Notes For First Exam of Introduction to Psych
Notes For First Exam of Introduction to Psych PSY 0010
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This 11 page Bundle was uploaded by Kelly Cary on Thursday February 5, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PSY 0010 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Cynthia Lausberg in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 120 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 02/05/15
Research in Psychology psychology scientific study of behavior overt actions and mental processes covertinternal ac ons 1 description gt observing and nothing behaviors 2 explanation gt reason why the behaviors being described are happening 3 theory gt general explanation 4 prediction gt determining what will happen in the future Structuralism o Wundt 1879 o father of psychology 0 believed consciousness could be broken down into thoughts experiences or emotions o Titchener late 1800s student of Wundt introspection trying to study what is going on inside people s minds 0 asked people about their experiences 0 believed objective introspection could be used on thoughts AND sensations smell touch sight etc Functionalism 0 William James 1870s 0 opened first psychology lab in the US at Harvard also taught first courses I objected to structuralism 0 was interested in how our mind allows us to function in everyday life I took a lot from DanNin could behavioral traits aid survival of species Psychoanalytic o Sigmund Freud 18561939 neurologist 0 first to acknowledge that some symptoms were mental not physical o emphasized the unconscious mind where we repress scary urges and desires and early childhood experiences I believed our personalities are formed in the first 6 years of life Behaviorism 0 Ivan Pavlov 1903 Classical Conditioning 0 training something to have a reflex to a new stimuli 0 John B Watson 1913 science of behavior 0 believed if you controlled the environment you could mold a person I thought phobias are learned through conditioning 0 environment is everything only studied what could be seen and measured 0 BF Skinner 1953 Operant Conditioning 0 behavioral responses that are rewarded become strengthened Humanism 0 Carl Rogers 1951 0 came up with person centered psychology which focuses on people s personalities o freewill and people s ability to direct their own lives was the main focus 0 Abraham Maslow 1970 o believed in selfactualization which means that people are being all that they can be are reaching their potential CognMve C Atkinson amp Shiffrin 1968 0 scientific exploration of memory and other cognitive processes I how people think remember and store information I focus on memory thought processes problem solving language and learning 0 brings in neuroscience and the study of the biological brain and the nervous system psychodynamic perspective development of sense of self and a person s motivations to do things other than sexual motivations Stand Alone Theories Sociocultural influenced by peoplesociety around you Biopsychology closely tied to neuroscience also include the mindbody connection Evolutionaryfind universal mental characteristics that all humans share Women in Psychology 0 Washburn 0 first woman to receive a PhD in psychology 0 Calkins o denied PhD but started the first woman run psych lab 0 Wertheimer o worked with Gestalt Psychology which focuses on perception and sensation Empiricism empirical based on observation and experimentation psychology is a natural science Scientific Method 1 ask a question 2 form a hypothesis 3 test hypothesis 4 draw conclusions 5 report results theory a general explanation of a set of observations or facts 0 attempts to explain and predict behavior or events 0 Le low selfesteem contributes to depression hypothesis a testable prediction that is often prompted by a theory 0 accept revise reject the theory Research Design 0 descriptive correlational and experimental variable characteristic that can be measured or described 0 Le height depression disruptiveness etc operational definitions procedure or steps used to measure or control a variable 0 have to be very specific when you re defining things naturalistic observation watching and recording behavior in natural environments 0 opposite of this is laboratory observation 0 problematic because if participant knows someone is watching you you change your behavior observer effect case study indepth exploration of a single individual 0 cannot generalize information to other individuals just that one person survey gathering selfreported attitudes opinions or behaviors o in order for it to be helpful you have to identify the population you wanna study and then select a representative sample 0 also need to keep in mind that participants will sometimes answer the question in a way that they think is socially desirable or in a manner that will make them look good correlation examining the relation between variables 0 correlation coefficient indicates the strength of the relationship 100 to 100 0 can be negative or positive bigger the number the stronger the relationship 0 positive correlation upward slope o as one variable increases so does the other aka have a direct relationship 0 negative correlation downward slope o as one variable decreases so does the other aka have a direct relationship 0 zero correlation o no relationship at all points are scattered throughout the graph CORRELATON DOES NOT PROVE CAUSATION Basic Research 0 research for the sake of gaining scientific knowledge Applied Research 0 researched aimed at answering realworld problems experiments 0 enables isolation of cause and effect c manipulate factors of interest 0 keep everything else other factors under control 0 so they can isolate the factor of interest independent variable lV o a factor manipulated by the experimenter o the effect of the independent variable is the focus of the study ie when examining the effects of a medication on depression the medication is the independent variable dependent variable DV o a factor that may change in response to an independent variable ie in our study on the effect of medication on depression depression is the dependent variable random assignment 0 each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to either group 0 minimizes existing differences age socioeconomic status etc experimental design random assignment experimental condition control condition lV Medication No medication DV level of depression level of depression experimenter effect they see what they expect to see c subject s response is influenced by experimenter s behavior 0 their voice the way they conduct the experiment their body language etc single blind procedure 0 participants don t know if their in the experimental group or control group 0 if you know what group you re in you could feel or think differently which would skew the results 0 can know after the experiment is done double blind procedure 0 neither experimenter or subject know who is in the experimental and control groups who is receiving the V and who is not placebo effect when expectations or biases of the participants influence their behavior 0 if you think you re receiving medication you might think you feel better 4 Elements of Critical Thinking 1 everything needs supporting evidence 2 not all evidence is good quality 3 just because someone is an authority figure doesn t mean what they say is true 4 keep an open mind but do not become gullible statistics organize summarize and make inferences 0 frequency distributions 0 histogram bar graph or polygon line graph 0 measures of central tendency 0 mode the most frequently occurring score 0 mean the average of all the scores I very sensitive to extreme scores can skew the results 0 median the very middle score variability range difference between highest and lowest scores standard deviation a measure of how much scores vary around the mean 0 want a smaller deviation inferential statistics 0 probability theory chance vs true differences 0 infer from group studied to larger group can results be generalized depends if they are purely by chance statistical significance 0 difference observed probably not due to chance variation lt 5 between groups generalizing from samples 0 representative sample 0 take into consideration age diversity gender etc 0 less variable observations 0 the more confident we can be generalizing o more cases data 0 more numbers the better research ethics human subjects 1 informed consent 2 risk and benefits 3 deception must be justified 4 debriefing need to be told about the deception aftenNards 5 confidentiality institutional review boards group of psychologists who look over studies and determine if it is safe for the participants 0 people s safety and health are always more important than gaining scientific knowledge research ethics animal subjects 0 rulesguidelines 0 Federal Animal Welfare Act 0 National Academy of Science 0 aversive techniques rare may be only alternative 0 focus is on avoiding unnecessary pain some things are too dangerous for humans Biopsychology neuroscience study of neural structures behavior amp learning 0 brain neurons nerves and nervous tissue 0 structure of cell dictates function nervous system 1 central nervous system CNS the brain and spinal cord 0 motor neurons carry outgoing information from CNS to muscles and glands o sensory neurons carry incoming information from sense receptors to CNS 0 if you touch something hot it signals sense receptors which carry it the CNS which then send it to your muscles tell you to pull it away 0 interneurons connect the two 2 peripheral nervous system PNS nerves 0 part of the peripheral nervous system 0 connect muscles glands and sense organs to the CNS 0 autonomic nervous system 0 sympathetic arousing and parasympathetic calming o arousing meaning fightorflight I heart rate goes up eye dilate digestive system slows down etc o calming rest and digest I stops everything that the sympathetic system started 0 somatic nervous system 0 voluntary muscles like skeletal muscles Structure of a Neuron Hemline I axon TEfT i l 39 r gallh d I39L M dendrites receive information from other neurons soma cell body maintains the health of the neuron myelin sheath is a fatty substance that acts as insulation to the axon if it is thick and healthy the A signal will travel quickly if it is thin or HLW39EUE damaged the signal will travel slowly axon transfers signals from dendrites to the axon terminals Sch w an n I E II Myelin Eb tealth Resting Potential 0 not activated not working on neural transmission 0 negative charge on the inside positive charge on the outside Action Potential L W A L 0 generated by movement of positively charged ions in and ligament out of channels in the axon membrane diffusion 7 o brief electrical charge called neural impulse occurs like a wave traveling down the axon and into the presynaptic terminals 1 4 VI r 39739 139 fl he Miltr FIJIEI39EUEH i1quot 7 when a neuron is at a rest there are more negative ions inside the exon 0 when it receives info from other neurons it becomes more positively charged on the inside action potential 0 known as depolarization to which is when Na ions come into the cell allor none response neuron fires completely or not at all 0 no halfway responses Neural Communication 0 electrical impulses action potentials travel from one neuron to another across a tiny junction known as the synapse 0 goes from sending Mm neuron to receiving Bandung neuron Ea Egg a139iili 3 liiynTiIEIgi U INJ g is 5 synaptic transmission 0 neurotransmitters go from axon terminal of one neuron to dendrite of another I a d o neurons don t touch synaptic 15H 39 gap in between the two chemicals initiate the neural impulse gw i iyt j rt gaaai4an pnx HELWthm t i quot1 Neurotransmitters o Acetylcholine Dopamine Serotonin Norepinephrine GABA and Glutamate 0 all have a molecular structure that precisely fits the receptor site on the receiving neuron lock and key fit 0 the receiving neuron then absorbs the neurotransmitter through exocytosis Acetylcholine involved in arousal attention memory and muscle contraction Dopamine movement learning emotion and memory 0 Parkinson s disease have too little dopamine Schizophrenia have too much dopamine Serotonin mood sleep and appetite 0 low levels have been linked to depression Norepinephrine arousal and mood GABA involved in sleep and inhibits movement neural transmission Glutamate involved in learning memory formation nervous system development and synaptic plasticity o excitatory aka increases neural transmission excitatory neurotransmitter causes a neuron to fire agonists mimicenhance neurotransmitter effect on receptor sites ie if you have low levels of serotonin agonistic medication will enhance their tendency to fire Inhibitory neurotransmitter causes receiving cells to stop firing antagonist blockreduce response to other neurotransmitters Reuptake o neurotransmitters in synapse are reabsorbed into the sending neuron don t go to receiving neuron 0 process that puts brakes on neurotransmitter action 0 some medications inhibit reuptake so the neurotransmitters can travel across the synaptic gap and into the receiving neuron Studying the brain 0 deep esioning electrical current to destroy tissue 0 observe animal after that area of the brain is damaged 0 electrical stimulation of the brain ESB milder current used to stimulate neural activity 0 stimulates does not destroy Looking Inside the Brain EEG attach sensors to scalp measures the electrical activity in the brain PET detects a radioactive form of glucose and show where the brain is active CT computer controlled Xrays of the brain MRI tracks oxygen in the brain that show the structure Hindbrain structures sustain basic bodily functions Cerebellum behind the spinal cord 0 controls voluntary and involuntary motor movements and balance Pons relays information between cerebellum and cortex Reticular formation important role in arousal Medulla controls heartbeat breathing and swallowing Limbic System 0 midbrain 0 involved in learning memory emotion amp motivation Hippocampus o essential to formation of new memories 0 if damaged or degraded short term memory is lost EIH Ellh TE E HLIE Amygdala o linked to emotions of fear and anger 0 because it is so close to the hippocampus fearful or angry memories will stick easily Hypothalamus o hunger thirst sexual behavior rewardpleasure center helps govern endocrine system Thalamus o relay station between sense organs hearing vision taste smell and touch and cortex high level thinking Cingulate cortex 0 role in emotional and cognitive processing 0 closest to the cortex Cortex aka Cerebrum sits at the top of the brain 0 4 lobes on left side 4 on right side 0 2 hemisphere left and right 0 contralateral organization 0 left side of brain controls left side of body right side of brain controls right side Frontal Lobe 0 largest in the front 0 executive functions ie planning organizing initiating judgement 0 also say that our personality is in the frontal lobe PEIEf e 0 primary motor cortex Cranium Parietal Lobe V Haggai o somatosensory cortex aka body CUE 39 sensations and touch 0 motor cortex back of frontal lobe and sensory cortex front of parietal k H 7 lobe are right next to each other i q Tammi Occipital Lobe 39 39 39 3 A Basal Lube 0 visual cortex go from eyes to the Gang back of the brain jBrain Stem Temporal Lobe o auditory cortex 0 language 0 learning and memory Spinal Dura Curd EIEIIIIIIEI WebltulEI LLE Language 1 visual cortex gt receives written words as visual stimulation 2 angular gyrus gt transforms visual representations into an auditory code 3 Wernicke s area gt interprets auditory code 4 Broca s area gt controls speech muscles via the motor cortex 0 in the left frontal lobe o damage to this area causes people to not be able to speakform words 5 Motor cortex gt where the word is pronounced Split Brain Procedure 0 hemispheres are connected by a dense set of fibers called the corpus caosum that allow the two sides to communicate 0 split brain procedure severs the corpus caosum to prevents seizures in epileptic patients rare but effective Endocrine system body s slow chemical communication system c hormones chemicals synthesized by set of glands o hormones secreted into blood stream and travel to different parts of the body Endocrine System 0 pituitary gland master gland that controls the other ones in the brain 0 pineal gland biological rhythms releases melatonin in the brain 0 thyroid growth and metabolism adrenal glands induce fight or flight response 0 epinephrine o norepinephrine o cortisol pancreas o insulin amp glucagon gonads 0 male amp female sex glands o regulate bodily development amp maintain reproductive organs in adults
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