Testing music notes: Aniruddh D. Patel
Testing music notes: Aniruddh D. Patel Psych 2-01
Popular in Intro to psych stats
Popular in Department
This 8 page Bundle was uploaded by Rebecca Notetaker on Wednesday January 6, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Psych 2-01 at University of California - Santa Cruz taught by Dr. A. Dahl in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 51 views.
Reviews for Testing music notes: Aniruddh D. Patel
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 01/06/16
Aniruddh D. Patel 1/6/16 7:05 PM Hidden connections between the evolution of music and language - dept of psychology, Tufts University - What do we know about music? - Ancient – oldest instrument- bone flute (40,000 years ago) - Last ice age, other humans here - Did Neanderthals make music? - Music defined us rather than Neanderthals - Ancient - Universal - Powerful - Diverse - Like language is uses complex sounds and sequences - Both have - Rhythm - Melody - Syntax - Convey affect - But have many salient differences - How do they relate to evolution? What came first? Language or music? - Darwin – music came first - To what extent have our brains been specialized for language or musc? - Pinker (97) evolution specialized out brains for language, but music is purely a cultural invention - William James- music is a bi product of having a hearing product (ears) - Tomilnson (2015)- bio cultural coevolution - Rise of cognitive neuroscience - New methods for studying and old question - What do music and language share as mental system - A ongoing debate, driving empirical research - We can use music as an aid to learning language - Music and language over lap - 3 hidden connections between processing of music and language. - Instrumental music and ordinary speech - Different, how they sound, what they express, how they are structured - Music repeats a lot and we enjoy it – but if it were to do that while speaking people would think we are crazy - Music vs musicality - Music is culturally diverse, historically contingent - Musicality: cognitive foundations of musical behavior Ø less culturally diverse - Intuitive idea: musicality is rooted in ancient brain mechanism - Music taps into something into the brain, which is very primal - An alternative view - Several important components of musicality 1) Perception of transposed melodies as similar – happy birthday on a piccolo or a tuba – you still recognize the song – seems basic Ø 1- research with songbirds (starling) Ø they have a complex auditory system Ø found that they are great at distinguishing between melodies Ø they think the same (tone sequence) melodies transposed to different pitches are completely different melodies Ø but have no problem when using melodies from song birds Ø 2- fMRI research with humans Ø judging similarity of transposed pitch sequences Ø involves a brain region well outside of auditory cortex – intraparietal sulcus- known for being used to recognize mental rotation and visually- guided grasping Ø lesson about music and the brain- music uses more then the auditory system Ø why would human brains be specialized to recognize the similarity of few- shifts tone sequences Ø males have Adams apple- involved with the vocal chord this is why they have lower voices Ø we need to recodnize similar pitch pattern ar different abs freq - Intonation contours (questions) - Lexical tones (mandarin) Ø How to test is relative pitch perception relies on circuits shared with language? 2) Sensitivity to abstract qualities of musical pitches Ø Qualities beyond high and low Ø Examples with tone Ø Sensitivity to tonality is based on implicit knowledge of musical structure, acquired through passive exposure Ø Do other animals perceive these qualities - how does pitch taken on abstract qualities? - These qualities emerge because pitch in music is used in highly structures ways (never observed in language) 1) discretization 2) subset selection 3) differential emphasis - tonality contributes to the heirarchical processing of music - structure, skeletons within skeletons - Some conceptual links between tonality and linguistic syntac - Tonality and linguistic sytntax: what sthe cognitich relationship - Ongoing debate – Jackendoff (2009) 0 music perception – Rohrmeir (2011) J. Math and music - Neureopsychological dissociation between and music na language - People with strokes could not distinguish between music - Could hear tones but not the music - He is fine with language but cannot hear the music - So is there no link between language and music? - What about neauroimaging of health people? - Brain imaging comparing tonality processing to language syntax processing - Brocha’s area is activated (Musso et al 2015) - A paradox - Patient studies suggest that processing of tonality and lnigusitc syntax is unrelated - Processing of tonality and linguistic is related - Both types of studies have some exceptions - Lesson about brain science - Possible resolution on the paradox (accommodating dissociation and overlap) - Shared processing mechanisms which act on this knowledge - Do you use different part of the brain when playing chess and checkers? (resource sharing) - L&M have domain- specific representations - Predictions and implications of the SSIRH - Predicts that tonality precessing will interfere with concurrent linguistic syntactic processing - Suggests that sensitivity to abstract qualities of musical pitch depend on having language syntax system 3) Beat perception Ø a perceived periodic pulse in a rhythmic sequence Ø fundamentals to much music Ø every culture has this Ø how ancient is beat perception Ø Darwin – depends on the animal and the connections in the neural connections Ø 1- SP is predictive- we can snap along to a metronome within milili seconds Ø 2- high degree of tempo- flexibility (fire flies) Ø fireflies can keep to a beat but not as broad as humans can (fast and slow) Ø 3- there are subset to movement in dance Ø 4- strong link to action - music with a beat can help with people with Parkinson dieses to move (music can help children with speech disorders read) synchronization can help with movement Ø 5- strong link to emotion- movie of human movement to music (people move because it makes them feel good) Ø brain imaging reveals that beat perception engages the motor planning system Ø neuroimagint of rhythms with (vs without) a beat - putamen - mid-to- dorsal premotor and or SMA - functional connections to auditory regions - First study to train to train monkeys to tap to a metronome Ø used auditory and visual metronomes (separately) Ø monkeys cannot keep a beat- took a year Ø did not expect it to be difficult Ø taps lagged tones by +- 200ms Ø replicated in this lab, but more studies needed Ø perceptual research Ø - What kind of brain can perceive a beat? - Brains that connect complex auditory processing to complex motor processing - We are the only primates with complex vocal learning (learning other languages) – difference between song birds and chickens (brains) - “Vocal learning and rhythmic synchronization hypothesis”- Patel - Vocal learning provided the evolutionary foundation for beat- based processing - Most animals are not vocal learners- horses and dog - Snowball: a dancing cockatoo – cacatua galerita elanora (youtube 2007s) - Did a controlled study- no human movement suppressed - Result- true sync to a musical beat – other studies have been dun with budgies - Is snowball unique? - They tested with Alex (little man in a grey suit J ) he did it too but not as flamboyant - Only vocal learners male and female can keep a beat? - Recent developments: further tests of the vocal learning hypothesis - Sea lion in UCSC can sync to a beat are demonstrated (Cook et al. 2013) - Horses are being tested- they are not vocal learners (trotting) - Significance to evolutionary questions - Parrots don’t do this in the while - Which shows that dancing originated as a by product of a brain system that evolved for other reasons - Beat perception is evolutionary recent and mental complex 1- relative pitch perception 2- tonality processing 3- musical beat perception -consistent with the idea that musch and language evolved as a “cognitive package” - evolution used a core set of basics processing mechs to build 2 distinct forms of communication in humans suited to different needs 1/6/16 7:05 PM 1/6/16 7:05 PM
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'