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Ethnomusicology 50A Course Notes

by: Sarah Jay

Ethnomusicology 50A Course Notes Ethno 50A

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Sarah Jay

GPA 3.0

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These notes cover all of Ethnomusicology 50A up to Week 9. They also include information for the final essay.
Jazz in American Culture
Charley Harrison
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This 23 page Bundle was uploaded by Sarah Jay on Monday January 4, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Ethno 50A at a university taught by Charley Harrison in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views.


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Date Created: 01/04/16
My Attempt at 50A Notes WEEK 1 10/2/12 •   two components of jazz: 1) improvisation, 2) swing feeling •   musician either has melody/soloing role or accompanying role •   swing feeling has syncopation •   traditional form: melody à improv •   jazz started in New Orleans, mid- to late-1800s o   most cosmopolitan and musical city in America o   center of the slave trade o   originated from the slaves •   minstrel groups—first entertainment that people throughout the country knew o   overt racism, lively music 10/4/12 •   chord/harmonic progressions o   foundation of the melody •   two common song forms: AABA and 12 bar blues o   AABA most popular form in most genres until ‘60s •   skills of a good improviser: o   command of your instrument o   highly developed ear o   ability to compose, create a melody o   transcription •   early on had improvisers and non-improvisers—musicians only did one or the other o   in New Orleans, influenced by voodoo o   improvisers felt reading music would hurt their playing WEEK 2 10/9/10 Office Hours: Thursday 9:30-10:30 SMB2665 Instrument Roles •   solo role can be assumed by any melodic instrument o   drums solos became common mid-late ‘30s •   accompanying role usually from rhythm section—piano, guitar, bass, drums o   banjo more common than guitar in early jazz—louder than guitar o   piano/guitar—improvise chords in syncopated fashion, provide harmonies and rhythmic interest o   bass—primary time keeper, walking bass line outlines chords, usually improvises his part o   drums—right hand provides pulse and brings out swing feeling, left hand accents, feet control high hat and bass drum •   6 responsibilities of the soloist o   remember the chord changes, know harmonic structure o   create melodic phrases compatible with chord changes o   think ahead o   remember what he/she has already played o   stay within the character of the piece o   interact with other band members, esp. accompanying instruments Origins of Jazz •   born in New Orleans •   developed from popular music styles of the 1800s primarily for social dances •   became its own recognizable style in 1890s •   popular styles that influenced jazz: ragtime, blues, brass band music (American marches) •   Why New Orleans? o   great ethnic diversity §   major seaport, one of most important in US at the time à lots of traffic through N.O. and strong party atmosphere o   blues (also ragtime, brass bands) §   developed primarily from work songs of slaves à songs of street vendors §   had improvisation (ragtime did not) o   need for live music §   required for any kind of entertainment o   party atmosphere §   Storyville—one of main “hot spots”; red-light district §   fueled need for music à lots of employment for musicians •   led to blending of styles—musicians hired to play a style that wasn’t their primary one •   Buddy Bolden (1877-1931) trumpet o   first jazz musician (debatable) o   went insane •   Sidney Bechet, clarinet/soprano sax o   protégé from young age •   Jelly Roll Morten (1885-1941), pianist o   one of the first jazz composers o   called himself inventor of jazz, big ego o   travelled a lot à spreading of jazz music •   Freddie Keppard (1890-1933), trumpet 10/11/12 •   Why N.O. (review) o   ethnic diversity o   prevalent party atmosphere à lots of work for musicians à played genres that weren’t their forte •   Buddy Bolden (1877-1931) o   considered by most to be first musician to play jazz o   embellished music to express personal creativity o   spent later part of life in insane asylum—no musical contribution •   Sidney Bechet (1897-1959), clarinet & soprano sax •   Jelly Roll Morton (1885-1941), pianist/composer o   claimed to have invented jazz, impossible o   first to prove that jazz could be notated •   Freddie Keppard (1890-1933), trumpet o   next great trumpeter after Buddy Bolden o   note: trumpets were focal point at the time o   known for using mutes o   part of The Original Creole Orchestra, in L.A. and Chicago o   didn’t want others to copy his improve à sometimes covered hand while playing §   turned down chance to become first recorded jazz musician •   James Reese Europe, bandleader/composer/arranger o   ragtime, not jazz, musician §   ragtime was a piano-dominated genre o   most famous bandleader of ragtime period o   military bandleader during WWI o   preeminent orchestra leader in New York o   bandleader for the Castle’s band §   Castle’s started new ragtime dance craze §   wanted to show the world black music and skill of black musicians §   fox-trot paved the way for jazz •   Original Dixieland Jazz Band (ODJB) o   white N.O. musicians, relocated to Chicago §   note on race: lots of black musicians, but bands were very segregated •   musicians were more willing to integrate by teens/’20s •   ran into objections from society (ex: segregated venues) o   first jazz group to record §   released 1917 §   emphasis on comedy §   first jazz most Americans had ever heard o   called themselves creators of jazz "The Jazz Age" •   Roughly 1900-mid1920's •   Combos became popular. <7 musicians-trumpet, trombone, clarinet, piano, guitar/banjo, drums, bass (tuba, left hand, bass sax) o   Sax isn't popular yet o   Upright bass is too quiet during this time o   Bass played 2 beat feel (beats 1 and 3) •   New ideas and melodic embellishments become more important than the actual melody •   Jazz expanded rapidly in the 1920's •   Called Improvising: messing around, embellishing, jazzing up a song •   People like Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Sidney Bechet, and Jelly Roll Morton. •   Changed ragtime/blues/marching music into a sophisticated art •   Began to focus on soloists and tested new timbres/combinations of instruments •   Volstead Act-Began prohibition and drove alcohol underground. o   Night clubs drew in crowds for booze/more jazz •   New white fascination with black culture. o   Mamie Smith recorded "Crazy Blues", first blues record o   Led to the "race records" §   Made for blacks, yet whites bought them as well •   Better recording technology=more effort into recording albums Why was Chicago a big jazz city? o   Central location/access to waterways o   Thriving black market o   Brothels, speakeasies, nightclubs all needed music o   Music developed into edgy 4/4 rhythm w/staccato solo work •   Chicago Jazz Scene o   Segregation among musicians/audiences. o   Musicians developed the ability to play several simultaneous horn lines without clashing §   Trumpet-Melody §   Trombone-Tailgating §   Clarinet-Countermelodies o   Allowed more improvisation o   Original Dixieland Jazz Band §   1st jazz group to record §   White New Orleans musicians (originated in 1916) §   Recording was made in New York in 1917 (Livery Stable Blues) o   King Oliver's Creole Jazz Band §   Black New Orleans musicians §   1st black group to record, 1923 (Dippermouth Blues) §   2nd trumpet player was Louis Armstrong (Dipper/Dippermouth) •   Embodiment of jazz music •   Turned jazz into an art form •   From "The Battlefield" in N.O. •   Mom was 16 and prostituted herself, and dad left the family o   Chicago School-3 groups of musicians §   Black musicians from New Orleans §   White musicians from New Orleans §   Austin High Gang (successful musically from a young age) o   Bix Beiderbecke-From Iowa. Known for well constructed solos and distinctive town. Died alone from acute alcoholism in 1931 at age 28. o   Earl Hines-Revolutionized the way piano fit into jazz. Created Trumpet Style (notes that cut through the sound of the orchestra). §   Worked w/Armstrong a lot from 1926-28. Called "Hot Five" and recorded "West End Blues" o   As the Great Depression came and prohibition ended, older players retired or moved to new cities. Kansas City o   Economically important city o   Bands from the South, Southwest, Great Plains, and Midwest came by for local dates or as a stopover where they played cutting contests (piano players dueling) o   Known for big band jazz w/blues of south and rich with riffs/rhythmic drive o   Lots of debauchery=lots of jobs for musicians (not unlike Chicago) •   Big Names in Kansas City o   Bennie Moten-Studied with former pupils of Scott Joplin. Started playing in the city as early as 1916. Recorded for the Victor Company "Kansas City Shuffle" "South" have heavy/rolling rhythm, prominent banjo/tuba, and novelty effects. o   Music from this band (Moten Band) was popular, but old fashioned. o   William Basie (Count Basie) took over Moten's piano spot so he could lead. o   Last recordings by the band were "Toby" "Lafayette" and "Moten Swing" §   Immensely popular-brought the 1930's into the swing era. New York City •   Extremely diverse (Harlem, Jewish Ghetto on the Lower East Side, Irish/Italians) •   "Original Memphis Five" jazz band was made of 3 Italians, a Jew, and a white protestant. First Important Big Band •   Led by Fletcher Henderson (classical pianist from Georgia) •   Coleman Hawkins-pioneered how sax was played •   Louis Armstrong-amazing sound, swingin' rhythm, and natural genius made him famous •   Main competition: Sydney Bechet •   Bechet vs. Armstrong=great music, although they didn't like each other. Shootout rather than cooperation. •   Stopped bottom of pg.116 Early Jazz vs. Ragtime •   Early Jazz: o   Much of each performance was improvised o   Looser feel in the music=more attractive to dancers o   More natural swing o   Starting to generate more original repertoire §   Composed to be played by a jazz group o   Collectively improvised format led to a more complex product (perception) o   Jazz was perceived as more exciting. Big 3 of the Jazz Age •   Joe "King" Oliver (trumpet/band leader) •   Kid Ory (trombone/composer) •   Jelly Roll Morton (piano/composer) •   (Buddy Bolden preceded all three of them) •   Post big 3 o   Sydney Bechet o   Louis Armstrong (protégé of King Oliver) o   Bix Beiderbecke o   James P. Johnson o   Fats Waller, Willy "the Lion" Smith, Early Hines, James Reese Europe More Jazz Age... •   Be able to relate names to instrument type •   Early Piano o   New York=most important for development of piano o   NY, NJ, Pittsburgh....etc. o   Often unaccompanied o   Developed directly from ragtime o   Didn't require much reading/memorization due to large amount of improvisation §   Only needed to memorize melody/chord changes o   Stride piano: has large leaps in the left hand and syncopated figures in the right hand (one of the most difficult types of jazz piano player) o   Few stride players today (faded going into the swing era) o   Jelly Roll Morton §   Not a stride player (before it came around) §   King Porter Stomp-most important arrangement (midterm listening) §   Performed both ragtime and jazz §   Incorporated the jazz/swing feeling §   Led a septet called "The Red Hot Peppers" §   Electrifying/Engaging performer o   James P. Johnson (stride player) §   1894-1955. Born in Jersey but spent most of his career in NY §   East Coast piano styling rather than N.O. styling. (less march-like/more harmonically complex) §   One of the most influential/respected pianists of his time §   Helped smooth the transition from ragtime to jazz §   "Father of Stride Piano" §   His style spread stride all over-1st stride player broadcast over the radio §   Influenced Duke Ellington o   Willie "the Lion" Smith (stride player) §   1897-1973 §   Cutting contests w/James P. Johnson a lot o   Thomas "Fats" Waller (mostly songwriter besides stride piano) §   1904-1943 §   Known for his technique §   Influenced Basie, Brubeck, many others o   Earl "Fatha" Hines (pianist/band leader) §   1903-1983-Born in Pittsburgh and moved to Chicago in 1924 §   Influenced piano styles of 30's/40's §   Not a big stride player §   Recorded with Louis Armstrong West End Blues §   Credited with altering the way piano players improvise (trumpet style phrasing) •   Boogie-Woogie-twist on stride piano playing o   Subdivision in the left hand o   Pete Johnson, Albert Ammonds, Meade Lux-Lewis, "Cow-Cow" Davenport Trumpet Players: Louis Armstrong-African American out of NO •   Trumpeter, Vocalist, composer, bandleader, all around entertainer •   One of the most influential figures in all of jazz history •   "pops, satchmo (satchel mouth), dippermouth" •   Father of jazz •   Important recordings (Late 1920's) w/"Hot 5" and "Hot 7" o   Kid Ory (trombone) and Johnny Dodds (clarinet) o   Happened in Chicago o   Created the model for "Swing Era" and swing music in general o   Most widely imitated improviser prior to the 1940's (for all instruments) §   Influenced Johnny Hodges •   Muskrat ramble (Ory)/Struttin' with some BBQ (Hardin): Dodds (clarinet), Ory (composer/trombone), Armstrong (cornet), Johnny St. Cir (banjo), Lil Hardin-Armstrong (piano, composer) o   Hot 5 •   Historic Contributions: o   One of the 1st great soloists in jazz history (new stress on solo improv instead of group improv) §   Showed the solo improvisation could have a stirring effect o   One of the first to refine the jazz rhythmic concept §   Removed stiffness of ragtime §   Incorporated jazz/swing feel §   Added grace/majesty? to his playing o   Achieved an unmatched mastery on his instrument and used it to craft melodies that were hard for others to imitate o   Brought a sense of drama to music §   Helped him be a great soloist §   Used double time breaks §   Extended upper range on the trumpet o   Took melodic embellishment farther than his contemporaries §   Could improvise a new melody-like line as strong as the actual melody o   Singing style influenced countless others §   Billy Holiday, Bing Crosby, Frank Sinatra, etc... §   Invented scat singing (apparently by accident) Bix Beiderbecke-White from Davenport, Iowa •   1903-1931 •   Trumpet, Composer, Pianist •   Doesn't fit into a category for playing style •   Emerged around the same time as Armstrong (different in sound, style, ethnicity) •   1924-First recording with the Wolverine Orchestra •   1927-Featured soloist w/Paul Whiteman o   Band leader towards the late jazz age, w/large ensembles before they were popular •   Cooler sound than Armstrong...more reflective •   Didn't display the virtuosity of Armstrong (but who did?) •   Blended new jazz sounds w/older ragtime styles as well as contemporary classical (French impressionists-rich harmonic pallets) •   Frankie Trumbauer (C-melody saxophone-considered a hobby instrument)-teamed up in 1927 as co-band leader o   Singin' the Blues Clarinet •   More common than saxophone during the Jazz Age (changes during the Swing Era) •   Used to play countermelodies (trumpet on the melody) •   Solos weren't as "dramatic" as trumpet solos •   Johnny Dodds-1892-1940 (N.O.) o   From N.O. but moved to Chicago o   Side man on a lot of Hot 5/7 recordings o   Edgy sounds w/fast vibrato+aggresive solos o   Recorded w/King Oliver before Armstrong •   Jimmy Noone-1895-1944 (N.O.) o   Greater command of his instrument than Dodds o   Polished sound-dark/warm o   Best New Orleans clarinetist (nice and opinionated) o   Inspired Benny Goodman •   Sydney Bechet-1897-1959 (N.O.) o   Played clarinet and soprano o   One of the most highly regarded jazz musicians of the period §   Up there w/Louis Armstrong §   Only musician that could "keep pace" w/him Trombone •   Used to fill in gaps in the melody (hah) •   Considered like the trumpet as improv goes o   Less intricate solos due to limitations of a slide o   7 positions •   Kid Ory-1886-1973 o   One of the first noteworthy New Orleans trombonists o   Husky tone in his playing w/an assertive presence o   Recorded w/Armstrong ("Struttin' with some BBQ", "Muskrat Ramble") •   Jack Teagarden-1905-1964 (Texas) o   Smooth, full tone o   "prettier" than most other early trombonists o   Came to N.O. originally in search of work o   White Guy o   Big deal when he performed on stage w/Louis Armstrong Rhythm Section •   Guitar/Banjo o   Rhythm style o   Job to play chords o   Strum on each beat o   Don't have guitar solos yet o   Eddie Lang-1902-1933 (Out of Philly) §   Played w/Beiderbecke and Trumbauer §   White Guy o   Lonnie Johnson 1899-1970 §   Bluesy/Edgy sound §   Known to have played w/Armstrong on occasion §   Incorporated slides on guitar o   Blind Willy Dunn (Pseudonym for Eddie Lang) and his Gin Bottle Four §   Landmark recording in 1929 §   Eddie Lang+Lonnie Johnson combined §   "Handful of Riffs" §   First recording w/Caucasian and African-Americans working together •   Bass o   Assumed by tuba, bass saxophone, or piano o   Slowly start to see the upright bass-takes over during the Swing Era o   Played on the 1st and 3rd beat of every measure-no walking bass till later •   Piano o   Didn't pound out chords like guitar o   More sustained o   Louder than the acoustic guitar o   Could sometimes create countermelodies, like clarinet •   Drums o   Poorly heard in early recordings due to the recording technology o   Provided rhythmic support for melodies played by the wind players o   Baby Dodds (Yes, brother of Johnny Dodds) 1898-1959 (N.O.) §   Credited w/coming up w/the ride rhythm §   Still the most commonly played rhythm by drummers today §   Basis of the jazz/swing feel on drums o   Zutty Singleton-1898-1975 (N.O.) §   First to use brushes §   First to play the kick drum on all 4 beats of a bar •   Helped bridge into the swing era •   Drove the beat for the dancers Vocalists •   Bessie Smith 1894-1937 o   "Empress of the Blues" o   Influenced generations of vocalists (possibly even Armstrong) o   Known for pop as well as blues o   Participated in the Vaudeville Circuit o   Recorded w/Armstrong, James P. Johnson, Benny Goodman, others o   Could hear her over a band w/the sheer power of her voice •   Ma Rainey 1886-1939 o   One of the earliest known professional blues singers o   One of the first of her generation to record o   "Mother of the Blues" o   Influenced Bessie Smith •   Ethyl Waters 1896-1977 o   Born out of a rape o   Childhood made her tough o   Light/clear voice that distinguished her from other vocalists of her time o   Brought a hybrid of blues/Tin Pan Alley music to America for the first time o   Put a modern spin on older songs o   1st black woman to headline at "The Palace" in New York o   Proved it was possible for black singers to appeal to any audience •   Muddy Waters (McKinley Morganfield) 1913-1983 o   "Father of Chicago Blues" o   Considered one of the greatest blues men of all time Midterm Review 1.   B False 2.   Honky Tonk Train Blues-Meade Lux Lewis •   Boogie Woogie 3.   False- Louis on Cornet composed by Kid Ory-Muskrat Ramble 4.   Blues? False-Ma Rainey (See See Rider) 5.   King Porter Stomp-Jelly Rolly Morton 6.   West End Blues-Louis Armstrong (False) 7.   Dippermouth Blues (King Oliver's Creole Jazz Band) False Swing Era (1930's-early 1940's) •   Jazz enjoyed its greatest popularity ever (a lot of dancing gigs) •   Also known as the Big Band Era o   Departure from combos •   Still many great soloists, just smaller percentage out of the musicians overall •   Changes that differentiate swing from the Jazz Age o   Big bands are the preferred ensemble o   Saxophone takes over for the clarinet o   Upright bass is now the most common bass instrument o   Smoother rhythmic feel-less rigid interpretation of time §   Made the music more appealing to dancers •   Big Band Instrumentation o   Rhythm section (3-4)-Guitar, drums, piano, upright bass o   Trumpet section (3-4) o   Trombone section (3-4) o   Saxophone section (as many as 5) o   Within each section: §   Lead Player •   Brass-stands in the middle •   Lead Trumpet-stylistic leader for the entire band •   Saxophone-Lead=1st alto §   Soloist •   Generally 2nd chair (brass) and 1st tenor (saxophones) §   Section Players •   Everyone else-filling space-add depth to band's sound •   Big bands brought the need for arrangements o   Collective improv doesn't work with a group that size o   Arrangers became immensely important •   Arrangers: o   Fletcher Henderson o   Duke Ellington •   How the rhythm section changed: o   Rhythm guitar-chord on each beat of each measure o   Piano-doesn't have to fill up as much harmonic space-played occasional syncopated chords/fills-no need for stride playing o   Bass-2 beat changed to the walking bass pattern-primarily a background instrument o   Drums-keep a steady beat for the dancers "felt but not heard" §   Keep the energy going-not flashy §   1st two famous drummers to actually make a name for themselves §   Chick Webb §   Gene Krupa •   Most swing era bands were known about the name of their leaders •   Band Leaders: o   Fletcher Henderson* o   Jimmy Lunceford o   Paul Whiteman* o   Count Basie o   Duke Ellington* o   Benny Goodman o   Glen Miller o   Jimmy Dorsey o   Tommy Dorsey o   Woody Herman o   Andy Kirk o   Artie Shaw o   Harry James o   Cab Calloway o   Chick Webb o   Lionel Hamptont o   *=helped bridge the gap from the Jazz Age to the Swing Era o   Henderson/Ellington emerged in the 1920's and grew in size/sophistication •   Coleman Hawkins-how he treats the melody of Body and Soul Noteworthy Musicians Trumpet: •   Roy Eldridge (1911-1989) o   "Little Jazz" o   The virtuoso trumpet player of the swing era o   Challengers would always go after him in cutting contests o   Link between (pre)swing and modern jazz "bop" o   Powerful sound w/high register+agility o   Ability to vary his tone/vibrato with the style of the song Trombone: •   Jack Teagarden o   Remained active in the swing era-changed his playing style o   Kept playing in combos •   Tommy Dorsey (1905-1956) o   Bandleader (front man), featured soloistgo o   Brother of saxophonist Jimmy Dorsey o   Co-led a band named the Dorsey Brothers §   Split up over and argument about....tempo? o   Responsible for making the trombone a melody carrying instrument •   Lawrence Brown (1907-1988) o   Best known as lead trombone for Duke Ellington's Orchestra o   Influential trombone soloist Saxophone: •   Coleman Hawkins (1904-1969) o   Tenor Sax o   Considered to be the 1st important saxophone soloist o   Big sound (lot of air/robust tone) •   Don Byas (1912-1972) o   Tenor o   Known for using a greater harmonic sophistication than his contemporaries §   Implied there were more chords present than were being played §   Increase his challenge when soloing o   Liked to play double time •   Benny Carter (1907-2003) o   Alto-doubled on trumpet o   One of the most influential altos of the swing era o   Graceful and light style o   Highly respected composer and arranger (for Count Basie, film/TV) •   Lester Young (1909-1959) o   Tenor o   Revered soloist o   Light/flowing sound-kind of like an alto §   Admired the playing of Frankie Trumbauer o   Featured soloist in the Count Basie Orchestra Pianists: •   Earl Hines •   Art Tatum (1905-1956) o   One of the most admired pianists ever §   Considered to be a genius on the keyboard o   Melodically and rhythmically inventive o   Spontaneous reharmonizations §   Changes the harmonic structure on the spot §   Still functions in a forward moving fashion and resolves o   Always sounded great, no matter how bad of a piano he had to play on §   Could learn every bad key in the time it took to sit down •   Teddy Wilson (1912-1986) o   Lighter style than most players §   Lacked heavy-handedness (specifically of stride players) o   Fleet smoothness and streamlined quality o   Sideman for a time with Benny Goodman •   Nat "King" Cole (1919-1965) o   Led the famous "King Cole Trio" §   Piano first, Bass, Guitar §   Lack of drums provided flexibility to play in smaller clubs o   Horn-like improviser o   Influenced more future generations than he's credited with o   Became a superstar vocalist later §   Causes his piano playing to be overlooked •   Errol Garner (1923-1977) o   Can be considered swing, but many believe him to be part of "bebop" o   Well known for composing "Misty" •   Mary Lou Williams (1910-1981) o   Style evolved over time §   Started as a boogie woogie pianist §   Became significant in Swing and later periods o   Composer/Arranger-wrote for a lot of popular big bands •   Milt Buckner (1915-1977) o   Known for "block chording" Guitar •   Charlie Christian (1916-1942) o   Pioneer of the amplified guitar o   First great single note guitar soloist §   Changed role of the guitar o   Influenced every guitarist to follow o   1st guitar feature w/big band: Solo Flight -Benny Goodman's Orchestra •   Django Reinhardt (1910-1953) o   Belgian gypsy guitarist o   Shine o   Played acoustic guitar in a band where it could still be heard §   Hot club music §   Acoustic guitar, violin, acoustic bass, possibly accordion o   Only had use of two fingers on his left hand Vocalists •   Billie Holiday (Lady Day) 1915-1959 o   Influenced by Louis Armstrong and blues singers o   One of the most influential jazz singers to emerge after 1930 o   "Once she sang it, she owned it" §   Due to her unique twists on songs §   Conveyed emotional depth/sincerity o   Never delivered a melody straight §   Took rhythmic liberties o   Performed with many of the greats §   Benny Goodman §   Artie Shaw §   Count Basie Orchestra §   Lester Young o   Grew up in poverty and suffered abuses as a child §   Influenced how she is able to convey depth in her music §   "Strange Fruit" lyrics describe a lynching o   Relatively small vocal range with a weathered tone •   Ella Fitzgerald (The First Lady of Song) 1918-1996 o   Considered to be one of the best vocalists of the 20th century o   Superb swing feel that rivaled horn players o   Clear tone with a large vocal range o   Flawless pitch o   Proficient scat singer •   Frank Sinatra 1915-1998 o   Began career by singing in a band led by Harry James and started with Tommy Dorsey o   Went on to influence generations of vocalists o   Recorded with everybody o   "Blue Skies" •   Nat "King" Cole 1919-1965 o   Began singing in his trio, moved on to big bands o   Most recording were done in Los Angeles, in the Capital Record Building §   The House that Nat (and Frank) Built Big bands/Leaders •   Paul Whiteman 1890-1967 o   Band leader, arranger, violinist o   One of the earliest big band leaders-predated the swing era o   Mostly functioned in the jazz age o   Dubbed "King of Jazz" at some point o   Thought music could be improved by orchestrating the best of it with formal arrangements §   Resulted in limited improvisation in his music o   Sought out talent to incorporate into his organization o   Commissioned "Rhapsody in Blue" •   Fletcher Henderson1897-1952 o   Band leader, pianist, composer, arranger, conductor o   Formed his band in 1922 §   Before beginning of the Swing Era o   Helped smooth the transition into Swing Era o   For a time, ideas of arrangement were heavily influenced by Whiteman §   When Armstrong joined, increased improvisation o   In the 1920's, everyone wanted to sound like him o   Sidemen: §   Louis Armstrong §   Coleman Hawkins (tenor big sound §   Benny Carter (alto) o   "Sugar Foot Stomp" o   "King Porter Stomp" (updated arrangement) •   Jimmie Lunceford 1902-1947 o   Played alto, but didn't play with his band o   Organized Jimmy Lunceford Orchestra in 1927 o   Vaudeville and comedy had a distinct part in his stage presence §   Not just music, but all around entertainment §   Often included costumes, skits, and jabs at mainstream white bands (Whiteman) o   Considered one of the most polished bands §   Able to compete with Ellington and Basie o   Earlier demise than other swing bands §   Didn't give raises, lost a lot of talent o   All of the swing band leaders had personnel issues (paying their members) •   Benny Goodman (King of Swing) 1909-1986 o   Virtuoso clarinetist o   Influenced by Jimmy Noone o   Reached massive commercial success o   First band leader to successfully integrate his band o   Led a small group and big band o   1929-Made a deal with Fletcher Henderson §   Bought Henderson's band book §   Hired Henderson's (African American) band to train his men on how to play the new music §   Vaulted him to superstardom in the 1930's o   "Sing, Sing, Sing" o   "Seven Come Eleven" •   Artie Shaw 1910-2004 o   Virtuoso clarinetist, overshadowed a bit by Goodman o   Dedicated fanbase o   Dubbed "King of the Clarinet" by his fans o   Said that Benny Goodman played clarinet, and he played music o   1938-Hired Billie Holiday, who left after facing hostility from crowds o   "Begin the Beguine" o   "Stardust" o   "Moonglow" o   Sidemen: §   Billie Holiday §   Roy Eldridge §   Mel Tormay (vocalist) §   Buddy Rich •   Glen Miller 1904-1944 o   White trombone player/band leader (arranger))(composer) o   Played trombone in pit orchestras for Broadway shows early on §   Alongside Benny Goodman and others o   Later became trombonist/arranger for the Dorsey Brothers o   1936/37-fledgling band leader o   1938-began making recordings for the RCA Victor label §   Becoming a more familiar name o   1942-Decided to join the war effort §   Put in charge of a modernized military swing band §   Travelled around visiting troops in Europe to raise morale o   Still remnants of that group today-Airmen of Note o   "Moonlight Serenade" §   Band theme song/end of the concert o   "In the Mood" o   "Chattanooga Choo-Choo" o   "Pennsylvania 6-5000" •   Stan Kenton 1911-1979 o   Pianist, composer, arranger o   Played in other bands to get his start o   Became a leader in 1941 (tail end of swing era) §   Called "Artistry in Rhythm" o   Competent pianist o   Influenced by Earl Hines o   1950's onward, employed other composers to write for his band o   Highly supportive of jazz education from an early age §   Willed his whole band book to the University of North Texas Kansas City Jazz •   more blues influence than in New York swing •   lots of territory bands, estimated 5000 o   not popular names o   operated only in a certain regions •   Bennie Moten (1894-1935) o   pianist o   first trio in 1922, expanded to big band in 1926 (Bennie Moten and his Kansas City Orchestra) o   several bands touring under his name in 1920s o   premier band leader in Kansas City area o   raided other bands for personnel o   rival band—Blue Devils §   1929, lured Count Basie to his own band—took over main piano duties in Moten’s band §   other musicians: Jimmy Rushing (vocalist), Hot Lips Page (trumpet), Eddie Durham (trombone/guitar), Ben Webster (tenor sax) •   later became core of Count Basie Orchestra o   known for riff-based arrangements §   led to head arrangements—entirely memorized arrangements o   first bandleader to use the term “swing” in a title of a piece of music §   theme song: “The Moten Swing” o   1935, dies from a batched tonsillectomy §   Count Basie takes over his band, eventually changes name to Count Basie Orchestra (one of the greatest big bands ever!) •   Count Basie (1904-1984) o   pianist, composer, arranger, best known as a bandleader o   originally a stride-type pianist, Fats Waller style o   redefined the way the piano was played in big bands—sparse comping, played very few notes, lots of space o   very intense swing feeling o   rhythm section one of the most revered parts of the band §   called the All-American Rhythm Section §   Freddie Green (guitarist) •   revered as master of the rhythm guitar •   known for unwavering sense of time §   Walter Page (bass) •   one of the first masters of the walking base style •   one of the first to play clear pitches §   Jo Jones (drums) o   Basie also occasionally led smaller groups—Kansas City Five/Seven §   often featured Lester Young (tenor sax) •   parallel in influence to Coleman Hawkins, but very different style •   light, floating sound—different from most other tenor players o   2 periodsstithin the band §   1 band was smaller, closer linked to Kansas City sound §   post WWII, band gets bigger, arranging style different and fully written out §   referred to as Old and New Testament Basie §   “New Testament” arrangers writing music that is more harmonically complex •   band is louder, sounds like significantly more people o   Basie arrangers: §   Neal Hefti •   mostly in 1940s •   transitional writer, begins to establish New Testament Basie sound •   best known for ballad “Lil’ Darlin” §   Frank Foster •   most important in establishing New Testament sound •   expands harmonic complexity §   Quincy Jones •   mostly in 1960s •   enhanced New Testament sound •   did lots of vocal arrangements, wrote most of Frank Sinatra’s music §   Thad Jones •   went on to lead his own band in late 1960s •   even more daring harmonically than Basie wanted §   Sammy Nestico •   wrote most of the material from 1968 until Basie’s death o   Basie vocalists: §   Jimmy Rushing (1903-1972) •   lured away from Blue Devils by Moten •   “Mr. Five by Five” •   known as a blues shouter—could sing in front of orchestra without a microphone §   34Joe Williams (1918-1999) •   also steeped in blues tradition •   had impeccable diction, unlike most blues vocalists •   air of elegance o   legacy band—band that continues to function after the leader has died §   Basie band is most successful legacy band ever •   still some members in the band that played with Basie §   others: Glen Miller Orchestra, Duke Ellington Orchestra, Woody Herman Band •   none have maintained as high of standards as Basie Orchestra Extra credit report Combos: •   Instruments •   Music they're playing •   Improvisation-who improvises? •   Remind you of what we've studied? Big Band: •   Latin, Ellington, UCLA Jazz Orchestra Coleman Hawkins-"Body and Soul" •   2 choruses-plays no melody •   Inspires Americans to take jazz in a whole new direction •   Changes from the idea of playing melody, and then a segment of improv, and then back to melody •   Eventually led to bebop Duke Ellington (1899-1974): •   His music was both danceable and able to be used in concerts •   Composer, arranger, bandleader, pianist •   Originally from D.C. •   Didn't have a typical jazz musician upbringing (bad childhood like most) o   Raised in middle class household o   Both parents are around •   Some piano training •   Got his nickname through childhood o   Dressed fancy, neighborhood kids called him "Duke" •   First band: Duke Ellington and his Washingtonians •   Considered most prolific American composer •   Credited with over 2000 compositions •   "There should be a day where all musicians get together and thank Duke Ellington" -- Miles Davis •   Duke's Orchestra o   Reputation for paying his sidemen better than other bandleaders o   Sidemen are critical §   Not generic sidemen roles §   All were capable improvisers §   Virtuoso musicians w/distinctive musical personalities o   Customized his arrangements to highlight his band members o   Considered one of the most interesting bands in the Swing Era o   Stayed together till his death in 1974 o   Everyone wanted to play in his band §   More interesting/challenging music §   Better pay o   Not as commercially successful as some other bands, but had greater longevity and artistic depth in his music §   Extremely successful composer §   Lots of radio hits §   Used royalty income to subsidize paying his band members o   Led his band for a little over 50 years (52..?) •   Early to mid 40's: Blanton-Webster Band o   Jimmy Blanton-bass §   First to make the upright bass a solo instrument o   Ben Webster-tenor sax o   Around when Billy Strayhorn joined the band §   Additional composer/arranger §   Increased composition output •   Duke the Pianist-Early Career o   Stride style piano player o   James P. Johnson was a big influence on him o   Doesn't really use stride style in his band (not necessary) o   Developed percussive/orchestral style of playing o   Known for playing unusual harmonies-for the time o   Influenced many pianists, including Thelonius Monk •   Duke the Composer o   Over 2000 compositions credited to him §   Not sure if they're actually all completely composed by him o   Considered one of the most prolific American composers •   Songs/tunes o   Mood Indigo, Sophisticated Lady, Don't get around much Anymore, Concerto for Cootie (Do Nothin' till you Hear from me) o   Original theme song late 1920's-late 1930's: East St. Louis Toodle-oo §   When he was playing at the Cotton Club in Harlem (whites only) §   Sepia Panorama-shortest lived theme song-radio ban (ASCAP fees) •   Hurt Ellington-great popularity over the radio §   Take the A Train-composed by Billy Strayhorn •   Theme song 1941-present •   Official song of New York City •   Only theme song not composed by Duke Ellington •   Portraits: musically depicts scenes, feeling, person... o   Portrait of Willy "the Lion" Smith o   Portrait of Louis Armstrong o   Portrait of Ella Fitzgerald o   Harlem Airshaft o   Warm Valley •   Tone Poems: European classical song form o   Tone Parallel to Harlem o   Harlem o   Collection: Black, Brown, and Beige-performed at Carnegie Hall (early 1940's)- first black band to perform at Carnegie Hall •   Suites and Extended Works-longer pieces o   New Orleans Suite o   Queen's Suite §   Composed for the queen of England §   Only pressed one copy of it-presented to the queen of England §   Not released commercially till after Duke's death o   Far East Suite §   Composed after tour of the middle east o   Latin American Suite o   The River-music for a ballet •   Stage Shows o   Jump for Joy o   My People o   TV Special-A Drum is a Woman •   Film Scores o   Anatomy of a Murder (1957) Sidemen: Clarinet (always a virtuoso clarinetist in the band): •   Barney Digard o   Early big band •   Jimmy Hamilton (1917-1994) o   Benny Goodman/classical sound on the clarinet Saxophone: •   Johnny Hodges (alto/early days soprano) o   Admired for how he played blues based songs/Strayhorn ballads •   Harry Carney (bari) o   Late 1920's-early 1930's and played till Duke's death •   Ben Webster (tenor) o   Soloist on "Cotton Tail" -listening list •   Paul Gonsalves (tenor) o   Adopted bebop style for improvisation •   Al Sears (tenor) •   Otto Hardwicke (alto) •   Legendary Ellington saxophone section o   Together for almost 20 years o   Early 1950's-late1960's o   Johnny Hodges (lead alto) o   Russell Procope (alto/some clarinet) o   Paul Gonsalves (tenor) o   Jimmy Hamilton (tenor) o   Harry Carney (bari/some clarinet/bass clarinet) Trumpet: •   Cootie Williams o   Known for his plunger work combined w/growls o   Master of "growl trumpet" •   Clark Terry o   Started w/Count Basie •   Ray Nance o   Also played violin/sang o   Idol was Louis Armstrong •   Cat Anderson o   Known for being a screamer •   Rex Stewart •   Shorty Baker •   Bubber Miley Trombone: •   Joe "Tricky Sam" Nanton o   Pixie mute w/plunger o   Snuck booze onto the band stand (might be how he got his nickname) •   Lawrence Brown o   Lead trombone •   Juan Tizole o   Earlier years (1930's) o   Valve trombone •   Britt Woodman o   Improviser/sometimes lead Guitar •   Fred Guy o   Only guitarist o   After he left, he wasn't replaced Bass •   Jimmy Blanton Drums •   Sunny Greer o   Close friend of Duke from early on o   Drummer up through Blanton-Webster band years •   Sam Woodyard o   Known for his swing feel-ride feel/rim tap o   Called "chopping wood" •   Louis Bellsone Composer/Orchestrator •   Billy Strayhorn o   Indispensible o   Overlooked for his contributions to the band o   Extremely similar composing style to Duke Listening •   A Tisket, A Tasket-Ella Fitzgerald-Chick Webb Orchestra •   Begin the Beguine-Artie Shaw •   Sent for you Yesterday, Here you Come Today- •   Take the A-Train-Duke Ellington Orchestra-Composed by Billy Strayhorn (theme song) •   Sing, Sing, Sing-Benny Goodman •   For Dancers Only-Jimmy Lunceford •   Cotton Tail-composed by Duke Ellington •   Only need to know composer if we've talked about them (Ellington/Fletcher Henderson=writers and bandleaders) Other bandleaders were mostly performers- Lunceford=conductor Final Exam: •   Band leaders •   Arrangers-especially Basie •   Questions on Strange Fruit •   Listening •   Last 30-matching instruments-1st 15: (alto, tenor, piano, guitar, drums) •   2nd 15: Bass, trumpet, trombone, composer/arranger •   Question on orchestration (check out book) •   Jimmy Hamilton-clarinet+also played sax in Ellington's band •   Barney Bizard-clarinet Billy Strayhorn •   Duke described their relationship as: co-composing/arranging companionship o   Could complete each other's words •   15 years younger than Duke •   Raised in Pittsburgh •   Grew up in extreme poverty •   Family didn't have a piano o   Visited an out of state aunt w/a piano, where he first played •   Eventually bought a piano after working •   While Ellington didn't have formal training, Strayhorn attended Conservatory in Pitt. (formally trained) o   Considered a genius, and not only in music o   Spoke French/was a good chef....? •   Molded modern Duke Ellington sound (50's/60's) o   Good/creative orchestrations o   Influenced future composers •   Perceived difference between dance and concert music o   Developed how jazz orchestra plays to the audience •   Used big band w/orchestra type mindset •   Influenced: o   Gil Evans-collaborated w/Miles Davis o   Gerald Wilson-taught 50A before Harrison o   Quincy Jones o   Maria Schneider-modern composer o   Charley Harrison.... •   Played big part in suites •   Strayhorn-Hodges known for ballads •   Duke/Strayhorn met in Pitt.-Strayhorn had developed a reputation as a genius kid o   Club owner introduced him to Duke when he was in town •   Not an instant success in Ellington's band o   Short/black/gay made it hard to be himself o   Worked behind the scenes, kept out of public where homosexuality wasn't really accepted o   Some band members were wary of him at first, but got over it after seeing his talent •   ASCAP-banned members' music from radio, which ended Sepia Panorama as the theme song •   Strayhorn's music could be played on the radio, as he wasn't yet a member of ASCAP •   Mercer Ellington (Duke's son) also wrote music after the ASCAP radio ban •   Strayhorn composed Take the A Train


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