Chinese Caves, Daoism, Confucianism, and Ancestral Worship (pictures included)
Chinese Caves, Daoism, Confucianism, and Ancestral Worship (pictures included) ARHI 3100
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This 19 page Bundle was uploaded by Dominique N. on Friday April 8, 2016. The Bundle belongs to ARHI 3100 at University of Georgia taught by Nicolas Morrissey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Art History in Art at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 04/08/16
Neolithic China (10,000 2,000 BCE) (Primarily China, Korea, and Japan) ● The Three Dynasties Period ○ Xia (ca. 20001766 BCE) ■ Very little material culture is attributed to this dynasty ○ Shang (ca. 17661111 BCE) ○ Zhou (1111221 BCE) ● A lot of extensive literary documentation helps document dynastic periods of China with incredible precision (chronological progression) ● The Shang Dynasty (ca. 17661111 BCE) ○ More than a half dozen archaeological sites from this dynasty ■ They are very different from what we have looked at because a lot of the material comes from under the ground ■ Burial sites (Burials associated with the Elite) ■ Don’t have structural sites (secular structures, building foundations) ■ There are primarily tombs ■ Associated with the disposal and care of the dead ■ Religion & Spirituality ● Heaven (celestial realm infused with positive, permanent experiences), Earth (terrestrial world), and the Underworld (not great; lonely experience, not necessarily an experience of pain; souls are cast adrift; permanent state of being lost) ○ Cosmological components ● Ancestor Worship ○ Honoring and respecting family members ○ Deceased body was very carefully tended to ■ By attending to the body, the celestial residence is forever taken care of ■ If you feed the ancestors (literally), then they will be fed and have health in the afterlife ■ Puts pressure on the living (familial responsibility) ● Two Souls ○ Hun (rises to heaven) ■ In death, if everything goes right, you go to heaven ○ Po (remains as a ghost) ● Shamans & Divination ○ Divination means the practice of seeking knowledge of the future or the unknown by supernatural means. This practice is taken care of by Shamans (ritual specialists) ○ Shamans ■ Keep the world in balance ■ To understand the supernatural world ■ To help make decisions ■ Oracle bones ○ Tortoise Plastron: det.: front with inscription; Anyang circa 1400 BCE ○ Square Ding, from the Tomb of Fu Hao, Henan, ca. 12th BCE Bronze ■ Has some distinctive animal forms ● Not a great deal of naturalism ○ Square Ding, Zhengzhou, Henan, Early Shang Period ○ Drawing of the Taotie Motif ■ Motif is pervasive because it is represented so commonly ○ Guang, Henan, ca. 12th century BCE Bronze ■ Hybrid creature ○ Yu Vessel, Henan ca. 11th century BCE Bronze ■ Holding a human ■ Brown color ■ Donkey on its back ○ Vessels = not easy to determine specific contents, but some things have been found inside (i.e. rice, barley, hops, etc.); mostly dry and uncooked goods; in some cases, tombs may have been frequently reaccessed on a regular basis to replenish vessels. ● Zhou Dynasty (1111221 BCE) ○ Formed with some higher ups from the Shang Dynasty ○ Early (Western) Zhou (1045 770 BCE) ○ Late (Eastern) Zhou (770 256 BCE) ○ Largely occupied former territory of the Shang ○ Uncommon for dynasties to secure power for immense periods of time ○ You, Anhui, ca. 10th 9th century BCE, Bronze ■ Animal described as a Phoenix ○ Ceremonial Food Vessel; bronze Early Zhou Period ■ Non descriptive body ○ Mirror, Henan, Late Eastern Zhou Period, bronze inlaid with Gold and Silver ■ Not sure why this is in a tomb ■ Highly valued, vanity object ■ Might be relevant to the person buried (special item to them used to keep looks up) ■ Mirrors still have the ability to reflect/catch the smallest amount of light in a room of darkness ■ Feline creature (perhaps a leopard or jaguar) with a horse w/ a rider yielding a sword ● Fits naturalism ● Hunting ● Exerting control over the forces of nature ● Feline animal is being subjugated/controlled/oppressed which is different from Shang Dynasty ■ Circular forms ● Represented as a snake ● Don’t know particular symbolism of the form ○ Increased elaboration, larger tombs, etc. ○ Bianzhong (Chime of Bells), from the tomb of the Marquis Yi, Late Eastern Zhou Period, 433 BCE, bronze and wood ■ Waste of money ■ Will never see light of day ■ Possibly to remind the decease that someone is putting effort to ease their comfort ○ Bi disk, late Zhou dynasty, 4th 3rd century BCE, Jade (Chinese art 33) ■ Very often made out of jade (very highly valued) (semiprecious) ■ Jade is more associated with a world beyond ours, rather than our terrestrial world ■ Found in tombs in high numbers ■ No utilitarian function, possibly just a spiritual function ● Shang vs. Zhou ○ Shift is clearly reflected ○ Difference in vessels ● New Religious Developments ○ Late (Eastern) Zhou: The period of 100 Philosophies ○ 2 contemporary systems of thought ■ Confucius: Master Kong (ca. 551 479 BCE) (confucianism) ● Confucius (founder) ○ Ethics and rules of social etiquette interest in Order ● Analects ● “Ren” ○ Rational relationships ○ Filial Piety ● Junzi ○ Model citizen ○ Scholarly gentlemen ○ Experts in ritual, music, archery, charioteering, calligraphy, mathematics ● Morality = good government = society harmony ● Goal is to fix deterioration of foundations of society ● Cultivate and maintain harmonious relationships between people ● Chaos caused by deterioration of family relationships, people not doing what they are supposed to do, people not performing duties to ancestors, etc. ● Emphasis on knowledge ○ Must acquire wisdom through learning AND experience ● Must of Confucian ideology is directed towards the top ○ If you create order at the top, order will trickle down to everyone (setting the example) ■ Laozi: founder of Daoism (ca. 6th century BCE) ● Laozi (founder) ○ The inner “original” nature of self ○ Intuition and the Dao ● Daode Jing ○ The classic of the way and its power ● Key Concepts: ○ Heartmind ○ Immorality self cultivation ○ Wuwei ■ Nonaction ● No action is the best action ● Order internally on an individual level ● Remove yourself from the source of trouble (MISSED CLASS) ● Han Dynasty (202 BCE 220 CE) ○ Western Han Dynasty (202 BCE 8 CE) ○ Eastern Han Dynasty (25 CE 220 CE) ○ Flying Banner, from the Tomb of the Marquis of Dai, Changsha, ca. 186 168 BCE, Ink and color on Silk ■ Rare to have painted textile in tomb context ■ Rich in conveying importance of ancestor worship ■ Insuring comfort of both souls (one remaining in the body and one in the celestial realm) ■ Depiction of celestial realm ● Deceased body protected by a serpent ■ Flying Banner (Detail of funerary rituals) ○ Jade Suit, from the Tomb of Lui Sheng, Lingshan, Mancheng, Hebei, ca. 2nd Century BCE ■ Beginning of Han fusing old and new ■ Pieces of jade sewn onto cloth and drape fitted over body ■ Jade = frequently used ● Stone was believed to posses or reflect some type of property associated with celestial realm ● Continuing emergence of old ideas ● Desire of deceased to want to be surrounded by physical contact with jade ○ Body is being affected with transmission of properties of jade to the body ● Jade is hard to disintegrate; longlasting properties ○ Incense Burner in the Shape of A Magic Mountain, from the tomb of Lui Sheng, Mancheng, Hebei, ca. 2nd century BCE, Bronze inlaid with Gold ■ People and magical creatures embedded within it ■ Fusion of supernatural and natural world ■ Derived from Daoist practice ● Leaving everyday social world to pursue isolation for internal balance ● Emphasized being on mountain/in mountains ● Natural wondrous places expressed here ■ Pivotal important object of this early type of influence ○ Lam in the shape of Serving Girl, from the Tomb of Dou Wan, Lingshan, Mancheng, Hebei, ca. 2nd century BCE, Gilt Bronze ■ Not common for Han period, but would not be viewed as odd to come from another area/period ■ Responsibility of family lineages to maintain qualities necessary for restoration of civil society ● Very important and emphasized during Han dynasty; Essential conduct of scholarly gentlemen and their families ■ To provide light for ancestor ■ Small, but some similar style objects are made in different sizes ■ would presume she is young ● Youth revere elders ○ Paragons of Filial Piety, Painted in Lacquer on a basketwork box, L:39.1 cm, H:19 c; found at site of Han colony at Lelang, North Korea, 1st century AD, Eastern Han Dynasty ■ Series of mail figures represented in animated discussion ■ Could possibly convey what the deceased participated in ○ Palace Concert, from a tomb at Jingpin Xian, Shandong, ca. 114 CE, stone relief ■ Audience enjoying a music show ■ Confucian gentlemen doing what they’re supposed to do (enjoying fine things and expressing their intellect) ● If it didn’t belong to the Han dynasty, we would interpret in a different way ● Expression of highly specific Confucian ideals ○ Battle Scene, from the Wu Liangzi Shrine, Shangdong, ce. 147 168 CE, rubbing of a stone relief ■ Warfare ○ Hybrid objects (Daoist/Confucian ideals) ■ Hunting and Reaping Scenes, Chengdu, Sichuan, late Han Dynasty, Stamped Brick ● Activities that take place in nature (natural world) = Daoist (taking place in nature, outside of society) “back to the land” ● Conceptually there is more going on ○ Almost a Karmic lesson embedded ■ Karma: you reap what you sow (what you do matters) ■ Ideas that actions have consequences based on what you do binds to the individual ■ Actions necessary for bind the social world create chaos ○ Be careful how you act ○ Influence directly from 2 emerging traditions ■ Teacher and Students, Chengdu, Sichuan, late Han Dynasty, Stamped Brick ● Maintain hierarchy ● You only attain intellect for Confucian values by studying with teachers ● The Age of Dharma: Chinese Buddhism ○ Six Dynasties Period (220 589 CE) ■ 3 centuries of no real unified powers ■ Much of what was established during Han period was broken down ■ Opportunity for success for Buddhists (had the Han been able to stay in power, they would’ve prevented the incursion of Buddhism since they favored Daoism and Confucianism) ○ The Tang Dynasty (618 916 CE) ○ How did Buddhism get to China (East Asia)? ■ We know more about the transfer to East Asia than we did about the transfer of Buddhism to southeast asia ■ 2 important moments ● Gangetic Heartland (India Area) ○ Mathura, Buddh Gaya ○ Buddhist communities were flourishing ○ Followed route that connected them to the Great Silk routes of central asia (post Alexander) ■ Connected China to Mediterranean ■ Economic highway of ancient world ○ Seems that merchants traveled with Buddhist missionaries (wanted to expend religion) ○ Buddhism was attractive to people who were aware of Karma and Rebirth ○ Merchants helped with transmission of Buddhism ○ Buddhism was pretty well spread during 3rd CE ○ 9th12th century Silk Road practically diminished due to development of newer forms of navigation ○ 11th/12th CE arrival of Islam in Inda ■ Many monasteries sacced ■ Seated Buddha, 338 CE, the Houzhao Kingdom, GIlt Bronze ■ Buddhism moves from western region to the middle of China ● Received with great enthusiasm (possibly because of politically unstable environment) ● Liked it because it was similar to Daoism ○ Emphasis on renunciation ● Appealed to elite Confucians because of emphasis on ethical conduct ■ Buddha Image, Gandhara, 2nd/3rd Century ● Image style derived from early Pakistan ● Looks like it’s getting Shaded with leaves ■ Major sites of rock grotto art in China ● Yungang Caves ○ Earliest formal monastic space in China ○ Overview, Yungang Cave Site, Shanxi Sheng, 386589 A.D. ■ COlossal Buddha, 13.7 m., Cave 20, Datong, Shanxi, ca. 460 465 AD ● Bamiyan smile ○ Colossal Buddhas, Bamiyan Afghanistan 4th/5th CE ■ Built using massive wooden scaffolding ■ Had tunnels that go behind the sculpture ■ Monumental version of Gandharan Buddha ■ Was gilded gold in the 7th century ■ Lined with plaster, then thin layer of plaster, then gilded with gold and the face was painted with bright colors ● Buddha calling out to them from a distance ■ Mes Aynak; means hill of gold ■ Gautama Buddha & Beggar, Yungang Caves, 5th Century CE, stone relief ● Working from sanskrit, but fashioned in a very chinese style ○ Representation of divinity ● The integrity of the narrative is retained ● Gautama’s Escape ● Dunhuang Caves ○ Most extreme environment in terms of hot and cold temperatures ○ Total absence of water ○ Going west of Dunhuang was difficult (drudging through sand for years just to get to europe) ■ 1 trip taking the silk route through here would bring you many riches; enough to leave you own grandkids a large inheritance ○ “Caves of a Thousand Buddhas” Dunhuang, China, 4th14th Centuries CE ■ Lots of chambers ■ Caves not meant for massive congregation ■ Dunhuang and the Taklamakan Desert ■ Was abandoned; completely forgotten about a little after the end of the silk roads ■ Most of it fell back into the sand of which it was made (due to wind storms) ● One night of sandstorms can produce dunes of up to 200 ft. high ○ Aureal Stein ■ Aureal Stein was a British archeologist/adventurer, skilled trekker and mountaineer ■ In his travels he kept hearing vague references of beyond the Himalaya of lost cities ■ Some type of collective legendary memory ■ Took him 31 times (he was walking the whole time); hundreds of people died ■ At every time he found something interesting, he would either send it to London or bury it in hopes to find it when he came back (he never found them) ■ “Thief of cultural property” China ■ DiamondSutra scroll, 868 CE, Dunhuang Library Cave ● Chinese translation of a Buddhist text that was written in India very early ● Printed by a mechanical press ● Is the oldest book printed in the world by 600 years ● Preserves an accurate translation of Buddhist literature, Infinitely valuable, Masterpiece of art; probably one of the most intellectual creations of all mankind; extremely confusing to confront as a literary document ● Only has meaning if interacted with..if performed. ● Just one of tens of thousands of manuscripts from Dunhuang that aren’t even catalogued or translated yet ○ Paul Pelliot ■ French sinologist and orientalist ○ Dunhuang was very important and had this massive collection of texts because Dunhuang was a major center of preserving and educating about Buddhist culture ■ These texts survived because Dunhuang, in comparison to other places, is SO dry (little to no moisture) so the paper can last long amounts of time ○ Buddha Niche, from Dunhuang Cave 428, Gansu, 557 581, rockcut with painted clay ■ Beautiful, vibrant colors ● Crushed coral and lapis lazuli ■ Create the greatest carpets in the world in this area ■ Variation of chaitya hall in india ■ Instead of putting stupas in a hall, they built towers ■ Chinese appropriation of specific visual practices ■ A number of the Buddhas can be identified ● As maitreya = a future buddha ○ Crosslegged Maitreya Bodhisttva ● Longmen Caves ● You can see how merchant communities influenced the form of Buddhist practice and what was excavated
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