr 5000 mremlyr HWY plant yquot lOVLS Dose Response Relationships 0 150 150400 rem Moderate to severe illness rem No or minimal symptoms 400 800 rem Severe illness deaths start above 500 rem Above 800 rem Fatal Acute whole body doses quot39 mid L10 adj er it new its 39tn loose m Your Annual Exposure Activity Smoking Radioactive materials use in a UM lab Dental xray Chest xray Drinking water Cross country round trip by air Coal Burning power plant Typical Dose 280 milliremyear lt10 milliremyear 10 millirem per x ray 8 millirem per x ray 5 millircmyear 5 millirem per trip 0165 milliremyear Thousands face terpifyiing caoiatiouchecks mamau uunu m39l mlh39ln nu Newlnnpumlnm dm mmhihlh Effective doses of ionizing radiation from meducn p rm 9 d u re 5 Subjects Total Subjects undergoing more Mean annual effective subjects n than 1 procedure 96 dose from procedures mSv All subjects 952 420 688 24 Males 453 078 579 23 39Females 499 342 787 26 1834 V 233 586 495 10 3935 39 V 118 365 657 16 4044 v 144 728 721 20 394549 y 146 703 749 26 5054 v 131 209 782 33 3955 59 y 115 520 795 41 16965amp23 985L 52 Fazel R et al N EngJ Med 2009 361 84957 Medical imaging procedures with largest contribution to cumulative effective dose Manmade S urces Procedure Average effective dose Proportion of the total msV effective dose from all study procedures 96 Source mremlyear Myocardial perfusion imaging 156 221 H r M CT of abdomen 8 183 I T Medical 1 90 1 CT of pelvis 6 122 C7 Cl39ofchest 7 75 7 w Diagnostic cardiac catheterlzation 7 46 I quot 1 Fallout 5 Radiography of the lumbar spine 15 33 l Mammography 04 31 f l Cl39an lo ra h ofthe chest 15 31 I 3 n t i noncirognar yy g l WWW PWWWl 1 l Upper gastrointestinal series 6 24 I CT of head or brain 2 20 PCI 15 18 Fazel R et al N EngJ Med 2009 361 84957 Estimated Exposure To The a la I39On rom Natural Sources National Population Source mremyear Between 320 360 mryr m l The human body as I a 1 Building materials Tram 41


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

75 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.