COMM 102 Course Notes
COMM 102 Course Notes
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Date Created: 01/04/16
8/19/15 Ch. 1 Intrapersonal- communication with oneself Interpersonal communication- communication between people on an individual to individual basis (IPC) Communication goals: o Develop relationships o Gain compliance o Obtain understanding Communication- the process of stimulating meaning in the mind of another through verbal and nonverbal messages Problem: meanings might not match IPC: o Individual to individual communication between those who relate to one another beyond social roles; who can relate to one another through “achieved” roles Features of IP: o Relationships of choice (not family) o Reciprocity o Emotional and Psychological Closeness Rules- set of guidelines for expected behavior Explicit Rules- clearly defined or stated o Example: due dates Implicit Rules- implied, not directly stated o Example: come to class prepared Roles- function of a position o Example: son/daughter, student/teacher Principles of Communication: o Communication is CENTRAL to relationships o Meanings are in people o Communication is irreversible Content- the actual words or written text Relational- feelings attached to the content Communication is learned (skill we have to develop) Communication is a tool Communication need: knowledge skill & motivation 8/24/15 Ch. 2 Self-concept: the image you have of yourself, how you define yourself on a more general basis o Influences the way you send and receive messages Self-esteem: the positive or negative evaluations we have of ourselves (what we think about ourselves) o Influenced by genetics & environment o Stable evaluation of who you are Good self-concept= clear communication o Positive, realistic self-image, confident Poor self-concept= Self-serving bias- the attribution of positive events to dispositional (personal) qualities and negative events to situational factors o When something bad/ negative happens in their life, the person thinks about being positive about the situation Public self-concept- How you want others to see you (who you want to be to other people) Real self-concept- The ways you actually feel about yourself Ideal self-concept- The person you strive to be, your goal o Example: trying out for NFL team (being realistic) Public, real, and ideal self fit together o When the three types of self are close, people are happier o Sometimes things keep us from these three things coming together Independent: see self as an individual acting upon the world o These people tend to be more confident & self-oriented Interdependent: see self as an integral part of the system within the world o More cooperative than competitive, other orientated (work within the world) want to see others success as much as themselves Perceptions- Proximity- we tend to group nearby objects together (is the left circle bigger than the right?) Our perceptions are influenced by: o Physical elements- what info your eye or ear can actually take in, how your brain processes it o Environmental elements- what information is out there to receive, its context o Learned elements- culture, personality, habit: what filters we use to select information o How do we perceive? Select, organize, interpreting Selective attention: select/ choose what you are going to pay attention to Organization: o Schemas-ways we classify information Stereotypes Prototypes Scripts 8/26/15 Ch. 3 Primacy Effect & Negativity Bias- first impression of someone = important to what people think & talk about you o Effects are hard to change o Confirmation bias- once we have an idea in our minds, we are more likely to find information that fits what you think of them & ignore the ones that don’t o Behavioral confirmation- how you act based on that persons first impression o Change is hard “work” Character is how trustworthy we perceive someone to be Competence is how knowledgeable we perceive a source Composure is the emotional control of a source o Character & competence are what make up credibility Attractiveness o Physical- what they look like o Social – how enjoyable it is to be around someone (character) o Task – what they can actually do (how well you can work w/ someone) o Matching Effect – paired with someone with about the same attractiveness Homophily – how similar we perceive ourselves to be with other communicators o The more alike the communicators, the more effective the communication Similarity- why we like people who are similar: o Uncertainty reduction Explain Predict o Reinforcement o Maximizing rewards by lessening relational work Managing impressions o Actively trying to alter your impression to others through you verbal and nonverbal communication o How to manage impressions: Impression Management: Selective disclosure Self-monitoring – adapting our communication to fit the image we want to convey Needs & Trust Ch. 3 & 4 8/31/15 Physical & Interpersonal Needs o Physical- Direct Impacts Food, air, water More predictable No interaction required Less flexible Needs not met= die o Interpersonal- Indirect impacts People, feeling happy, satisfied Less predictable Need interaction More flexible Needs not met= depressed Types of interpersonal needs: o Inclusion The need to socialize and belong o Affection The need to feel loved and cared for o Control The need to take responsibility and make decisions To be in charge Complementary & Symmetrical Needs: o Symmetrical- need to have an interpersonal partner that also has a high need for affection o Complementary- need to have an interpersonal partner with a different need than your own Interpersonal Trust o An individuals characteristic belief that the sincerity, benevolence, &/or truthfulness of others can generally relied upon o Components: Reliance/interdependence Risk of loss Unknown outcome Loss from trust violation > gain of trust fulfilled o Gullibility- acting with trust, despite knowledge that an interpersonal partner is untrustworthy (trusting someone knowing that they are untrustworthy) High trust = more involved relationship Violating trust = damaging relationships Personality Traits Ch. 4 Personality- the total configuration of all of our individual traits that collectively make each person unique o Come from: stable by adulthood o They can change o How do they influence IPC? Influenced by our traits Influences how we encode & decode messages Traits- enduring characteristics of an individual that predispose them to respond in certain patterns o Genetic & we are taught traits Shyness- discomfort & an aversion with communication in social situations Communication apprehension (CA)- emotion about fear or anxiety associated with real or anticipated communication with others o Trait based o State/situation based o Audience based- fear of talking to a certain type of person o Context based- fear of the context of how you communicate (public speaking) Effects of shyness/CA: o Avoidance or withdrawal o Disruption o Cognitive interference o Life-related outcomes Willingness to communicate: (WTC) o Tendency to initiate and respond to communication; desire to talk o Predictors: CA Self-esteem Alienation Extro/introversion Comm. Self-efficacy Trait moderation is most desirable (interpersonally) Shyness & CA most influential early in relationships Tips: o Self-reflexivity o Preparation & training o Visualization o Systematic desensitization Ch. 5 Relationships Relationship stages o Recognizable by: Type of communication that occurs Psychological/emotional closeness o Vary in length o It’s a complicated process Initiating- stage where you will decide whether or not to begin a relationship based on 1 impression o Ex) at a party and someone smiles and you smile back o Based on physical attraction Experimenting- screening process where people share information to see if they have anything in common o A lot don’t move past this stage Intensifying- a decided shift in communicator’s focus as he or she changes from interacting regularly with a variety of others to focusing resources and time upon one partner o “We” and “us” is established and used Integrating- partners share self-symbols, want to take on characteristics of their partner; becoming for alike o Ex) Sharing friends, dog Bonding- occurs when there is a ritual of some sort that publicly communicates the commitments the partners have made to each other o Ex) Getting married 9/9/15 Ch. 5 Cont. Falling Apart: o Differentiating- partners assert individual identity within a relationship; develop difference Opposite of integration stage o Circumscribing- communication becomes more limited and selective, avoiding personal topics and focusing on “safe”, uncontroversial topics Likely to appear normal to outsiders Not giving out too much personal information o Stagnating- partners stop trying to have any new experiences or communication Its all routine And boring! Hard to backtrack o Avoiding- partners actively create distances (physical & psychological) between each other More active distancing than previous stages o Terminating- ending the relationship (quickly or over a longer period of time, depending on integration stage) 9/14/15 Final thoughts: o Relationships are related to our perceptions, self-concepts & personalities o Terminating differs depending on the stage you’re terminating from Ch. 6 Resources exchanged in a relationship: o Love/affection- demonstrating of positive feelings, caring, security, and importance o Goods: direct, observable goods (clothes, gifts) o Services: doing something for someone else (favors, make something) o Information: any exclusive information that is valued o Status: (access to) social influence (close to a boss/ make things happen for you) o Money: relevant currency; can help you obtain other resources Social Exchange Theory o Individuals weigh costs and rewards Indentifying the positive and negative parts in their relationship They do it to determine if a predicted relationship outcome is worth pursuing o Costs: Anything that is negative in the relationship and you do not want repeated in a relationship Damages self-esteem Leaves IP needs unfulfilled Drains resources o Rewards: Anything that is positive in the relationship and you want repeated in a relationship Supports self-esteem Meets IP needs Increases resources o Outcomes: What is left after costs are subtracted from rewards Relationship satisfaction math Rewards- costs = outcomes o Comparison of Alternatives: Evaluating predicted outcomes based on other possibilities Previous experiences Current/hypothetical alternatives Making decisions o The social exchange model can describe how decisions are made, but it cannot always predict them because of: Differential weights Delayed gratification- accepting current costs to accept future awards Dating someone who is going to grad school.. pays off in the future Repetition Exchange vs. communal orientations o Exchange: want a 50/50 split o Communal: want the partner/group satisfied o Cultural differences
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