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Full Section 1

by: Stephanie Grates
Stephanie Grates
GPA 4.0
Anthropology of Sex
Dr. Lynn

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Anthropology of Sex
Dr. Lynn
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This 6 page Bundle was uploaded by Stephanie Grates on Friday February 6, 2015. The Bundle belongs to ANT 208 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Lynn in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 205 views. For similar materials see Anthropology of Sex in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 02/06/15
ANT 107 Unit 3 Week 2 0331 Domestication and the origins of social complexity Domestication and agriculture 0 Domestication the process by which plants or animals are transformed through arti cial selection by humans Often this results in dependence on humans for reproduction and developmental needs Arti cial selection directed breeding of plants and animals possessing characteristics deemed bene cial to human beings Creates a dependency 0 Agriculture a subsistence system that relies primarily upon domesticated plantsanimals Traits that humans select for 0 Food and nutrition Larger seeds in crops Meat on some animals other byproducts Work capacity Storage Transportation Companionship o Aesthetics 0 Case study Gallus Gallus o Chickens Timing of domestication o Earliest domesticates Dog 3000OBP Rye 10000 BP found near modern sayJericho in Southwest Asia 0 Occurred independently throughout the world South America North America Asia Africa Europe none are known for Australia 0000 0 Case study Lagenaria siceraria o The bottle gourd Subsistence o What we do to feed ourselves What we want to know about domestication 0 When do we see the rst signs of domestication and where o What traits are being selected for and are these the traits that continue to be selected for Pleistocene to Holocene o Shift to agriculture around the world global warming trend Approximately 1000012000 BP Triggered the Neolithic revolution Origins of agriculture 0 During Holocene shift to agriculture around the world Approximately 10 kya o Neolithic food production agricultural revolution 0 Theories for the origin of agriculture 0 Environmental change Cultural evolution Advances in knowledge of plantsanimals Population growth Need to support larger human populations Accidentcoevolution Intentional access to preferredspecial foods Need to control reproduction to the regular access Multiple reasons multiple regions There were no prime movers just local responses and triggers Oasis hypothesis 0 Population growth processualist approach 0 Championed by V Gordon Childe 0 Holds that domestication began as a symbiotic relationship between humans plants and animals at oases during the desiccation at the end of the Pleistocene 0 Environmental evidence does not support 0 Population growth 0 Need to feed larger populations at the expense of harder work 0 Mark Cohen 0 Food crisis in prehistory Accidentcoevolution hypothesis 0 Humans disturb their environments which may lead to intentional management of certain species Coevolution O O OO O hypothesis or accidental encouragement of certain species in disturbed areas dumpheap hypothesis 0 Dump and create fertilizer which attracts animals and allow plants to grow Intentional access to preferredspecial foods 0 Need to control reproduction to have regular access 0 Brian Hayden o Feasting model 0 Certain people wanted to celebrate their authority and power so they wanted to throw feats so needed to control the growth of certain types of food 0 Case study domestication of maize com 0 First cob dates to around 9000 BP 7000 BC from Mexico 0 Early domesticates and brewing Maize and Barley 0 Some of the earliest contexts associated with maize and barley are quotsocial contextsquot Cuneiform tablet with barley beer recipe Maize rst appears in ritual and ceremonial contexts Wanted beer Maize continued 0 After domesticated still arti cially selected for centuries Not all domesticates are maintained o If arti cial selection is not maintained may breed with wild varieties Qualities adapted for humans are no longer selected for Neolitlic revolution 0 Gradual change triggered by the beginning of the Holocene end of the Pleistocene 0 Adoption of a limited set of foodproducing technologiestechniques Qualitative change and quantitative o Qualitative changes Changes in inherent of distinguishing characterizes New and different aspects 0 Ex unprecedented jobs unprecedented relations 0 Quantitative changes Expresses or expressible as a quantity 0 The change in number 0 Ex population growth change in number of professions 0 Impact of domestication on human life qualitative changes 0 O O O Domesticated plants and animals were not just changed by people but changed people as well New practices emerged Increased sedentism living in one place centered in vMages Larger populations shorter birthing intervals Division of labor Increased specialization New religious systems Negative sideeffects as well Increased disease oral decal route dental caries Complex societies 0 O 0 Complexity usually refers to political organization but also pertains to social and economic organization Those societies with dedicated specialists Made possible when enough surplus can be produced without the participation of every member of a society 0 Social complexity O O O Archaeologists study different aspects of a culture to understand different levels of social and political complexity NOT social evolution The study of social complexity holds that some societies are more differentiated than others they have more separate social roles and institutions It does not hold that more differentiated societies are more advances or better Change over time is change toward something better toward evolution Basic dichotomy Egalitarian few social differences Ranked systematic social differences How agriculture and domestication can lead to complexity A small group of individuals comes to control a surplus of material Feasting Security provisions 0 Trade Form of wealthpower Redistribute Store 0 Own Social rank and strati cation Big man societies 0 In uence o Noninstitutionalized 0 Ranked not strati ed Chiefdoms Leadership in hereditary Ranked and socially strati ed 0402 Complexity 0 Complexity 0 Types of complex societies 0 Different types of hierarchy organization Rank chiefdoms states 0 Rank societies 0 Not egalitarian few sociopolitical ranks lled by a small number of people 0 Big Men 0 Melanesia Individuals emerge as leaders charismatic ability to get followers and to please followers or competent quotNeolithic basequot for Big Men Surplus of food Access to exotic goods a form of wealthpower Redistribute Store Own 0 Surplus of Exotic Items Used to motivate people to work feasts Used in trade Used in lean times 0 Big Men to Chiefs 0 Population grows larger village smaller villages 0 Role of leader becomes institutionalized permanent 0 Passed down through families Chiefdoms 0 Society in which a leader and his family established at the top of a social pyramid 0 May included a group of subordinate regional chiefs below him 0 Everyone else makes up the broad base 0 Some of the surplus given to the chief O 0000 O O Often collect and redistribute wealth among their people in highly visible ceremonies Social hierarchy often based on kinship Cahokia 10501200 AD lllinois Largest built in structure in the US Some degree of standardization of symbols materials Mesomania Olmec Capitals Near important resources Platform mounds Sculpted heads Religious iconography Standardized set of visual images 0 States 0 O O 0 Large centercities Control over many villages regions Most hierarchial social relations Controls overvast resourcces


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