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Emotional Intelligence Introduction Imagine you are waiting in line to buy tickets to see your favorite band. Knowing tickets are limited and prices will rise quickly, you showed up 4 hours early. Unfortunately, so did everyone else. The line stretches for blocks and hasn’t moved since you arrived. It starts to rain. You are now close to Will Call when you notice three people jump ahead of you to join their friends, who appear to have been saving a spot for them. They talk loudly on their cellphones as you inch forward, following the slow procession of others waiting in line. You finally reach the ticket counter only to have the clerk tell you the show is sold out. You notice the loud group off to the side, waving their tickets in the air. At this exact moment, a fiery line of emotion shoots through your whole body. Your heart begins to race, and you feel the urge to either slam your hands on the counter or scream in the face of those you believe have slighted you. What are these feelings, and what will you do with them? Emotional intelligence (EI) cognition & emotion are interrelated. emotions influence decision making, relationship building, and everyday behavior. emotions are active mental processes that can be managed, so long as individuals develop the knowledge and skills to do so. American psychologist, David Wechsler: intelligence is the “global capacity of an individual to think rationally, act purposefully, and deal effectively with their environment”. => intelligence is an operational process we learn to utilize our internal abilities to better navigate our surrounding (similar to & impacted by our emotions). Drs. Peter Salovey and John D. Mayer first explored and defined EI “the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions” EI : individuals possess the ability to leverage their emotions to enhance thinking, judgment, and behavior. History of EI Before: cognition and emotion as separate domains, with emotion posing a threat to productive and rational thinking. EI: interactions that teach us to “toughen up” and keep our emotions hidden. In the early 1970s, limitations of the Intelligence Quotient (IQ)—the standardized assessment of intelligence. : its inability to explain differences among individuals unrelated to just cognitive ability alone. => theories of intelligence such as Gardner’s multiple intelligences theory Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence the influence of moods and emotions on thought processes, including judgment and memory through these theoretical explorations and empirical studies that the concept of EI began to take shape. EI by Daniel Goleman’s in his Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ. EI’s connection to personal and professional success. Goleman’s model of EI includes a blend of emotionrelated skills, traditional cognitive intelligence, and distinct personality traits. => embellished conceptualization of EI, => increase in EI literature, contributed to conflicting definitional and measurement models within the field. Models and Measures of EI 3 primary models of EI: Ability models (Mayer & Salovey ) approach EI as a standard intelligence that utilizes a distinct set of mental abilities that o (1) are intercorrelated, o (2) relate to other extant intelligences o (3) develop with age and experience mixed models (BarOn, Boyatzis & Sala, trait EI model (Petrides & Furnham) define and measure EI as a set of perceived abilities, skills, and personality traits. Ability Models: Mayer and Salovey FourBranch Model of EI The EI (FourBranch) model by Mayer and Salovey. 4 fundamental emotionrelated abilities comprise EI: perception/expression of emotion, use of emotion to facilitate thinking, understanding of emotion management of emotion in oneself and others. 1. Perception of Emotion Perception of emotion: people’s capacity to identify emotions in themselves and others using facial expressions, tone of voice, and body language . Those skilled in the perception of emotion also are able to express emotion accordingly and communicate emotional needs. i.e, If your classmates are skilled at perception of emotion, then they will read your facial expression and body language and determine that you might be masking your true feelings of disappointment, frustration, or disengagement from the conversation. As a result, they might choose not to talk about the concert in your presence. 2. Use of Emotion to Facilitate Thinking Using emotion to enhance cognitive activities and adapt to situations => some emotional states are more optimal for targeted outcomes than others. Feeling frustrated over the concert tickets may be a helpful mindset as you are about to play a football game or begin a wrestling match (high adrenaline from frustration may boost your energy and strength, helping you compete) These same emotions, however, will impede your ability to solve algebra problems or write an essay. Ppl practiced this area of EI actively generate emotions that support certain tasks or objectives. i.e: a teacher recognizes that her students need to experience positive emotions ( joy or excitement) in order to succeed when doing creative work ( brainstorming or collaborative art projects). She may plan these activities for after recess. => Making decisions based on the impact that emotional experiences may have on actions and behavior is an essential component of EI. 3. Understanding of Emotion EI : ability to differentiate between emotional states, their specific causes and trajectories. Feelings of sadness or disappointment : from the loss of a person or object. Standing in the rain is annoyance, irritation or frustration. Unfair treatment: unpleasantness to escalate into anger and resentment. People skilled in this area: aware of this emotional trajectory and also have a strong sense of how multiple emotions can work together to produce another. For instance, it is possible that you may feel contempt for the people who cut in front of you in line. However, this feeling of contempt does not arise from anger alone, but the combination of anger and disgust by the fact that these individuals have disobeyed the rules. Successfully discriminating between negative emotions is an important skill related to understanding of emotion => more effective emotion management 4. Management of Emotion Emotion management : the ability to remain open to a wide range of emotions, the value of feeling certain emotions in specific situations, and understand which short and longterm strategies are most efficient for emotion regulation Anger: appropriate response to falling short of a goal that you pursued fairly and patiently. => valuable to allow yourself the experience of this feeling => certainly need to be managed in order to prevent aggressive, unwanted behavior. Coming up with strategies, (deep breath/ waiting until you feel calm ) will allow you to regulate your anger and prevent the situation from escalating. => gain insight into other perspectives Measuring EI with Performance Measures Ability models of EI require a different approach: performance measures. / require respondents to demonstrate their four emotion skills by solving emotionrelated problems/. MayerSaloveyCaruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) most common: a 141item test with eight tasks, two per each of the four emotion abilities. To measure emotion management, respondents are asked to read through scenarios involving emotionally charged conflicts and then asked to evaluate the effectiveness of different resolutions. Mixed and Trait Models of EI Unlike ability models, mixed models offer a broad definition of EI that combines mental abilities with personality traits (optimism, motivation, and stress tolerance) 2 most widely used mixed models are: BoyatzisGoleman model: divides EI competencies into four groups: o selfawareness, o selfmanagement, o social awareness, o relationship management. BarOn model : offers five main components of EI: o intrapersonal skills, o interpersonal skills, o adaptability, o stress management, o mood. explain EI as a constellation of selfperceived, emotionrelated personality traits. Mixed and Trait Model Assessment: SelfReport Selfreport assessments—surveys that ask respondents to report their own emotional skills—are most often associated with mixed and trait models. (+) quick to administer. BUT: their vulnerability to socialdesirability biases and faking, the potential for inaccurate judgments of personal ability and skill on behalf of responders, lack discriminant validity from existing personality measures and have very low correlations with ability measures of EI => performance tests are the gold standard for measuring intelligence. (Mayer) Room for Debate While mixed and trait models undermine the EI construct as a discrete and measurable mental ability. EI: the relationship between cognition and emotion by accounting for changes in individual outcomes that are often missed when focusing solely on cognitive intelligence or personality traits. For adults, personality traits cant be changed, > difficult even when combined with emotional skills. ie, characteristics such as agreeableness and neuroticism, while contributing to personal and professional success, are seen as innate traits. Distinguishing EI from personality traits helps us better target the skills that can improve desirable outcomes. Approaching EI with language that provides the opportunity for personal growth is crucial > ability model aligns with this approach, Outcomes Historically, emotions have been thought to have no place in the classroom or workplace Today, EI has the potential to influence decision making, health, relationships, and performance in both professional and academic settings Workplace positive links between EI and enhanced job performance, occupational wellbeing, and leadership effectiveness ( performance indicators : company rank, percent merit increase, ratings of interpersonal facilitation, and affect and attitudes at work ) EI and a managerial simulations involving problem solving, determining employee layoffs, adjusting claims, and negotiating successfully => Emotion management is seen as most likely to affect job performance by influencing social and business interactions across a diverse range of industries Leaders in the workplace also benefit from high EI [leadership as a process of social interactions where leaders motivate, influence, guide, and empower followers to achieve organizational goals] transformational leadership—where leaders create a vision and then inspire others to work in this direction MSCEIT scores correlated positively with a leader’s ability to inspire followers to emulate their own actions and attend to the needs and problems of each individual Schools Theoretical foundations of EI : integrated into social and emotional learning (SEL) programs. /SEL is the process of merging thinking, feeling, and behaving > enable individuals to be aware of themselves and others, make responsible decisions, and manage their own behaviors and others/ SEL programs are designed to enhance the climate of a classroom, school, with the ultimate goal of enhancing children’s social and emotional skills and improving their academic outcomes The role of a teacher. emotions impact the climate of a classroom : hurt the classroom dynamic and prevent student learning . Emotion regulation among teachers was associated with positive affect, support from principals, job satisfaction, and feelings of personal accomplishment EI, when embedded into SEL programs, contribute positively to personal and academic success in students. Control trial of RULER* also found that, instead of the standard curriculum—having higher degrees of warmth and connectedness between teachers and students, more autonomy and leadership, less bullying among students, and teachers who focused more on students’ interests and motivations ( *RULER Recognize emotions in oneself and in other people. Understand the causes and consequences of a wide range of emotions. Label emotions using a sophisticated vocabulary. Express emotions in socially appropriate way. Regulate emotions effectively. Limitations and Future Directions The signature performance assessment of EI the MSCEIT has a number of limitations. , it does not allow for the assessment of several abilities( the expression of emotion and monitoring or reflecting on one’s own emotions) need for investigators to reconcile definitions and refining existing measures. > deeper investigation into the genetic (versus acquired) and fluid (versus crystallized) aspects of EI. The cultural implications and differences of EI also are important to consider. Studies should expand beyond the United States and Europe. Greater attention should also be paid to developmental trajectories, gender differences, and how EI operates in the workplace and educational settings EI i: it grants us reign over our own emotions—forces once thought to rule the self by denying individual agency. But with this power comes responsibility. In this sense, emotion regulation allows you to objectively view the point of conflict without dismissing your true feelings. Merely down regulating the emotional experience facilitates better problem solving. Vocabulary Ability model An approach that views EI as a standard intelligence that utilizes a distinct set of mental abilities that (1) are intercorrelated, (2) relate to other extant intelligences, and (3) develop with age and experience (Mayer & Salovey, 1997). Emotional intelligence The ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions. (Salovey & Mayer, 1990). EI includes four specific abilities: perceiving, using, understanding, and managing emotions. FourBranch Model An ability model developed by Drs. Peter Salovey and John Mayer that includes four main components of EI, arranged in hierarchical order, beginning with basic psychological processes and advancing to integrative psychological processes. The branches are (1) perception of emotion, (2) use of emotion to facilitate thinking, (3) understanding emotion, and (4) management of emotion. MayerSaloveyCaruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) A 141item performance assessment of EI that measures the four emotion abilities (as defined by the fourbranch model of EI) with a total of eight tasks. Mixed and Trait Models Approaches that view EI as a combination of selfperceived emotion skills, personality traits, and attitudes. Performance assessment A method of measurement associated with ability models of EI that evaluate the test taker’s ability to solve emotionrelated problems. Selfreport assessment A method of measurement associated with mixed and trait models of EI, which evaluates the test taker’s perceived emotionrelated skills, distinct personality traits, and other characteristics. Social and emotional learning (SEL) The realworld application of EI in an educational setting and/or classroom that involves curricula that teach the process of integrating thinking, feeling, and behaving in order to become aware of the self and of others, make responsible decisions, and manage one’s own behaviors and those of others (Elias et al., 1997) Language and Language Use Introduction WE can guess the social relationships surrounding the people who are engaging in the conversation and the people whom they are talking about. Language is an essential tool that enables us to live. W/o lang> no human civilization. Language is used in our everyday lives. Every human group has a language; human infants (except those who have unfortunate disabilities) learn at least one language without being taught explicitly. There is at least one known instance where children who had had little language were brought together and developed their own language spontaneously with minimum input from adults. /In Nicaragua in the 1980s, deaf children who were separately raised in various locations were brought together to schools for the first time. Teachers tried to teach them Spanish with little success. However, they began to notice that the children were using their hands and gestures, apparently to communicate with each other. It turned out the children had developed their own sign language by themselves. => Nicaraguan Sign Language How Do We Use Language? The primary form of language use is interpersonal: we exchange words and utterances to communicate with each other. In order for ppl to carry out a conversation, they must keep track of common ground. (a set of knowledge that the speaker and listener share and they think, assume) The "common ground" in a conversation helps people coordinate their language use. And as conversations progress common ground shifts and changes as the participants add new information and cooperate to help one another understand. In conversational terms, Ben’s utterance acts as evidence for his comprehension of Adam’s utterance. This new information is now added to the initial common ground. => common ground changes as we talk, gathering new information that we agree on and have evidence that we share. => people take turns to assume the roles of speaker and listener, and actively engage in the exchange of meaning. Common ground helps people coordinate their language use. ie, when a speaker says something to a listener, he /she takes into account their common ground (what the speaker thinks the listener knows => This is called audience design: speakers design their utterances for their audiences by taking into account the audiences’ knowledge > use a brief label of the object; for a less knowledgeable audience, they use more descriptive words (e.g., “a friend of mine”) to help the audience understand their utterances (Box 1). Language use is a cooperative activity, but how do we coordinate our language use in a conversational setting? > conversation in small groups. rarely more than four. We typically have a conversation by rapidly exchanging words and utterances in real time in a noisy environment. We achieve our conversational coordination by virtue of our ability to interactively align each other’s actions at different levels of language use: lexicon (i.e., words and expressions), syntax (i.e., grammatical rules for arranging words and expressions together), as well as speech rate and accent. i.e, when one person uses a certain expression to refer to an object in a conversation, others tend to use the same expression + same syntactic structure (e.g., “the girl gave a book to the boy” rather than “the girl gave the boy a book”); exhibit similar accents and rates of speech, and they are often associated with people’s social identity . So, if you have lived in different places where people have somewhat different accents (e.g., United States and United Kingdom), you might have noticed that you speak with Americans with an American accent, but speak with Britons with a British accent. These interpersonal alignments at different levels of language use can activate similar situation models in those engaged in a conversation. Situation models are representations about the topic of a conversation. ==> Pickering and Garrod’s theory is that as you describe this situation using language, others in the conversation begin to use similar words and grammar. > situation models begin to be built in everyone’s mind through the mechanism known as priming. Which occurs when your thinking about one concept (e.g., “ring”) reminds you about other related concepts (e.g., “marriage”, “wedding ceremony > making use of our highly developed interpersonal ability to imitate (i.e., executing the same action as another person) and cognitive ability to infer (i.e., one idea leading to other ideas), we humans coordinate our common ground, share situation models, and communicate with each other. What Do We Talk About? Studies show that people love to gossip. By gossiping, humans can communicate and share their representations about their social world (mundane or abstract) Gossip may sound trivial but—surely one of the most remarkable human abilities of all that distinguish us from other animals. Gossip—activities to think and communicate about our social world—most critical use of lang Dunbar : Gossiping is the human equivalent of grooming, an act of socializing, signaling the importance of one’s partner. By gossiping, humans can communicate and share their representations about their social world—, can regulate their social world—making more friends and enlarging one’s own group (often called the ingroup, the group to which one belongs) against other groups (outgroups) that are more likely to be one’s enemies. Humans have an evolutionary advantage and larger brains to help humans to think more complex and abstract thoughts and, more important, maintain larger ingroups. Dunbar estimated an equation that predicts average group size of nonhuman primate genera from their average neocortex size (the part of the brain that supports higher order cognition). => larger brains tend to live in larger groups. estimate the group size that human brains can support,150 approximately the size of modern hunter gatherer communities> language, brain, and human group living have coevolved—language and human sociality are inseparable. Our everyday language use often ends up maintaining the existing structure of intergroup relationships. > subtle cues that people use to convey whether someone’s action is just a special case or a pattern that occurs across many contexts (a character trait). Someone’s action can be described by an action verb that describes a concrete action (e.g., he runs), a state verb that describes the actor’s psychological state (e.g., he likes running), an adjective that describes the actor’s personality (e.g., he is athletic), or a noun that describes the actor’s role (e.g., he is an athlete). convey the permanency and stability of an actor’s tendency to act in a certain way: verbs convey particularity, adjectives convey permanency /describe positive actions of their ingroup members using adjectives (e.g., he is generous) rather than verbs (e.g., he gave a blind man some change), AND negative actions of outgroup members using adjectives (e.g., he is cruel) rather than verbs (e.g., he kicked a dog=> linguistic intergroup bias, which can produce and reproduce the representation of intergroup relationships by painting a picture favoring the ingroup./ ingroup members are typically good, outgroup members are typically bad/ In addition, when people exchange their gossip, it can spread through broader social networks: a chain of communication. This often happens for emotive stories (Box 2). When stories travel through communication chains, they tend to become conventionalized. => In other words, information transmitted multiple times was transformed to something that was easily understood by many, that is, information was assimilated into the common ground shared by most people in the linguistic community. Young couple’s interaction that included both stereotypical and counterstereotypical actions (e.g: a man watching sports on TV on Sunday vs. a man vacuuming the house). After the retelling of this story, much of the counter stereotypical information was dropped, and stereotypical information was more likely to be retained. => stereotypes are part of the common ground shared by the community > retelling likely to reproduce conventional content. Psychological Consequences of Language Use When people use language to describe an experience, their thoughts and feelings are profoundly shaped by the linguistic representation that they have produced rather than the original experience per se i.e, Halberstadt (2003) showed a picture of a person displaying an ambiguous emotion and examined how people evaluated the displayed emotion. They tended to remember the person as feeling that emotion more intensely than when they simply labeled the emotion. By verbalizing our emotional experiences (conversation with a close friend) > improve our psychological wellbeing. constructing a linguistic representation of another person’s emotion biased the speaker’s memory of that person’s emotion. linguistically labeling one’s own emotional experience appears to alter the speaker’s neural processes. When people linguistically labeled negative images, the amygdala—a brain structure that is critically involved in the processing of negative emotions such as fear—was activated less than when they were not given a chance to label them (because of these effects of verbalizing emotional experiences, linguistic reconstructions of negative life events can have some therapeutic effects on sufferers of the traumatic experiences). Writing and talking about negative past life events improved people’s psychological wellbeing, but just thinking about them worsened it. Furthermore, if a certain type of language use (linguistic practice) is repeated by a large number of people in a community, it can potentially have a significant effect on their thoughts and action. : called SapirWhorf hypothesis For instance, if you are given a description of a man, Steven, as having greater than average experience of the world (e.g., welltraveled, varied job experience), a strong family orientation, and welldeveloped social skills, how do you describe Steven? You cannot remember Steven’s personality 5 days later? But if you know Chinese and are reading about Steven in Chinese, the chances are that you can remember him well. > because English does not have a word to describe this kind of personality, whereas Chinese does (shì gù). language you use can influence your cognition Language does not completely determine our thoughts—but habitual uses of language can influence our habit of thought and action. ie, some linguistic practice seems to be associated even with cultural values and social institution. Pronoun drop is the case in point. Pronouns such as “I” and “you” are used to represent the speaker and listener of a speech in English. In an English sentence, these pronouns cannot be. However, in other languages such as Japanese, pronouns can be, and in fact often are, dropped from sentences. It turned out that people living in those countries where pronoun drop languages are spoken tend to have more collectivistic values (e.g., employees having greater loyalty toward their employers) than those who use non–pronoun drop languages such as English). => “you” and “I” may remind speakers the distinction between the self and other, and the differentiation between individuals. Such a linguistic practice may act as a constant reminder of the cultural value, which, in turn, may encourage people to perform the linguistic practice. Vocabulary Audience design Constructing utterances to suit the audience’s knowledge. Common ground Information that is shared by people who engage in a conversation. Ingroup Group to which a person belongs. Lexicon Words and expressions. Linguistic intergroup bias A tendency for people to characterize positive things about their ingroup using more abstract expressions, but negative things about their outgroups using more abstract expressions. Outgroup Group to which a person does not belong. Priming A stimulus presented to a person reminds him or her about other ideas associated with the stimulus. SapirWhorf hypothesis The hypothesis that the language that people use determines their thoughts. Situation model A mental representation of an event, object, or situation constructed at the time of comprehending a linguistic description. Social brain hypothesis The hypothesis that the human brain has evolved, so that humans can maintain larger ingroups. Social networks Networks of social relationships among individuals through which information can travel. Syntax Rules by which words are strung together to form sentences. Forgetting and Amnesia 5 Causes of Forgetting encoding failures, decay, insufficient retrieval cues, interference, and intentional attempts to forget encoding failures / you did not learn it in the first place. ( fail to encode information into memory, not going to remember it later because we are distracted or are not paying attention to specific details) memories fade, or decay /work of Hermann Ebbinghaus : as time passes, memories get harder to recall/ /time does not always guarantee forgetting. recent memory traces may be degraded or disrupted by new experiences/ Memory traces need to be consolidated, or transferred from the hippocampus to more durable representations in the cortex, in order for them to last. When the consolidation process is interrupted > forgotten. Both encoding failures and decay account for more permanent forms of forgetting (memory trace does not exist) Insufficient retrieval cues /presence of the right retrieval cues is critical for remembering > memory is temporarily unavailable/ interference /other memories are blocking the desired memory/ Intentional attempts to forget (embarrassing events) Adaptive Forgetting Forgetting is adaptive, allowing us to be efficient & remember the most relevant memories /Shereshevsky, or “S,” the mnemonist studied by Alexander Luria a man who never forgot. Limitless memory. Yet Shereshevsky found it difficult to function in his everyday life because he was constantly distracted by details & associations => remembering everything is maladaptive/ Amnesia Amnesia : a profound form of forgetting. /e.g: amnesic patient was H. M. suffered from epilepsy & underwent surgery to have both medial temporal lobes removed to relieve his epileptic seizures/ The medial temporal lobes: the hippocampus+ surrounding cortical tissue Surgery left H. M. with anterograde amnesiunable learn new information (he could not remember any event that occurred since his surgery. Though he could keep information in his shortterm/ working memory, but when his attention turned to something else, that information was lost for good) H. M.’s memory impairment was restricted to declarative memory (memory for facts/ events) So, H. M. could learn new motor skills even in the absence of memory for having performed the task b4. In addition to anterograde amnesia, H. M. also suffered from temporally graded retrograde amnesia: inability to retrieve old memoriesoccurred before the onset of amnesia Retrograde amnesia cooccurs with anterograde amnesia & shows a temporal gradient, in which memories closest in time to the onset of amnesia are lost, but more remote memories are retained /H. M., he could remember events from his childhood, but he could not remember events that occurred a few years before the surgery/ Anterograde amnesia: role of the hippocampus in the formation of longlasting declarative memories damage to the hippocampus results in aninability to create new memory . Temporally graded retrograde amnesia: importance of memory consolidation A memory depends on the hippocampus until it is consolidated & transferred into a more durable form that is stored in the cortex. /H. M. could remember events from his remote past because those memories were fully consolidated and no longer depended on the hippocampus/ 3 types of amnesiac syndrome 1. The classic amnesiac syndrome :organic amnesia (distinct from functional/ dissociative amnesia) 2. Functional amnesia : a loss of memory that cannot be attributed to brain injury => a mental disorder(rather than a neurological disorder) 3. Dissociative amnesia: patient have a history of trauma. / Their amnesia is retrograde, lose autobiographical memories + sense of personal identity/ The memory loss associated with dissociative amnesia is much less likely to be permanent than it is in organic amnesia) Vocabulary Anterograde amnesia Inability to form new memories for facts and events after the onset of amnesia. Consolidation Process by which a memory trace is stabilized and transformed into a more durable form. Decay The fading of memories with the passage of time. Declarative memory Conscious memories for facts and events. Dissociative amnesia Loss of autobiographical memories from a period in the past in the absence of brain injury or disease. Encoding Process by which information gets into memory. Interference Other memories get in the way of retrieving a desired memory Medial temporal lobes Inner region of the temporal lobes that includes the hippocampus. Retrieval Process by which information is accessed from memory and utilized. Retrograde amnesia Inability to retrieve memories for facts and events acquired before the onset of amnesia. Temporally graded retrograde amnesia Inability to retrieve memories from just prior to the onset of amnesia with intact memory for more remote events. Functions of Emotions 3 functions: the intrapersonal: emotions play within each of us individually the interpersonal: emotions to relationships with others social & cultural functions: emotions to the maintenance and effective functioning of our societies and cultures at large Introduction Emotions color life experiences and give those experiences meaning and flavor. Intrapersonal Functions of Emotion Emotions Help us Act Quickly with Minimal Conscious Awareness i.e, drinking spoiled milk or eating rotten eggs : negative consequences > emotion of disgust > vomit Emotions Prepare the Body for Immediate Action (behavior) When triggered, emotions orchestrate sys(perception, attention, inference, learning, memory, goal choice, motivational priorities, physiological reactions, motor behaviors, and behavioral decision making subjective experience, expressive behaviors, physiological reactions, action tendencies, and cognition) Emotions simultaneously activate certain systems and deactivate others ie, when we are afraid, our bodies shut down temporarily unneeded digestive processes, resulting in saliva reduction (a dry mouth); blood flows disproportionately to the lower half of the body; the visual field expands; and air is breathed in, all preparing the body to flee. Common misunderstanding: emotions must always directly produce action. This is not true. => Emotion prepares the body for action; but whether people actually engage in action is dependent on many factors(context, the target of the emotion, the perceived consequences of actions, previous experiences) Emotions Influence Thoughts Emotions: connected to thoughts and memories. Memories : facts that are encoded in our brains + colored with the emotions felt . Serve as: the neural glue that connects those disparate facts. [why it is easier to remember happy thoughts when happy, and angry times when angry] the affective basis of attitudes, values, and beliefs that we have about the world and the people around us => Emotions influence our thinking processes, sometimes in constructive ways, sometimes not. It is difficult to think critically and clearly when we feel intense emotions, but easier when we are not overwhelmed with emotions. Emotions Motivate Future Behaviors Emotions prepare for immediate action, influence thoughts, can be felt, => important motivators of future behavior. Interpersonal Functions of Emotion Emotions are expressed both verbally through words and nonverbally through facial expressions, voices, gestures, body postures, and movements. => emotions have signal value to our social interactions: communicate information to others about our feelings, intentions, relationship with the target of the emotions, and the environment. > evoking responses for desired social behavior Emotional Expressions Facilitate Specific Behaviors in Perceivers Facial expressions of emotion: social signals about the expressor’s psychological state & that person’s intent and subsequent behavior. Emotional Expressions Signal the Nature of Interpersonal Relationships Emotional expressions: information about the nature of the relationships among interactants. I.e studies involving married couples visiting a laboratory after having not seen each other for 24 hours, and then engaged in intimate conversations about daily events or issues of conflict. Discrete expressions of contempt (men) and disgust (women), predicted later marital dissatisfaction and even divorce. Emotional Expressions Provide Incentives for Desired Social Behavior Facial expressions: regulators of social interaction. social referencing : the process whereby infants seek out information from others to clarify a situation and then use that information to act. Campos and colleagues placed mothers on the far end of the “cliff” from the infant. Mothers first smiled to the infants and placed a toy on top the safety glass to attract them; infants invariably began crawling to their mothers. When the infants were in the center of the table, however, the mother then posed an expression of fear, sadness, anger, interest, or joy. No infant crossed the table when the mother showed fear; Social and Cultural Functions of Emotion Human social life is complex. Individuals are members of multiple groups, with multiple social roles, norms, and expectations, and people move rapidly in and out of the multiple groups of which they are members.people of disparate backgrounds come together.=> social chaos One of the important functions of culture: provide the necessary coordination and organization > allows individuals & groups to negotiate the social complexity of human social life > maintaining social order and preventing social chaos. = by providing a meaning and information system to its members > shared by a group and transmitted across generations, that allows the group to meet basic needs of survival, pursue happiness and wellbeing, and derive meaning from life Cultural transmission of the meaning and information system to its members : crucial. ie the development of worldviews (including attitudes, values, beliefs, and norms) related to emotions >provide guidelines for desirable emotions that facilitate norms for regulating individual behaviors and interpersonal relationships. Our cultural backgrounds tell us which emotions are ideal to have, and which are not. Cultures also inform us about how to manage , modify our emotion through the management of our emotional expressions through cultural display rules. : learned early in life that specify the management and modification of our emotional expressions according to social circumstances. (“big boys don’t cry” or to laugh at the boss’s jokes even though they’re not funny) Functions of culture:maintain social order to ensure group efficiency and thus survival, cultures create worldviews, rules, guidelines, and norms because emotions have important intra and interpersonal functions: important motivators of behavior. Norms concerning emotion and its regulation in all cultures serve the purpose of maintaining social order. => help us engage in socially appropriate behaviors, as defined by our cultures, and thus reduce social complexity and increase social order, avoiding social chaos. Vocabulary Cultural display rules These are rules that are learned early in life that specify the management and modification of emotional expressions according to social circumstances. Cultural display rules can work in a number of different ways. For example, they can require individuals to express emotions “as is” (i.e., as they feel them), to exaggerate their expressions to show more than what is actually felt, to tone down their expressions to show less than what is actually felt, to conceal their feelings by expressing something else, or to show nothing at all. Interpersonal This refers to the relationship or interaction between two or more individuals in a group. Thus, the interpersonal functions of emotion refer to the effects of one’s emotion on others, or to the relationship between oneself and others. Intrapersonal This refers to what occurs within oneself. Thus, the intrapersonal functions of emotion refer to the effects of emotion to individuals that occur physically inside their bodies and psychologically inside their minds. Social and cultural Society refers to a system of relationships between individuals and groups of individuals; culture refers to the meaning and information afforded to that system that is transmitted across generations. Thus, the social and cultural functions of emotion refer to the effects that emotions have on the functioning and maintenance of societies and cultures. Social referencing This refers to the process whereby individuals look for information from others to clarify a situation, and then use that information to act. Thus, individuals will often use the emotional expressions of others as a source of information to make decisions about their own behavior.
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