Ethnomusicology 50A Course Notes
Ethnomusicology 50A Course Notes Ethno 50A
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Date Created: 01/04/16
My Attempt at 50A Notes WEEK 1 10/2/12 • two components of jazz: 1) improvisation, 2) swing feeling • musician either has melody/soloing role or accompanying role • swing feeling has syncopation • traditional form: melody à improv • jazz started in New Orleans, mid- to late-1800s o most cosmopolitan and musical city in America o center of the slave trade o originated from the slaves • minstrel groups—first entertainment that people throughout the country knew o overt racism, lively music 10/4/12 • chord/harmonic progressions o foundation of the melody • two common song forms: AABA and 12 bar blues o AABA most popular form in most genres until ‘60s • skills of a good improviser: o command of your instrument o highly developed ear o ability to compose, create a melody o transcription • early on had improvisers and non-improvisers—musicians only did one or the other o in New Orleans, influenced by voodoo o improvisers felt reading music would hurt their playing WEEK 2 10/9/10 Office Hours: Thursday 9:30-10:30 SMB2665 Instrument Roles • solo role can be assumed by any melodic instrument o drums solos became common mid-late ‘30s • accompanying role usually from rhythm section—piano, guitar, bass, drums o banjo more common than guitar in early jazz—louder than guitar o piano/guitar—improvise chords in syncopated fashion, provide harmonies and rhythmic interest o bass—primary time keeper, walking bass line outlines chords, usually improvises his part o drums—right hand provides pulse and brings out swing feeling, left hand accents, feet control high hat and bass drum • 6 responsibilities of the soloist o remember the chord changes, know harmonic structure o create melodic phrases compatible with chord changes o think ahead o remember what he/she has already played o stay within the character of the piece o interact with other band members, esp. accompanying instruments Origins of Jazz • born in New Orleans • developed from popular music styles of the 1800s primarily for social dances • became its own recognizable style in 1890s • popular styles that influenced jazz: ragtime, blues, brass band music (American marches) • Why New Orleans? o great ethnic diversity § major seaport, one of most important in US at the time à lots of traffic through N.O. and strong party atmosphere o blues (also ragtime, brass bands) § developed primarily from work songs of slaves à songs of street vendors § had improvisation (ragtime did not) o need for live music § required for any kind of entertainment o party atmosphere § Storyville—one of main “hot spots”; red-light district § fueled need for music à lots of employment for musicians • led to blending of styles—musicians hired to play a style that wasn’t their primary one • Buddy Bolden (1877-1931) trumpet o first jazz musician (debatable) o went insane • Sidney Bechet, clarinet/soprano sax o protégé from young age • Jelly Roll Morten (1885-1941), pianist o one of the first jazz composers o called himself inventor of jazz, big ego o travelled a lot à spreading of jazz music • Freddie Keppard (1890-1933), trumpet 10/11/12 • Why N.O. (review) o ethnic diversity o prevalent party atmosphere à lots of work for musicians à played genres that weren’t their forte • Buddy Bolden (1877-1931) o considered by most to be first musician to play jazz o embellished music to express personal creativity o spent later part of life in insane asylum—no musical contribution • Sidney Bechet (1897-1959), clarinet & soprano sax • Jelly Roll Morton (1885-1941), pianist/composer o claimed to have invented jazz, impossible o first to prove that jazz could be notated • Freddie Keppard (1890-1933), trumpet o next great trumpeter after Buddy Bolden o note: trumpets were focal point at the time o known for using mutes o part of The Original Creole Orchestra, in L.A. and Chicago o didn’t want others to copy his improve à sometimes covered hand while playing § turned down chance to become first recorded jazz musician • James Reese Europe, bandleader/composer/arranger o ragtime, not jazz, musician § ragtime was a piano-dominated genre o most famous bandleader of ragtime period o military bandleader during WWI o preeminent orchestra leader in New York o bandleader for the Castle’s band § Castle’s started new ragtime dance craze § wanted to show the world black music and skill of black musicians § fox-trot paved the way for jazz • Original Dixieland Jazz Band (ODJB) o white N.O. musicians, relocated to Chicago § note on race: lots of black musicians, but bands were very segregated • musicians were more willing to integrate by teens/’20s • ran into objections from society (ex: segregated venues) o first jazz group to record § released 1917 § emphasis on comedy § first jazz most Americans had ever heard o called themselves creators of jazz "The Jazz Age" • Roughly 1900-mid1920's • Combos became popular. <7 musicians-trumpet, trombone, clarinet, piano, guitar/banjo, drums, bass (tuba, left hand, bass sax) o Sax isn't popular yet o Upright bass is too quiet during this time o Bass played 2 beat feel (beats 1 and 3) • New ideas and melodic embellishments become more important than the actual melody • Jazz expanded rapidly in the 1920's • Called Improvising: messing around, embellishing, jazzing up a song • People like Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Sidney Bechet, and Jelly Roll Morton. • Changed ragtime/blues/marching music into a sophisticated art • Began to focus on soloists and tested new timbres/combinations of instruments • Volstead Act-Began prohibition and drove alcohol underground. o Night clubs drew in crowds for booze/more jazz • New white fascination with black culture. o Mamie Smith recorded "Crazy Blues", first blues record o Led to the "race records" § Made for blacks, yet whites bought them as well • Better recording technology=more effort into recording albums Why was Chicago a big jazz city? o Central location/access to waterways o Thriving black market o Brothels, speakeasies, nightclubs all needed music o Music developed into edgy 4/4 rhythm w/staccato solo work • Chicago Jazz Scene o Segregation among musicians/audiences. o Musicians developed the ability to play several simultaneous horn lines without clashing § Trumpet-Melody § Trombone-Tailgating § Clarinet-Countermelodies o Allowed more improvisation o Original Dixieland Jazz Band § 1st jazz group to record § White New Orleans musicians (originated in 1916) § Recording was made in New York in 1917 (Livery Stable Blues) o King Oliver's Creole Jazz Band § Black New Orleans musicians § 1st black group to record, 1923 (Dippermouth Blues) § 2nd trumpet player was Louis Armstrong (Dipper/Dippermouth) • Embodiment of jazz music • Turned jazz into an art form • From "The Battlefield" in N.O. • Mom was 16 and prostituted herself, and dad left the family o Chicago School-3 groups of musicians § Black musicians from New Orleans § White musicians from New Orleans § Austin High Gang (successful musically from a young age) o Bix Beiderbecke-From Iowa. Known for well constructed solos and distinctive town. Died alone from acute alcoholism in 1931 at age 28. o Earl Hines-Revolutionized the way piano fit into jazz. Created Trumpet Style (notes that cut through the sound of the orchestra). § Worked w/Armstrong a lot from 1926-28. Called "Hot Five" and recorded "West End Blues" o As the Great Depression came and prohibition ended, older players retired or moved to new cities. Kansas City o Economically important city o Bands from the South, Southwest, Great Plains, and Midwest came by for local dates or as a stopover where they played cutting contests (piano players dueling) o Known for big band jazz w/blues of south and rich with riffs/rhythmic drive o Lots of debauchery=lots of jobs for musicians (not unlike Chicago) • Big Names in Kansas City o Bennie Moten-Studied with former pupils of Scott Joplin. Started playing in the city as early as 1916. Recorded for the Victor Company "Kansas City Shuffle" "South" have heavy/rolling rhythm, prominent banjo/tuba, and novelty effects. o Music from this band (Moten Band) was popular, but old fashioned. o William Basie (Count Basie) took over Moten's piano spot so he could lead. o Last recordings by the band were "Toby" "Lafayette" and "Moten Swing" § Immensely popular-brought the 1930's into the swing era. New York City • Extremely diverse (Harlem, Jewish Ghetto on the Lower East Side, Irish/Italians) • "Original Memphis Five" jazz band was made of 3 Italians, a Jew, and a white protestant. First Important Big Band • Led by Fletcher Henderson (classical pianist from Georgia) • Coleman Hawkins-pioneered how sax was played • Louis Armstrong-amazing sound, swingin' rhythm, and natural genius made him famous • Main competition: Sydney Bechet • Bechet vs. Armstrong=great music, although they didn't like each other. Shootout rather than cooperation. • Stopped bottom of pg.116 Early Jazz vs. Ragtime • Early Jazz: o Much of each performance was improvised o Looser feel in the music=more attractive to dancers o More natural swing o Starting to generate more original repertoire § Composed to be played by a jazz group o Collectively improvised format led to a more complex product (perception) o Jazz was perceived as more exciting. Big 3 of the Jazz Age • Joe "King" Oliver (trumpet/band leader) • Kid Ory (trombone/composer) • Jelly Roll Morton (piano/composer) • (Buddy Bolden preceded all three of them) • Post big 3 o Sydney Bechet o Louis Armstrong (protégé of King Oliver) o Bix Beiderbecke o James P. Johnson o Fats Waller, Willy "the Lion" Smith, Early Hines, James Reese Europe More Jazz Age... • Be able to relate names to instrument type • Early Piano o New York=most important for development of piano o NY, NJ, Pittsburgh....etc. o Often unaccompanied o Developed directly from ragtime o Didn't require much reading/memorization due to large amount of improvisation § Only needed to memorize melody/chord changes o Stride piano: has large leaps in the left hand and syncopated figures in the right hand (one of the most difficult types of jazz piano player) o Few stride players today (faded going into the swing era) o Jelly Roll Morton § Not a stride player (before it came around) § King Porter Stomp-most important arrangement (midterm listening) § Performed both ragtime and jazz § Incorporated the jazz/swing feeling § Led a septet called "The Red Hot Peppers" § Electrifying/Engaging performer o James P. Johnson (stride player) § 1894-1955. Born in Jersey but spent most of his career in NY § East Coast piano styling rather than N.O. styling. (less march-like/more harmonically complex) § One of the most influential/respected pianists of his time § Helped smooth the transition from ragtime to jazz § "Father of Stride Piano" § His style spread stride all over-1st stride player broadcast over the radio § Influenced Duke Ellington o Willie "the Lion" Smith (stride player) § 1897-1973 § Cutting contests w/James P. Johnson a lot o Thomas "Fats" Waller (mostly songwriter besides stride piano) § 1904-1943 § Known for his technique § Influenced Basie, Brubeck, many others o Earl "Fatha" Hines (pianist/band leader) § 1903-1983-Born in Pittsburgh and moved to Chicago in 1924 § Influenced piano styles of 30's/40's § Not a big stride player § Recorded with Louis Armstrong West End Blues § Credited with altering the way piano players improvise (trumpet style phrasing) • Boogie-Woogie-twist on stride piano playing o Subdivision in the left hand o Pete Johnson, Albert Ammonds, Meade Lux-Lewis, "Cow-Cow" Davenport Trumpet Players: Louis Armstrong-African American out of NO • Trumpeter, Vocalist, composer, bandleader, all around entertainer • One of the most influential figures in all of jazz history • "pops, satchmo (satchel mouth), dippermouth" • Father of jazz • Important recordings (Late 1920's) w/"Hot 5" and "Hot 7" o Kid Ory (trombone) and Johnny Dodds (clarinet) o Happened in Chicago o Created the model for "Swing Era" and swing music in general o Most widely imitated improviser prior to the 1940's (for all instruments) § Influenced Johnny Hodges • Muskrat ramble (Ory)/Struttin' with some BBQ (Hardin): Dodds (clarinet), Ory (composer/trombone), Armstrong (cornet), Johnny St. Cir (banjo), Lil Hardin-Armstrong (piano, composer) o Hot 5 • Historic Contributions: o One of the 1st great soloists in jazz history (new stress on solo improv instead of group improv) § Showed the solo improvisation could have a stirring effect o One of the first to refine the jazz rhythmic concept § Removed stiffness of ragtime § Incorporated jazz/swing feel § Added grace/majesty? to his playing o Achieved an unmatched mastery on his instrument and used it to craft melodies that were hard for others to imitate o Brought a sense of drama to music § Helped him be a great soloist § Used double time breaks § Extended upper range on the trumpet o Took melodic embellishment farther than his contemporaries § Could improvise a new melody-like line as strong as the actual melody o Singing style influenced countless others § Billy Holiday, Bing Crosby, Frank Sinatra, etc... § Invented scat singing (apparently by accident) Bix Beiderbecke-White from Davenport, Iowa • 1903-1931 • Trumpet, Composer, Pianist • Doesn't fit into a category for playing style • Emerged around the same time as Armstrong (different in sound, style, ethnicity) • 1924-First recording with the Wolverine Orchestra • 1927-Featured soloist w/Paul Whiteman o Band leader towards the late jazz age, w/large ensembles before they were popular • Cooler sound than Armstrong...more reflective • Didn't display the virtuosity of Armstrong (but who did?) • Blended new jazz sounds w/older ragtime styles as well as contemporary classical (French impressionists-rich harmonic pallets) • Frankie Trumbauer (C-melody saxophone-considered a hobby instrument)-teamed up in 1927 as co-band leader o Singin' the Blues Clarinet • More common than saxophone during the Jazz Age (changes during the Swing Era) • Used to play countermelodies (trumpet on the melody) • Solos weren't as "dramatic" as trumpet solos • Johnny Dodds-1892-1940 (N.O.) o From N.O. but moved to Chicago o Side man on a lot of Hot 5/7 recordings o Edgy sounds w/fast vibrato+aggresive solos o Recorded w/King Oliver before Armstrong • Jimmy Noone-1895-1944 (N.O.) o Greater command of his instrument than Dodds o Polished sound-dark/warm o Best New Orleans clarinetist (nice and opinionated) o Inspired Benny Goodman • Sydney Bechet-1897-1959 (N.O.) o Played clarinet and soprano o One of the most highly regarded jazz musicians of the period § Up there w/Louis Armstrong § Only musician that could "keep pace" w/him Trombone • Used to fill in gaps in the melody (hah) • Considered like the trumpet as improv goes o Less intricate solos due to limitations of a slide o 7 positions • Kid Ory-1886-1973 o One of the first noteworthy New Orleans trombonists o Husky tone in his playing w/an assertive presence o Recorded w/Armstrong ("Struttin' with some BBQ", "Muskrat Ramble") • Jack Teagarden-1905-1964 (Texas) o Smooth, full tone o "prettier" than most other early trombonists o Came to N.O. originally in search of work o White Guy o Big deal when he performed on stage w/Louis Armstrong Rhythm Section • Guitar/Banjo o Rhythm style o Job to play chords o Strum on each beat o Don't have guitar solos yet o Eddie Lang-1902-1933 (Out of Philly) § Played w/Beiderbecke and Trumbauer § White Guy o Lonnie Johnson 1899-1970 § Bluesy/Edgy sound § Known to have played w/Armstrong on occasion § Incorporated slides on guitar o Blind Willy Dunn (Pseudonym for Eddie Lang) and his Gin Bottle Four § Landmark recording in 1929 § Eddie Lang+Lonnie Johnson combined § "Handful of Riffs" § First recording w/Caucasian and African-Americans working together • Bass o Assumed by tuba, bass saxophone, or piano o Slowly start to see the upright bass-takes over during the Swing Era o Played on the 1st and 3rd beat of every measure-no walking bass till later • Piano o Didn't pound out chords like guitar o More sustained o Louder than the acoustic guitar o Could sometimes create countermelodies, like clarinet • Drums o Poorly heard in early recordings due to the recording technology o Provided rhythmic support for melodies played by the wind players o Baby Dodds (Yes, brother of Johnny Dodds) 1898-1959 (N.O.) § Credited w/coming up w/the ride rhythm § Still the most commonly played rhythm by drummers today § Basis of the jazz/swing feel on drums o Zutty Singleton-1898-1975 (N.O.) § First to use brushes § First to play the kick drum on all 4 beats of a bar • Helped bridge into the swing era • Drove the beat for the dancers Vocalists • Bessie Smith 1894-1937 o "Empress of the Blues" o Influenced generations of vocalists (possibly even Armstrong) o Known for pop as well as blues o Participated in the Vaudeville Circuit o Recorded w/Armstrong, James P. Johnson, Benny Goodman, others o Could hear her over a band w/the sheer power of her voice • Ma Rainey 1886-1939 o One of the earliest known professional blues singers o One of the first of her generation to record o "Mother of the Blues" o Influenced Bessie Smith • Ethyl Waters 1896-1977 o Born out of a rape o Childhood made her tough o Light/clear voice that distinguished her from other vocalists of her time o Brought a hybrid of blues/Tin Pan Alley music to America for the first time o Put a modern spin on older songs o 1st black woman to headline at "The Palace" in New York o Proved it was possible for black singers to appeal to any audience • Muddy Waters (McKinley Morganfield) 1913-1983 o "Father of Chicago Blues" o Considered one of the greatest blues men of all time Midterm Review 1. B False 2. Honky Tonk Train Blues-Meade Lux Lewis • Boogie Woogie 3. False- Louis on Cornet composed by Kid Ory-Muskrat Ramble 4. Blues? False-Ma Rainey (See See Rider) 5. King Porter Stomp-Jelly Rolly Morton 6. West End Blues-Louis Armstrong (False) 7. Dippermouth Blues (King Oliver's Creole Jazz Band) False Swing Era (1930's-early 1940's) • Jazz enjoyed its greatest popularity ever (a lot of dancing gigs) • Also known as the Big Band Era o Departure from combos • Still many great soloists, just smaller percentage out of the musicians overall • Changes that differentiate swing from the Jazz Age o Big bands are the preferred ensemble o Saxophone takes over for the clarinet o Upright bass is now the most common bass instrument o Smoother rhythmic feel-less rigid interpretation of time § Made the music more appealing to dancers • Big Band Instrumentation o Rhythm section (3-4)-Guitar, drums, piano, upright bass o Trumpet section (3-4) o Trombone section (3-4) o Saxophone section (as many as 5) o Within each section: § Lead Player • Brass-stands in the middle • Lead Trumpet-stylistic leader for the entire band • Saxophone-Lead=1st alto § Soloist • Generally 2nd chair (brass) and 1st tenor (saxophones) § Section Players • Everyone else-filling space-add depth to band's sound • Big bands brought the need for arrangements o Collective improv doesn't work with a group that size o Arrangers became immensely important • Arrangers: o Fletcher Henderson o Duke Ellington • How the rhythm section changed: o Rhythm guitar-chord on each beat of each measure o Piano-doesn't have to fill up as much harmonic space-played occasional syncopated chords/fills-no need for stride playing o Bass-2 beat changed to the walking bass pattern-primarily a background instrument o Drums-keep a steady beat for the dancers "felt but not heard" § Keep the energy going-not flashy § 1st two famous drummers to actually make a name for themselves § Chick Webb § Gene Krupa • Most swing era bands were known about the name of their leaders • Band Leaders: o Fletcher Henderson* o Jimmy Lunceford o Paul Whiteman* o Count Basie o Duke Ellington* o Benny Goodman o Glen Miller o Jimmy Dorsey o Tommy Dorsey o Woody Herman o Andy Kirk o Artie Shaw o Harry James o Cab Calloway o Chick Webb o Lionel Hamptont o *=helped bridge the gap from the Jazz Age to the Swing Era o Henderson/Ellington emerged in the 1920's and grew in size/sophistication • Coleman Hawkins-how he treats the melody of Body and Soul Noteworthy Musicians Trumpet: • Roy Eldridge (1911-1989) o "Little Jazz" o The virtuoso trumpet player of the swing era o Challengers would always go after him in cutting contests o Link between (pre)swing and modern jazz "bop" o Powerful sound w/high register+agility o Ability to vary his tone/vibrato with the style of the song Trombone: • Jack Teagarden o Remained active in the swing era-changed his playing style o Kept playing in combos • Tommy Dorsey (1905-1956) o Bandleader (front man), featured soloistgo o Brother of saxophonist Jimmy Dorsey o Co-led a band named the Dorsey Brothers § Split up over and argument about....tempo? o Responsible for making the trombone a melody carrying instrument • Lawrence Brown (1907-1988) o Best known as lead trombone for Duke Ellington's Orchestra o Influential trombone soloist Saxophone: • Coleman Hawkins (1904-1969) o Tenor Sax o Considered to be the 1st important saxophone soloist o Big sound (lot of air/robust tone) • Don Byas (1912-1972) o Tenor o Known for using a greater harmonic sophistication than his contemporaries § Implied there were more chords present than were being played § Increase his challenge when soloing o Liked to play double time • Benny Carter (1907-2003) o Alto-doubled on trumpet o One of the most influential altos of the swing era o Graceful and light style o Highly respected composer and arranger (for Count Basie, film/TV) • Lester Young (1909-1959) o Tenor o Revered soloist o Light/flowing sound-kind of like an alto § Admired the playing of Frankie Trumbauer o Featured soloist in the Count Basie Orchestra Pianists: • Earl Hines • Art Tatum (1905-1956) o One of the most admired pianists ever § Considered to be a genius on the keyboard o Melodically and rhythmically inventive o Spontaneous reharmonizations § Changes the harmonic structure on the spot § Still functions in a forward moving fashion and resolves o Always sounded great, no matter how bad of a piano he had to play on § Could learn every bad key in the time it took to sit down • Teddy Wilson (1912-1986) o Lighter style than most players § Lacked heavy-handedness (specifically of stride players) o Fleet smoothness and streamlined quality o Sideman for a time with Benny Goodman • Nat "King" Cole (1919-1965) o Led the famous "King Cole Trio" § Piano first, Bass, Guitar § Lack of drums provided flexibility to play in smaller clubs o Horn-like improviser o Influenced more future generations than he's credited with o Became a superstar vocalist later § Causes his piano playing to be overlooked • Errol Garner (1923-1977) o Can be considered swing, but many believe him to be part of "bebop" o Well known for composing "Misty" • Mary Lou Williams (1910-1981) o Style evolved over time § Started as a boogie woogie pianist § Became significant in Swing and later periods o Composer/Arranger-wrote for a lot of popular big bands • Milt Buckner (1915-1977) o Known for "block chording" Guitar • Charlie Christian (1916-1942) o Pioneer of the amplified guitar o First great single note guitar soloist § Changed role of the guitar o Influenced every guitarist to follow o 1st guitar feature w/big band: Solo Flight -Benny Goodman's Orchestra • Django Reinhardt (1910-1953) o Belgian gypsy guitarist o Shine o Played acoustic guitar in a band where it could still be heard § Hot club music § Acoustic guitar, violin, acoustic bass, possibly accordion o Only had use of two fingers on his left hand Vocalists • Billie Holiday (Lady Day) 1915-1959 o Influenced by Louis Armstrong and blues singers o One of the most influential jazz singers to emerge after 1930 o "Once she sang it, she owned it" § Due to her unique twists on songs § Conveyed emotional depth/sincerity o Never delivered a melody straight § Took rhythmic liberties o Performed with many of the greats § Benny Goodman § Artie Shaw § Count Basie Orchestra § Lester Young o Grew up in poverty and suffered abuses as a child § Influenced how she is able to convey depth in her music § "Strange Fruit" lyrics describe a lynching o Relatively small vocal range with a weathered tone • Ella Fitzgerald (The First Lady of Song) 1918-1996 o Considered to be one of the best vocalists of the 20th century o Superb swing feel that rivaled horn players o Clear tone with a large vocal range o Flawless pitch o Proficient scat singer • Frank Sinatra 1915-1998 o Began career by singing in a band led by Harry James and started with Tommy Dorsey o Went on to influence generations of vocalists o Recorded with everybody o "Blue Skies" • Nat "King" Cole 1919-1965 o Began singing in his trio, moved on to big bands o Most recording were done in Los Angeles, in the Capital Record Building § The House that Nat (and Frank) Built Big bands/Leaders • Paul Whiteman 1890-1967 o Band leader, arranger, violinist o One of the earliest big band leaders-predated the swing era o Mostly functioned in the jazz age o Dubbed "King of Jazz" at some point o Thought music could be improved by orchestrating the best of it with formal arrangements § Resulted in limited improvisation in his music o Sought out talent to incorporate into his organization o Commissioned "Rhapsody in Blue" • Fletcher Henderson1897-1952 o Band leader, pianist, composer, arranger, conductor o Formed his band in 1922 § Before beginning of the Swing Era o Helped smooth the transition into Swing Era o For a time, ideas of arrangement were heavily influenced by Whiteman § When Armstrong joined, increased improvisation o In the 1920's, everyone wanted to sound like him o Sidemen: § Louis Armstrong § Coleman Hawkins (tenor big sound § Benny Carter (alto) o "Sugar Foot Stomp" o "King Porter Stomp" (updated arrangement) • Jimmie Lunceford 1902-1947 o Played alto, but didn't play with his band o Organized Jimmy Lunceford Orchestra in 1927 o Vaudeville and comedy had a distinct part in his stage presence § Not just music, but all around entertainment § Often included costumes, skits, and jabs at mainstream white bands (Whiteman) o Considered one of the most polished bands § Able to compete with Ellington and Basie o Earlier demise than other swing bands § Didn't give raises, lost a lot of talent o All of the swing band leaders had personnel issues (paying their members) • Benny Goodman (King of Swing) 1909-1986 o Virtuoso clarinetist o Influenced by Jimmy Noone o Reached massive commercial success o First band leader to successfully integrate his band o Led a small group and big band o 1929-Made a deal with Fletcher Henderson § Bought Henderson's band book § Hired Henderson's (African American) band to train his men on how to play the new music § Vaulted him to superstardom in the 1930's o "Sing, Sing, Sing" o "Seven Come Eleven" • Artie Shaw 1910-2004 o Virtuoso clarinetist, overshadowed a bit by Goodman o Dedicated fanbase o Dubbed "King of the Clarinet" by his fans o Said that Benny Goodman played clarinet, and he played music o 1938-Hired Billie Holiday, who left after facing hostility from crowds o "Begin the Beguine" o "Stardust" o "Moonglow" o Sidemen: § Billie Holiday § Roy Eldridge § Mel Tormay (vocalist) § Buddy Rich • Glen Miller 1904-1944 o White trombone player/band leader (arranger))(composer) o Played trombone in pit orchestras for Broadway shows early on § Alongside Benny Goodman and others o Later became trombonist/arranger for the Dorsey Brothers o 1936/37-fledgling band leader o 1938-began making recordings for the RCA Victor label § Becoming a more familiar name o 1942-Decided to join the war effort § Put in charge of a modernized military swing band § Travelled around visiting troops in Europe to raise morale o Still remnants of that group today-Airmen of Note o "Moonlight Serenade" § Band theme song/end of the concert o "In the Mood" o "Chattanooga Choo-Choo" o "Pennsylvania 6-5000" • Stan Kenton 1911-1979 o Pianist, composer, arranger o Played in other bands to get his start o Became a leader in 1941 (tail end of swing era) § Called "Artistry in Rhythm" o Competent pianist o Influenced by Earl Hines o 1950's onward, employed other composers to write for his band o Highly supportive of jazz education from an early age § Willed his whole band book to the University of North Texas Kansas City Jazz • more blues influence than in New York swing • lots of territory bands, estimated 5000 o not popular names o operated only in a certain regions • Bennie Moten (1894-1935) o pianist o first trio in 1922, expanded to big band in 1926 (Bennie Moten and his Kansas City Orchestra) o several bands touring under his name in 1920s o premier band leader in Kansas City area o raided other bands for personnel o rival band—Blue Devils § 1929, lured Count Basie to his own band—took over main piano duties in Moten’s band § other musicians: Jimmy Rushing (vocalist), Hot Lips Page (trumpet), Eddie Durham (trombone/guitar), Ben Webster (tenor sax) • later became core of Count Basie Orchestra o known for riff-based arrangements § led to head arrangements—entirely memorized arrangements o first bandleader to use the term “swing” in a title of a piece of music § theme song: “The Moten Swing” o 1935, dies from a batched tonsillectomy § Count Basie takes over his band, eventually changes name to Count Basie Orchestra (one of the greatest big bands ever!) • Count Basie (1904-1984) o pianist, composer, arranger, best known as a bandleader o originally a stride-type pianist, Fats Waller style o redefined the way the piano was played in big bands—sparse comping, played very few notes, lots of space o very intense swing feeling o rhythm section one of the most revered parts of the band § called the All-American Rhythm Section § Freddie Green (guitarist) • revered as master of the rhythm guitar • known for unwavering sense of time § Walter Page (bass) • one of the first masters of the walking base style • one of the first to play clear pitches § Jo Jones (drums) o Basie also occasionally led smaller groups—Kansas City Five/Seven § often featured Lester Young (tenor sax) • parallel in influence to Coleman Hawkins, but very different style • light, floating sound—different from most other tenor players o 2 periodsstithin the band § 1 band was smaller, closer linked to Kansas City sound § post WWII, band gets bigger, arranging style different and fully written out § referred to as Old and New Testament Basie § “New Testament” arrangers writing music that is more harmonically complex • band is louder, sounds like significantly more people o Basie arrangers: § Neal Hefti • mostly in 1940s • transitional writer, begins to establish New Testament Basie sound • best known for ballad “Lil’ Darlin” § Frank Foster • most important in establishing New Testament sound • expands harmonic complexity § Quincy Jones • mostly in 1960s • enhanced New Testament sound • did lots of vocal arrangements, wrote most of Frank Sinatra’s music § Thad Jones • went on to lead his own band in late 1960s • even more daring harmonically than Basie wanted § Sammy Nestico • wrote most of the material from 1968 until Basie’s death o Basie vocalists: § Jimmy Rushing (1903-1972) • lured away from Blue Devils by Moten • “Mr. Five by Five” • known as a blues shouter—could sing in front of orchestra without a microphone § 34Joe Williams (1918-1999) • also steeped in blues tradition • had impeccable diction, unlike most blues vocalists • air of elegance o legacy band—band that continues to function after the leader has died § Basie band is most successful legacy band ever • still some members in the band that played with Basie § others: Glen Miller Orchestra, Duke Ellington Orchestra, Woody Herman Band • none have maintained as high of standards as Basie Orchestra Extra credit report Combos: • Instruments • Music they're playing • Improvisation-who improvises? • Remind you of what we've studied? Big Band: • Latin, Ellington, UCLA Jazz Orchestra Coleman Hawkins-"Body and Soul" • 2 choruses-plays no melody • Inspires Americans to take jazz in a whole new direction • Changes from the idea of playing melody, and then a segment of improv, and then back to melody • Eventually led to bebop Duke Ellington (1899-1974): • His music was both danceable and able to be used in concerts • Composer, arranger, bandleader, pianist • Originally from D.C. • Didn't have a typical jazz musician upbringing (bad childhood like most) o Raised in middle class household o Both parents are around • Some piano training • Got his nickname through childhood o Dressed fancy, neighborhood kids called him "Duke" • First band: Duke Ellington and his Washingtonians • Considered most prolific American composer • Credited with over 2000 compositions • "There should be a day where all musicians get together and thank Duke Ellington" -- Miles Davis • Duke's Orchestra o Reputation for paying his sidemen better than other bandleaders o Sidemen are critical § Not generic sidemen roles § All were capable improvisers § Virtuoso musicians w/distinctive musical personalities o Customized his arrangements to highlight his band members o Considered one of the most interesting bands in the Swing Era o Stayed together till his death in 1974 o Everyone wanted to play in his band § More interesting/challenging music § Better pay o Not as commercially successful as some other bands, but had greater longevity and artistic depth in his music § Extremely successful composer § Lots of radio hits § Used royalty income to subsidize paying his band members o Led his band for a little over 50 years (52..?) • Early to mid 40's: Blanton-Webster Band o Jimmy Blanton-bass § First to make the upright bass a solo instrument o Ben Webster-tenor sax o Around when Billy Strayhorn joined the band § Additional composer/arranger § Increased composition output • Duke the Pianist-Early Career o Stride style piano player o James P. Johnson was a big influence on him o Doesn't really use stride style in his band (not necessary) o Developed percussive/orchestral style of playing o Known for playing unusual harmonies-for the time o Influenced many pianists, including Thelonius Monk • Duke the Composer o Over 2000 compositions credited to him § Not sure if they're actually all completely composed by him o Considered one of the most prolific American composers • Songs/tunes o Mood Indigo, Sophisticated Lady, Don't get around much Anymore, Concerto for Cootie (Do Nothin' till you Hear from me) o Original theme song late 1920's-late 1930's: East St. Louis Toodle-oo § When he was playing at the Cotton Club in Harlem (whites only) § Sepia Panorama-shortest lived theme song-radio ban (ASCAP fees) • Hurt Ellington-great popularity over the radio § Take the A Train-composed by Billy Strayhorn • Theme song 1941-present • Official song of New York City • Only theme song not composed by Duke Ellington • Portraits: musically depicts scenes, feeling, person... o Portrait of Willy "the Lion" Smith o Portrait of Louis Armstrong o Portrait of Ella Fitzgerald o Harlem Airshaft o Warm Valley • Tone Poems: European classical song form o Tone Parallel to Harlem o Harlem o Collection: Black, Brown, and Beige-performed at Carnegie Hall (early 1940's)- first black band to perform at Carnegie Hall • Suites and Extended Works-longer pieces o New Orleans Suite o Queen's Suite § Composed for the queen of England § Only pressed one copy of it-presented to the queen of England § Not released commercially till after Duke's death o Far East Suite § Composed after tour of the middle east o Latin American Suite o The River-music for a ballet • Stage Shows o Jump for Joy o My People o TV Special-A Drum is a Woman • Film Scores o Anatomy of a Murder (1957) Sidemen: Clarinet (always a virtuoso clarinetist in the band): • Barney Digard o Early big band • Jimmy Hamilton (1917-1994) o Benny Goodman/classical sound on the clarinet Saxophone: • Johnny Hodges (alto/early days soprano) o Admired for how he played blues based songs/Strayhorn ballads • Harry Carney (bari) o Late 1920's-early 1930's and played till Duke's death • Ben Webster (tenor) o Soloist on "Cotton Tail" -listening list • Paul Gonsalves (tenor) o Adopted bebop style for improvisation • Al Sears (tenor) • Otto Hardwicke (alto) • Legendary Ellington saxophone section o Together for almost 20 years o Early 1950's-late1960's o Johnny Hodges (lead alto) o Russell Procope (alto/some clarinet) o Paul Gonsalves (tenor) o Jimmy Hamilton (tenor) o Harry Carney (bari/some clarinet/bass clarinet) Trumpet: • Cootie Williams o Known for his plunger work combined w/growls o Master of "growl trumpet" • Clark Terry o Started w/Count Basie • Ray Nance o Also played violin/sang o Idol was Louis Armstrong • Cat Anderson o Known for being a screamer • Rex Stewart • Shorty Baker • Bubber Miley Trombone: • Joe "Tricky Sam" Nanton o Pixie mute w/plunger o Snuck booze onto the band stand (might be how he got his nickname) • Lawrence Brown o Lead trombone • Juan Tizole o Earlier years (1930's) o Valve trombone • Britt Woodman o Improviser/sometimes lead Guitar • Fred Guy o Only guitarist o After he left, he wasn't replaced Bass • Jimmy Blanton Drums • Sunny Greer o Close friend of Duke from early on o Drummer up through Blanton-Webster band years • Sam Woodyard o Known for his swing feel-ride feel/rim tap o Called "chopping wood" • Louis Bellsone Composer/Orchestrator • Billy Strayhorn o Indispensible o Overlooked for his contributions to the band o Extremely similar composing style to Duke Listening • A Tisket, A Tasket-Ella Fitzgerald-Chick Webb Orchestra • Begin the Beguine-Artie Shaw • Sent for you Yesterday, Here you Come Today- • Take the A-Train-Duke Ellington Orchestra-Composed by Billy Strayhorn (theme song) • Sing, Sing, Sing-Benny Goodman • For Dancers Only-Jimmy Lunceford • Cotton Tail-composed by Duke Ellington • Only need to know composer if we've talked about them (Ellington/Fletcher Henderson=writers and bandleaders) Other bandleaders were mostly performers- Lunceford=conductor Final Exam: • Band leaders • Arrangers-especially Basie • Questions on Strange Fruit • Listening • Last 30-matching instruments-1st 15: (alto, tenor, piano, guitar, drums) • 2nd 15: Bass, trumpet, trombone, composer/arranger • Question on orchestration (check out book) • Jimmy Hamilton-clarinet+also played sax in Ellington's band • Barney Bizard-clarinet Billy Strayhorn • Duke described their relationship as: co-composing/arranging companionship o Could complete each other's words • 15 years younger than Duke • Raised in Pittsburgh • Grew up in extreme poverty • Family didn't have a piano o Visited an out of state aunt w/a piano, where he first played • Eventually bought a piano after working • While Ellington didn't have formal training, Strayhorn attended Conservatory in Pitt. (formally trained) o Considered a genius, and not only in music o Spoke French/was a good chef....? • Molded modern Duke Ellington sound (50's/60's) o Good/creative orchestrations o Influenced future composers • Perceived difference between dance and concert music o Developed how jazz orchestra plays to the audience • Used big band w/orchestra type mindset • Influenced: o Gil Evans-collaborated w/Miles Davis o Gerald Wilson-taught 50A before Harrison o Quincy Jones o Maria Schneider-modern composer o Charley Harrison.... • Played big part in suites • Strayhorn-Hodges known for ballads • Duke/Strayhorn met in Pitt.-Strayhorn had developed a reputation as a genius kid o Club owner introduced him to Duke when he was in town • Not an instant success in Ellington's band o Short/black/gay made it hard to be himself o Worked behind the scenes, kept out of public where homosexuality wasn't really accepted o Some band members were wary of him at first, but got over it after seeing his talent • ASCAP-banned members' music from radio, which ended Sepia Panorama as the theme song • Strayhorn's music could be played on the radio, as he wasn't yet a member of ASCAP • Mercer Ellington (Duke's son) also wrote music after the ASCAP radio ban • Strayhorn composed Take the A Train
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