CMN 423 Daily Rhetoric Strategies
CMN 423 Daily Rhetoric Strategies CMN 423
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This 32 page Bundle was uploaded by Danielle Callanan on Friday February 6, 2015. The Bundle belongs to CMN 423 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by Finnegan in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 237 views. For similar materials see Rhetorical Criticism in Communication at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
CMN 423 Notes 09022014 Final Paper 0 Final paper will make a claim argument that the speech does what it does because 0 Data gathering descriptive Analysis amp Context Analysis Warrantreasoning Researching the background and situation in present time when the speech was given and why it was needed 0 Look at emotional rhetoric and what that brings to the speech 0 Paper will make an argument on the speech and evaluate it Rough Draft Revision 0 Three models of revision 0 Revision global idea level Organizationstructure content assignment requirements integration of source material 0 Editing Writing level Checking for sense improving clarity eliminating awkwardness making essay more concise o Proofreading mechanics level Checking only for grammatical or spelling errors mistakes or typos a Note if you only use spell check you are NOT proofreading Strategies for Being Concise and Clear 0 Delete words that mean little or nothing 0 Delete words that repeat the meaning of other words 0 Replace a phrase with a word 0 Find the verb It should not take more than 68 words to get to the verb 0 Find the subject Move it as close to the beginning of the sentence as possible Keep contextual analysis and textual analysis info separate on the draft do not integrate them Talk about which strategy category is the most applicable to the speech Look at citations 0 No comma between author and page number Summarize feedback you got changes you made 0 Write as a cover memo and make it the rst page of le you uploaded Upload le with LastnameFirstname as le title By 5PM on Thursday Nov 20 Textual Analysis on FDR Take on each category of descriptive analysis and talk about what we have seen in the speech Read it once all the way through without taking notes Think about how you would talk about the speech based on those categories Start by rst talking about the speech s purpose and then you can put the other categories how you see t Not making an argument on the speech Give speci c examples in each category MLA formatting just page number in parenthesis s Descriptive Analysis What does this person say and how have they said it Elements 0 Purpose goal of speech 0 Persona what you can discern about the speaker based on the text itself Audience hard concept Tone attitude towards what is being said Structure how its organized 0 Supporting materials evidence OOO Purpose Goal of the speech Can be multiple purposes in a speech and they may cash so nding the main purpose is important Persona Role of the rhetor One way to nd the persona in a speech is to track the pronouns How often does the speaker put himself in a contrasting relation with others us vs them structure Can be closely tied to purpose If you gure out the persona you might nd something about the purpose It tells you a lot about the persons relationship to their own purposes Implied Target Audience NOT the quotrealquot audience exposed to it but the audience the rhetor constructs in the text Wants the audience to feel in common quotwe H M usquot All we care about is who we seem to think the speaker thinks the audience is or who was listening Who was there and how did they respond The speaker is trying to accomplish a persuasive goal so they address the audience they think they have The audience in the speech not the actual audience Tone Attitude expressed towards themes audience use adjectives to descdbe Is the speaker sarcastic Rational Emotional Can tell us a lot about the speakers relationship to the audience A tone can be a clue to who the speaker thinks the audience is quotquot or to what the purpose of the speech is StructureOrganization Intro main points conclusion how are these structured Obama loves telling the history of something and then telling us what we should do now Having a general sense of quothow is this structuredquot can be helpful when analyzing the text Supporting Materials Evidence Pages 2830 in Campbell and Burkholder PDF StyleLanguage Language strategies People can use certain language strategies to relate to a certain audience Can be related to tone and purposes MLK used accumulatio to improve his point of living as an African American man in that time period Context Analysis Second Stage of Criticism quotCritics cannot adequately judge or evaluate rhetorical acts without understanding the historical context in which they occurquot CampB 49 0 Understanding the context will help you understand the purpose without this understanding it can be misinterpreted Goals of Context Research 0 Understand the world in which rhetorical actthe speech took place 0 Understand the mindset of ACTUAL audience that heardreadsaw rhetorical act 0 Two ways to look at the audience The real audience Who the speaker is targeting to listen intended Understand speaker and hisher goals 0 Their relationship to the event 0 Things that have happened before the speech itself 0 Determine the forces that shaped the speaker s rhetorical situation 0 What are the events and audiences that caused the speaker to speak 0 All of the speakers understanding of why they are speaking there and who the audiences 0 Speakers understanding of all of the positions on the situation that are out there and how they are going to put their position across everyone 0 Figuring out what the persuasive forces are to determine why a speaker made certain decisions 0 Gather evidence about actual in uence or impact of the rhetorical act 0 Not only about effectiveness impact is about a big picture king of thing HistoricalCultural Context Key Elements from Campbell and Burkholder What events motivated the speaker to speak 0 MLK economical situation rights etc o What was the occasion The genre 0 There are regular occurring occasions that require a speech ie commencement inaugural address this dictates what needs to be said in the speech genres have norms speaker has to be aware of what the norms are so they can explain why they are violating them apology 0 First ask yourself quotIs this speech a part of a genrequot 0 What were the main historicalsocial situationsevents that produced need for the rhetorical act 0 The speaker might not be motivated to give a speech in the way that is needed but they have to anyways ie apology 0 There can be moments where a speech needs to happen but there is no speaker yet so someone has to do it that might not want to nonpro t organization on raising money 0 What was the cultural milieuclimate of opinion on the issues the speech addresses 0 FDR talked about the moneychangers and believed he had some enemies The text itself can provide clues to the questions one should ask about historicalcultural context 0 FDR uses war metaphors so you can look that up to see why he utilized those to be bene cial 0 King talked about gradualism Speaker Background 0 What relevant biographical information is available on the speaker 0 Don t have to tell us everything just focus on most pertinent info for this topicrhetorical act o What speaker experiences knowledge prior rhetorical acts are relevant to this one 0 Good question to consider Why THIS speaker for THIS situation Audience EmpiricalActualaudience 0 Who was there who was exposed to this rhetorical act 0 What kinds of people were exposed to the rhetoric age race gender geography demographic analysis 0 What were likely beliefs attitudes values of this audience attitudinal analysis 0 What were the likely beliefs or attitudes of this audience 0 What part of audience is capable of modifying the problem addressed by the rhetorical act 0 Who in that actual audience really has power to make a change based on what the speaker says 0 FDR called out the Congress and they are actually the people who can make his movement pass Competing Persuasive Forces 0 What alternative positions or people are competing with speaker What other voices are out there 0 Acknowledging there are other perspectives are out there the speaker needs to prepare for them in advance 0 What groups are in con ict with speaker s ideas and why 0 How do these competing persuasive forces work as barriers andor advantages to the speaker Supporting Materials 0 What 5 the validity adequacy and credibility of the speaker s supporting evidence 0 Are the supporting materials relevant veri able andor consistent Understanding lmpact What can you discover about responses to the speech 0 Evidence about how the crowd responded or cheered at certain points MLK We can use our research to gure out what people thoughtfelt What was text s impact on immediate audience on modifying the situation on speaker s reputation Rhetorical Criticism Final Project CLAIM you make about HOW the speech works as a piece of rhetoric STRATEGY CATEGORY that serves as warrant linking the two EVIDENCE you draw from the speech to support your claim about how the speech works descriptive analysis context analysis Strategy Categories Certain strategies are more or less dominant in a piece of rhetoric Le a speech can be more emotional based Learning the main strategy categories gives us a wide range of knowledge about rhetoric We will study each strategy individually and examine it as it manifests itself in a sample speech You will later determine which strategies dominate in the speech you select for nal project These categories plus descriptive analysis context analysis and language strategies will be on your exam midOct The Categories Argument Narrative Credibility Emotions and Values Confrontation Genre Anthony Speech What is the primary CLAIM that Anthony makes in her speech it is legal for her to vote because she is an American citizen Why do you think Anthony chose strategies of ARGUMENT for her speech What makes argument especially useful for her purposes Everyone is against her so argument was the most persuasive in this situation She chose purely men to cite and quote in her speech Lack of emotion because women were seen as more emotional and unstable so she took that out so nobody could use that against her Uses legal terms and sources constitution declaration etc to prove her point She wont be able to make her argument in court so she has to make it now and make people hear it no matter what Obvious hostility of her audience makes the argument useful Being emotional would be counterproductive and giving a narrative everyone already knew what she had done She is educating her audience and introducing them to information on the country they might not have known before her speech By bringing in all of these outside sources she is showing her knowledge and how she should be able to vote when she is smart enough and educated enough to make the correct decision speech in general Anthony goes from Amendments and ancient documents of the founding fathers to more recent people who the general public would be familiar with She knows how to interpret the law and is making a very sophisticated ega argument 0 Shows is a educated woman and makes people ask why she is not allowed to vote Brings up that the government doesn t actually give you rights 0 The question of quotmaybe the states give you the rightsquot arises She just keeps giving arguments until there is nothing left to say about the matter and people will not be able to add anything else to her rebuke to go against her Brought up how women are being taxed yet they have no rights in the country So if they don t have rights why do they have to pay taxes Compared women to slaves and the revolutionary fathers whom refused to pay taxes At the end of the speech she essentially says that at the end of her argument if they do not agree with what she says then people need to determine whether or not women are people or slaves 0 14th Amendment 0 says women should have rights and get out of servitude in 15th Amendment made the speech completely about her cause and not her case 0 she could have made it about what happened to her and more personal for the community but she made it broad and those factors are hidden without her argument 0 could have said something like quotthey embarrassed me in front of my neighborsquot quotI m an old ladyquot quotdon t you love your motherquot Agents of Change her audience is male because even if women were listening to her they couldn t do anything about the cause so Anthony had to direct towards men who have the power to make a difference for her cause The jury would be completely men so she needed to speak in a legal style to gear towards them to help her case Narrative Creates an emotional response Tells a story Can create interest and bring you along in a different way than a straightforward argument can Encapsulating claims 0 Using something that people are familiar with to trigger an emotion or identi cation Parts of narratives 0 Characters 0 Theme 0 Scene where and when 0 Plot what happens The plot is a storyline not necessarily true but controlled by the narrator o It doesn t have to have a connection to the real world Scene is the placetime where the plot unfolds Characters include protagonist hero or representative of quotthe peoplequot antagonist villain Theme is the overall message of the story 0 Constructed out of the rst 3 elements above scene plot characters Why use a Narrative o Adds interest 0 Creates identi cation by breaking down barriers to understanding andor construction shared identity 0 Persuades not with logical proof like argument but by encapsulating a point Why Credibility Ethos the idea that rhetoric persuades because of the credibility of the speaker apart from arguments compelling narrative or language etc The thing that closely links the speaker to the message Credibility is necessary for persuasion but rarely is it suf cient often paired with other strategies Intrinsic credibility is what the speaker develops within the speech Extrinsic is what you come into the speech with already Credibility is tied to persona 4 Ways to Build Credibility Charisma 0 Ability to project energy active image 0 Good will 0 Ability to identify with audience cultivate sense of similarity with audience 0 Doesn t mean getting the audience to like you but having some kind of identi cation with you 0 Good character 0 trustworthiness honesty sincerity Expertiseexperience of a speaker in some area 0 often something a person comes into the speech with ahead of time 0 adding your own experience on a topic or issue Emotional Strategies 0 The speaker creates the context in which someone has an emotional response 0 They cannot force you to feel a speci c emotion Pathos ancient Greek means of persuasion tied to the emotions Emotions aren t inside of you and quottappedquot rather quotcertain types of rhetoric produce a strong emotional responsequot RR 158 Emotionalrational not always opposed to one another usually some combination of both Strategies for Producing Emotional Response 0 Appeals to basic needs food housing etc 0 King appeals to needs by talking about poverty and also how there is abundance in America at this time just not for African Americans 0 Appeals to basic values statements of goodbad in a society 0 Le justice quotprogressquot freedom 0 values are very cultural so thinking about it might be tricky when you are coming from the outside of that culture 0 you need to determine what the speakers values are and what world of values they are creating and what they are using to get it across 0 when a speaker is putting values out there they can be laying out which is more important if they use a plethora speaker could be using antithesis to say if one value is more important than another when you are dealing with a hostile audience values can be a place to establish common ground Appeals to selfinterest what s in it for you or your community 0 quotit s in your best interest to vote for me as a candidate becauseu 0 when a professor says something will be on the exam and everyone takes note of it 0 not only personally but the community or group Appeals to guilt exploit gap between values and actions 0 King speech where they America wrote him a check and it didn t cash the country wasn t living up to its expectations Appeals to history tapping into shared stories analogies to times past 0 Allusion 0 Obama loves to use history in the beginning of his speeches and tell the people where we have been and where we will be going Appeals to religion using principles at heart of a faith allusions are often common 0 Often primarily appeals to Christianity Appeals to myth big stories of a culture 0 Le pioneers quotfounding fathersquot heroes 0 do not have to be true to be powerful or useful to the speaker 0 use myths to try to generate an emotional response Appeals to symbols 0 Le Earth blood ag Twin Towers 0 breast cancer awareness pink ribbon o presidents and political gures wearing the American ag pin if they don t then they are seen as communist or for some reason against the country for the time Confrontation Used when more adaptive strategies fail aren t an option purpose is radical change 0 Where a speaker is in a position where negotiation isn t an option 0 Functions internally to secure beliefs and encourage action within the group 0 Functions externally to gain attention create guilt threaten Can be risky but effective 0 Can turn people off to your argument Strategies for Internal Confrontation quotPreaching to the convertedquot challenge members to do more 0 doesn t try to use some of the more positive appeals but really pushes you to do something different or be more committed in some way 0 Draw on mythsstories to de ne what s at stake Help members rede ne their role as members of the movement 0 Maybe they now want you to go further ie go to jail put your body on the line be more aggressive Strategies for External Confrontation Shockoffend 0 Le antiabortion movement using gruesome posters and lms 0 Attack 0 Others individual people belief systems using names 0 Create guilt o Confrontation when you use guilt to get someone to change a behavior or thought Threaten audience Engage in civil disobedience 0 Law breaking activity for the purpose of gaining attention to your movement s goals contradictions to the law etc Daughton quotMetaphorical Transcendencequot Purpose 0 calm and then activate the people 0 quotallaying fear and the implicit purpose of creating public support for the new president and his policiesquot 0 simmer anxiety and inspire economic vitality Major Claim about how he accomplished them 0 quotRoosevelt I will argue resolved this dilemma by subtly blending metaphoric clusters religious and military into a single integrated image of holy warquot 0 Evidence Daughton supports her claim with about how the speech works 0 She uses a lot of biblical evidence 0 Talks about the history of religion in the united states 0 CLAIM FDR uses metaphors to construct holy war on the great Depression 0 Appeals to religion war metaphors elements of strategy categories of emotional appeals genre Language strategies EVIDENCE from the speech and its context descriptive analysis context analysis In Our Papers 0 We will have a section after the introduction that explains the concepts of rhetoric we will be talking about General section in the early part of the paper that will simply de ne the rhetoric we nd in the speech appeals to values are de ne the terms in general that are helping the audience understand our topic Brockriede Rhetorical Criticism as Argument Brockriede contends that critics should emphasize argument rather than other approaches to criticism such as appreciation description or classi cation How does Brockriede describe each of these types of criticism and why are they insuf cient modes of rhetorical criticism 0 Appreciation offers no rationale just praiseblame 0 Description just describes what s there textcontext but doesn t turn it into an argument 0 Classi cation just links speech to genre ie eulogy and shoes how it ts elements of genre but that s all Peer Group Assignments Danielle Callanan speech Bill Clinton Speech for Victims of the Oklahoma City Bombing Page 648650 Brad Mamroth speech Evil Empire Ronald Reagan Kelly Hickey speech Linden B johnson We shall overcome Next Week Sketch out textual analysis of your text AND group members texts bring to class on Tuesday Tuesday we will have textual analysis workshop that gets you going on describing your speech Thursday we will have Library Research Day to discuss how to identify useful sources for Context Analysis Genre Genres identify situations that are culturally designated as occasions on which disclosure is appropriate and specify at least in general terms the sorts of symbolic actions that are expected to occur Rowland 0 when we say that something is a rhetorical genre they explain some type of rhetorical situation 0 when we think about genre we want to think about situation occasion and what discourses are considered appropriate for those situations and occasions ie Graduation will have speeches thinking about presidential rhetoric there are certain types that have speci c expectations ie inaugural 0 genre can change over time expectations for a rhetorical act can change changing the genre 0 genre explains to you what you are supposed to do but leaves you room to move around within that Identifying a genre is only the rst step classi cation of working with a speech 0 Simply saying a speech is part of one genre is not good enough saying your speech is a eulogy is not the most interesting part of the speech Not all rhetoric is usefully classi ed as part of a genre 0 Advice if you have to work really hard to gure out if your speech is part of a genre it usually is not 0 Presidents speak in multiple genres must specify if you are going to mention that in your paper Rowland 7 Things a Eulogy Does page 220 The eulogy must confront the death of the person The tone of the eulogy should be somber especially at the beginning of the speech The content of the eulogy should be personal The eulogist should tell us the meaning of the life of the person who has died and not give us a resume of their life A good eulogy is a rhetorical journey from plain to catharsis In a good eulogy the deceases lives on in some way The eulogy must be adapted to the speci cs of the person s life Citing MLA What will you be citing 0 De nitions of terms ie persona according to Rowland 0 Your speech as chapter edited in book 0 O O O O 0 Primary and secondary sources you discovered in context analysis General principles for integrating sources Use courses concisely so your own ideas aren t crowded out by other voices rely on summaryparaphrasing more than direct quotation BUT ALWAYS CITE Never leave the reader in doubt as to when you are speaking and when a source is speaking Make clear how each source you use relates to your argument Follow GH s rules for quoting p 2223 Writing With Sources See GH for MLA intext style section 43 p 5052 Evaluation Interpretation stage 4 o The nal stage of rhetorical criticism 0 Four criteria for evaluation 0 O O 0 Effects how successful was the speech in achieving its purposes longterm vs shortterm Truth How accurately and dully does the speech present problems evidence and potential solutions Ethics How goodbadappropriateinappropriate are the values espoused in the speech Artistic How skillfully does the speech employ language strategies 0 Evaluation stage 0 O O No single evaluation works for every text critic must decide which criteria to use Critic may wish to combine more than one criterion in the evaluation ie speech was effective but not ethical Evaluation section answers question quotWhat do l as a critic think about how the text does what it does Given the context and circumstances it is effectiveineffective In the short term long term both Truthfuluntruthful Ethicalunethical Artisticinartisticquot Critic s goal is to make a judgment 0 Some kinds of speeches lend themselves to certain criteria ie effects of a eulogy might be harder to measure than those of a campaign speech 0 Evaluation paragraphs should be conclusion of nal paper maybe 1 or 2 welldeveloped paragraphs see sample student paper 0 My speech 0 Artistic and some ethics or effects 0 Effects of the type of speech itself not the audience but what other presidents were expected to deliver after Clinton gave this one Short term created expectations changed people s sense of what the role of the president was Clinton showed the people they were not alone and that he was there for them as was the rest of the country Created a sort of genre for speeches for presidents Long term preceding presidents gave speeches of this type to achieve the same thing Expectations for presidents to perform this type of nationaleulogy o For thurs 2 sentences on why my speaker had to give the speech purpose and what he did to solve that problem strategy Bill Clinton performed this speech due to the Oklahoma City Bombing and wave of distress that followed To squander negative feelings Clinton utilized emotional appeals to overcome fear and to reassure citizens of Oklahoma the nation was behind them in their time of need He had to evoke emotional appeals to overcome those strong feelings the victims and their community have Pick one or two and replace quotemotional appealsquot with appeals to and Basic Needs a Their kids need homes and stability n Rebuilding to make it a thriving community again n A tree takes time to grow but it needs love and care while it s maturing Selfinterest a Community as a whole needs to overcome this a They have to come together as an entity n It is not everyone for themselves a They need to look to those around them and realize they are not in it alone 0 Also have the nation behind them in this rough time a On a national level the country will come together and stand behind this terrorism and deal with it in the best way possible n It is not one city or state to themselves this is America and we help those who need it n The other cities do not need to worry or stress about this problem because Clinton and the administration reassure them it is not something that will happen to everyone but an isolated incident 0 Clinton doesn t want all other major cities or the population to start freaking out over this bombing 0 Was not a foreign terrorist but local CMN 423 Daily Rhetoric Strategies AccumulatioCongeries The piling up of examples to prove and drive home a point EX quotHe isdisoya to his parents ungrateful to his friends troublesome to his kin insulting to his betters disdainful of his equals and mates cruel to his inferiors in short he is intolerable to everyonequot Rhetorica Ad Herrenium ancient rhetoric text Not only saying the idea but also making you feel t through the weight of what is being said Long passage to say so you are out of breath by the end and that is the desired effect Examples to drive home one point Similar examples that all gear toward the same thing but not necessarily the same Slightly different but the connection is there Speaker is trying to overwhelm you with evidence or data AlliterationAssonance Use of several words in a row beginning with the same consonant alliteration or vowel sounds assonance Examples quotCallous cruel contemporary conservatismquot quot spread of the deadly atomquot steady Part of the repetition section of rhetorical strategies words and letters Allusion Indirect reference to a work of rhetoric literature or history but not a direct quotation Example quotFive score years ago a great American in whose symbolic shadow we stand todayquot King quotI Have a Dreamquot references Abraham Lincoln and opening of Gettysburg Address King brought his environment in the statue of Lincoln behind him while giving the speech and alludes to that time or thing Anaphora A gure in which the same word or phrase is repeated at the beginning of successive phrases clauses or sentences Example quotIt can be helped bv preventing realistically the tragedy of the growing loss through foreclosure of our small homes and our farms It can be helped by insistence that the federal state and local governmentsquot FDR S First Inaugural AntimetaboleChiasmus Reversal of grammatical structures of works or ideas in successive phrases or clauses Example quotAsk not what your country can do for you ask what you can do for your countryquot JFK s First Inaugural Example quotIf there is one message that echoes forth from this conference let it be that human rights are women s rights And women s rights are human rights once and for allquot Hillary Rodham Clinton speech to UN Conference on Women s Rights 1996 Kind of reversal where a speaker says one things and then makes you think of it in a different way also A way to make an audience rethink an idea Antithesis A gure that makes use of contrasting words phrases sentences or ideas for emphasis Generally used in parallel grammatical structures Example quotWe are not enemies but friendsquot Lincoln s First Inaugural It s not only but also We re not this but that De nitionRede nition Efforts to de ne terms under consideration or rede ne the way terms are currently used Example quotThe drug war is not a war at all We shouldn t wage war on drugs we should treat drug addictionquot Depictiondescriptionekphrasis O Epistrophe O Euphemism The use of a vague term or expression in place of something more disagreeable 0 Example Politicians will speak about quotrevenue enhancementquot rather than quotraising taxesquot 0 Example During the Vietnam war they would refer to the destruction of villages as quotpacificationquot Hyperbole Exaggerated words or ideals used for emphasis and not to be taken literally 0 Example quotI ve told you a million times not to call me a liarquot Politicians will often accuse another politician of using hyperbole lrony A word or phrase is used to mean the opposite of its literal meaning 0 Example quotI just m scrubbing the oorquot 0 A twist in the meaning closely related to sarcasm at times Dissociation LabeHng Sloganlabel used to characterize a person 0 Example quotBarack Obama s health care policies demonstrate he s not a Democrat but a Socialistquot Can often be a strategy of attack as well as characterization 0 Related to ad hominem argument quotto the humanto the manquot attack on the person not the argument Labeling can be used to make people think differently on something or someone Associative strategy doesn t have to be negative ie describing someone as a patriot or hero Litotes Deliberate understatement for emphasis Example quotHouston we ve had a problem herequot 0 Apollo13 astronauts upon discovering that gasoxygen was escaping at a high rate from their last oxygen tank on board Metaphor o A word or phrase is transferred from its literal meaning to stand for something else 0 Unlike a simile in which something is said to be like something else a metaphor says something IS something else 0 Example quotAmerica is a shining city on a hillquot Ronald Reagan Paralepsis 0 Another member of the irony family paralepsis is a form of ironic denial A person denies that they are going to do something but the act of denial ironically does the very thing that they deny they are doing 0 Example A politician might say quotI will not call my opponent a liarquot or quotI will not raise my opponent s extramarital affair as an issue in this campaignquot 0 But the politician does question hisher opponent s honesty amp does raise the issue of hisher opponent s marital situation Parallel structure repetition see also anaphora amp epistrophe repetition of sentence phrase or single word to emphasize importance of a point 0 Parallel structure is form of repetition where structure of sentence is what repeated 0 Example quotThe opposition will tell you I m against health care Others will tell you opposed school reform Technically that s true And I will tell you whyquot Personi cation A strategy in which human qualities or abilities are assigned to abstractions or inanimate objects 0 Example quotIntegrity thumbs its nose at pomposityquot Prolepsis Responding to the anticipated objections of your opponents In some cases the strategy is obvious as the speaker or writer formulates the words the opposition might use but it can be also more understated Example quotBut I fancy I hear some one of my audience say it is just in this circumstance that you and your brother abolitionists fail to make a favorable impression on the public mind Would you argue more and denounce less would you persuade more and rebuke less your cause would be much more likely to succeed But I submit where all is plain there is nothing to be arguedquot Frederick Douglass 1852 0 Whenever a speaker lays out the objection before it comes Prosopopoeia Representing an imaginary or absent person as speaking or acting attributing life speech or inanimate qualities to dumbcan t talk or inanimate objects Prosopopoeia goes beyond quoting someone else s words 0 When employed well advocates will if only brie y become the other person 0 Example Former NY governor Mario Cuomo s book Why Lincoln Matters Today More Than Ever contains a chapter entitles quotAbraham Lincoln s Address to Congress 2004quot in which Cuomo speaks as Lincoln who advises Americans about today s political issues Rhetorical Question 0 A strategy in which the one asks a leading question 0 Example quotWith all the violence on TV today is it any wonder kids bring guns to schoolquot 0 Don t actually expect an answer Rhythmrhyme Use of rhyming words or musical language to help audiences remember 0 Example quotFondly do we hope fervently do we pray that this mighty scourge of war may speedily pass awayquot Abraham Lincoln Second Inaugural Synecdoche o A trope in which a part stands for the whole 0 Example quotTome just bought a fancy new set of wheelsquot 0 Use an act of labeling to make something seem more important than it actually is in a situation Tricolon A pattern of three part parallel repetition phrases clauses or sentences 0 Example Lincoln s peroration conclusion in the quotGettysburg Addressquot quotgovernment of the people by the people for the people shall not perish from the earthquot empoys the three part tricolon structure embodied in the short prepositional phrases Strategy De nition Parts of the Types of Questions to What Critic StrategyWhat Rhetoric that consider when Does critic pays use strategy assessing whether attention to strategy is dominant in a speech Rational Critic studies Claims data Policy Are rational argument Argument logos or modes warrants types discourse strategies important to of argument of evidence forensic legal your piece Is your found in types of discourse rhetor relying on rhetoric argument speci c types of evidence argument or using based speci c evidence in refutational interesting ways enthymematic Narrative Critic treats Plot characters Rhetoric that Does artifact construct rhetoric as a scene theme tells quotbig a narrative or story story or quotuniverse of the text invokes quotbig that is coherent Does themesquotmyth rhetoric have obvious 5 quotcast of characters hero villain etc Credibility Critic examines Extrinsicintrinsi Useful Does text rely upon how rhetor c 4 types of supplement to construction of rhetor s constructs credibility other credibility to ethos or experienceexpe strategies framejustify its credibility rtise good will especially arguments good character argument charisma Emotional Critic examines 9 different Emotional Does text appeal to Appeals pathos or emotional appeals values emotion more appeals to appeals Values frequently than logic rational emotion needs history used in evidence etc see Rowland combination for full list with other strategies ie argument narrative or in a mix of emotional appeab Confrontation Critic examines nonadaptive strategies Forinternal social movement audience reinforce beliefs for external audience being confronted 5 strategies of confrontational Marginalized social movement rhetoric Does text challenge audience or refuse to adapt to audience needs interest values rhetoric Genre Critic studies Conventions and Discourse in Is speech part of a rhetoric in light rules of the highly conventional form Are of form genre conventional there obvious substance style forms ie constraints on this of a genre eulogy type of rhetoric inaugural First few lines 376 0 Starting with a proclamation quotwhat will go down in historyquot 0 Reference to the Gettysburg address allusion 0 King makes an appeal to history 0 quotGreat beacon light of hopequot positive imagery quotSeared in the ames of withering injusticequot not just imagery he is talking about what happened with slavery quotOne hundred years laterquot anaphora in 3rd paragraph 0 Right away he says there is a problem and goes on to tell us what they are quotPromissory notequot an IOU that every American needs 0 quotWe ve come to our nation s Capitol to cash a checkquot they have come there to get what is owed to them 0 Uses personi cation by saying America is a personsomeone to communicate with and talk to as an audience member in a way Implied audience 0 The capitol and America are used to describe an implied audience who is able to cash a check or pay a bill but will not o It is embarrassing for everyone that they are owed this money but cannot get it Rights and nobody is paying up or giving them to the people 0 quotBut we refuse to believe the bank ofjustice is bankruptquot 0 King doesn t want to believe and doesn t want the people to believe they will never get their rights and what is owed to them 0 This is justice to ful ll the demands of the promise made by people before him 0 They want to cash their checks and get what has been lost all of these years o If they believed this bank ofjustice was indeed bankrupt then they would not be there right now They wouldn t try for a lost cause when they know what they can achieve 0 This is the only group that is isolated African Americans in this country are missing out on their section of the promise o Antithesis 0 quotRise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justicequot 0 quotNow is the timequot anaphora in 7th paragraph 0 Trying to bring everyone together with the biblical references and saying quotwe are all God s childrenquot 0 Saying everyone is the same 0 Clash between dark and light and good and evil 0 King is making history and religion brought to the present In class Activity D Newspaper article is very favorable towards King and gives positive comments from Kennedy where he supports the rally Shows what happened before King spoke and gave insight on the crowd s energy They were having a quotchurch picnicquot while waiting for the celebrities to get there because they landed at 1115 instead of 10 People were singing and dancing while waiting for it to begin and using it as a time to connect with those around them Talks about how our nation could be proud of this rally against Congress basically saying Kennedy has no part of Congress and that he is against it in every way that this rally is talking about Gave a timeline on how people arrived to the Washington Monument and when 0 7 am its clear 0 10 am there is 40000 people 0 11 am there are 90000 people quotChildren were singing and clappingquot When they talk about Abraham Lincoln it is saying that this should have happened a long time ago when he joined the emancipated slaves that were waiting for freedom and jobs 100 years and 240 days There were 10 leaders and king was the more peaceful speaker o It could be some sort of competition with the other 9 speakers on who the most favorable one was to listen to o quotThe other leaders except for the three clergymen among the 10 concentrated on the struggle ahead and spoke in tough even harsh languagequot Jackson quotThe Rainbow Coalitionquot Values and History quotlnheriting the legacy of a great partyquot quotNo generation can choose the age or circumstance in which it is born but through leadership it can choose to make the age in which it is born an age of enlightenment an age of jobs peace and justicequot quotI am elated by the knowledge that for the rst time in our history a woman Geraldine Ferraro will be recommended to share our ticketquot 0 appealing to the lack of diversity in history appeals to the deaths of important political and social gures he references things in history and talks about how if it had not changed then nothing would be wrong but Regan made everything go downhill He values equality and fair chance Value quotExercise the right to dreamquot FDR quotCommonwealth Speechquot Given a couple months before the election Commonwealth is a republican group of business people 0 Primary interest is thinking about the success and value of business 0 When you are invited to come you are not allowed to talk about politics Roosevelt chooses to not give a campaign stump speech 0 Some of the things he tells in the narrative connect to his audience Gave the speech in San Francisco California Setting up his relationship to this particular audience in the beginning but using antithesis not this but that He is saying that he is going to be the narrator of the story but also a character and an important person in his own story He is assuming he has a hostile audience or else he would not ask them to consider his ideas He structures things as to invite them He narrates the story of American history and government and uses it to tell the audience what his position is and why he holds the beliefs and values he does How government should relate economically is shown through his focus on certain aspects in history FDR talks about One view says that government needs to stay out of things while another says they need to intervene 0 We are not concerned at this point whether or not Jefferson or Hamilton are right in their views but the purpose of the story and what all of this is doing 0 Its setting up the question of how much the government should be involved in our lives 0 quotquotaround pages 214215 0 probably the majority of the people in FDR s audience want the government to stay out of the way of the people 0 FDR is setting up both views as appropriate As FDR tells the story there are moments where we get a different pot twist when he changes the scene When it gets to the industrial revolution the dream becomes shadowy FDR goes through Theodore Roosevelt and then Woodrow Wilson and then brings it back to the present 0 Middle of 217 o Kind of saying that everyone knows things have changed O 0 At the end of the American history he is giving we get to another plot point Saying we are passed being able to deliberate on this subject anymore The great depression is really rough on the people and they cannot move to start a new life anywhere Saying there have been moments in history where people were too greedy but at this point we are kind of screwed Plot develops into a theme where government needs to be more of a focus than it has been in the past 0 He makes thesis statements when the speech is practically over 0 quotI feel that we are coming to a view through the drift of our legislation and our public thinking in the past quarter century that private economic power is to enlarge an old phrase a public trust as wellquot 219 He says it at the end after there was a history told because the stories let him frame his ideas in a way where the hostile audience would get where he is coming from Charles Spencer quotEulogy for Dianaquot 0 How is this a traditional eulogy O O O O O Talks about Diana s character Brings up past experiences with Diana and their lives together Responded to the situational factors Makes it personal Diana lives on after this speech and says that they will always remember He confronted Diana s death and pulled the community together by talking about her sons and how the family and community will take care of them and not let the same fate happen 0 In what ways does it depart from conventions of eulogy O OO Brings in the Children and the anger he holds against the paparazzi Almost blames her death on the paparazzi Addresses the media in the speech He pretty much ips off the media at the end of the quotThere is no doubtquot paragraph where he uses litotes Makes a distinction of his sister and her children from the royal family differentiates royal family from his family Viewed as backhanded and potentially inappropriate Big FU to the queen and the royal family Makes a series of claims as her role as a public gure and how celebrity trumps nobility quotI stand before you today the representative of a family in grief in a country in mourning before a world in shockquot 0 Parallel structure between familygrief countrymourning worldshock 0 Makes the audience feel like they knew Diana 0 In one sentence he evokes every possible audience member to make them feel included rst sentence of the speech Pronoun shifts in the speech and he starts to talk to Diana 0 Continues to talk to her as if he was actually speaking to her 0 This is how eulogy focuses in on a person Takes away the audience and talks to Diana personally to say her qualities without making it seem like he is bragging about them He begins to talk about Diana in the third person again in the middle of the speech 0 Says personal things that people argue were not appropriate to put into a eulogy Implied audiences 0 Diana herself Family Country World 000
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