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Chapter 7 North Africa/ Southwest Asia

by: Ryan Dodd

Chapter 7 North Africa/ Southwest Asia Geog 2013

Marketplace > Arkansas Tech University > Geography > Geog 2013 > Chapter 7 North Africa Southwest Asia
Ryan Dodd
Arkansas Tech University

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About this Document

These notes cover what will be on the next test from chapter 7
Regional geography of the world
Dr. Patrick David hagge
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This 3 page Bundle was uploaded by Ryan Dodd on Friday April 8, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Geog 2013 at Arkansas Tech University taught by Dr. Patrick David hagge in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Regional geography of the world in Geography at Arkansas Tech University.

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Date Created: 04/08/16
Chapter 7 North Africa/Southwest Asia  Geographic Features  Islam (and related culture)dominate  Strong internal divisions within countries (ex: Lebanon and Iraq)  Some nations without states (ex: Palestinians, Kurds, Berbers, people of Western Sahara)  Some boundaries date from the colonial era = some current problems  Name?  “Middle East”­ only ‘east’ from Europe  “Arab World”­ what about Turkey, Iran?  “Muslim World”­ what about Israel?  Best name: North Africa/ Southwest Asia  Dry World  Major deserts… so most live near water  Oil  More than half of the world’s oil in Middle East th  In early 20  century, Western countries bring $$$ and tech to local oil industry  Oil brings urbanization, infrastructure  Islam: Background  Begins in 7  century Arabia  Holy book is the Quran = revelation of God (Allah) to the prophet Muhammed  Muhammed and successors are religious AND political AND military leaders… create  Islamic country (caliphate) across the known world  Caliphate breaks up into many groups  SUNNI ISLAM (most) and SHIA ISLAM (less)  Spatial Diffusion  The way idea, inventions, and cultural practices spread through a population in space and  time  Ex: Islamization  Background  After WW1: the Ottoman “Caliphate” divided up by Europe  After WW2, the Jewish country of Israel is created from British/UN colonies  Vocabulary differences!  ISLAMIC­ describing Islam, culture, etc.  ISlAMISTS­ political caliphate­meaning  Arab Spring: 2011­present  Past: many M.E. countries led by corrupt totalitarian leaders that crack down on society  and on Islamists  High unemployment, low median age  Starts in Tunisia, protest follow, spread throughout M.E.  Regimes overthrown in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Yemen; uprising in Syria, etc.  First seen as ‘democracy’, but now what?  Islamist takeover? US perspective… Regions of North Africa/Southwest Asia  Egypt  Centered on the NILE river valley and delta  Very populous country in the M.E. (80m)  95% live < 12 miles of the Nile  Capital Cairo  Sudan  Civil war… Muslim north and Christian south (split)  Another conflict in west Sudan, in Darfur  The Maghreb  Western North Africa (the Maghreb)  Algeria, Libya, Tunisia, and Morocco  Places where African, European and Arab cultures meet  Rooftop architecture  Beirut, Lebanon  Civil war between four different religions  Iraq  Mixture of 3 big groups:  Sunni Muslims  Shi’a Muslims  Kurds  Border of Iraq drawn by Europeans after WW1  Kurds  Stateless nation­ ethnic group without a country  Kurds one of the largest stateless nations in the world  Israel and Palestine  Israel, the Jewish state, established in 1948  Local Arabs (“Palestinians”) oppose  Many wars: Israel keeps winning  Ownership vs. Control  Arabian Peninsula  Source and focus of Islam (including city of Mecca­ Holiest in Islam)  Most oil deposits on earth  Saudi Arabia, and other “Gulf States” (Kuwait)  Environmentally Dominated by desert  Politically dominated by Saudi Arabia  Economic activities “ across” the peninsula ( ex: inland Riyadh)  Massive improvements in health care, housing, education, etc.  Demographic: 60% of area’s population under the age of 21  Turkey  Sits between Europe and Asia  Modernization and Industrialization  Growing Islamist movement  Iran  Theocracy­ controlled by Islamic leaders  Shi’a Islam (Shi’ite)  Central Asian Countries  Because of past Soviet control, some Soviet/ Russian cultural influence today  Afghanistan  1980s: poor, rural Afghan fighters fight Russians for years  Soviets leave Afghanistan, but in the 1990s, the hardline Islamist TALIBAN take over  Taliban impose strict rules on society  Burqas, beard patrol, kites, musical instruments, girls’ schools…  All information comes from Dr. Patrick Hagge 


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