Psychology 201 Final Exam Notes
Psychology 201 Final Exam Notes PSYCH 201
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This 12 page Bundle was uploaded by Eliza Barrett on Friday January 8, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PSYCH 201 at Clemson University taught by Jo Jorgensen in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Psychology 201 in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 01/08/16
Psych Final Study Guide Chapter 12: Personality - Personality: an individuals unique set of consistent behavioral trends • Trait is a durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations. - The Five Factor Model of personality traits, each trait on a continuum. Extraversion: outgoing, sociable, upbeat, positive emotionality. Tend to be happier, more • positive on life and are motivated to pursue social contact. • Neuroticism: anxious, hostile, self conscious, insecure. Overact more than others, impulsiveness, emotional instability, higher divorce rates, mental health disorders, • Openness to experience: curious, imaginative, dependent, higher IQ, artistic sensitivity, key determinant of peoples political attitude and ideology. • Agreeableness: sympathetic, cooperative, childhood temperament • Conscientiousness: disciplined, dependable, reliable, high productivity, life longer - correlations between big five and social class, important life outcomes. - some critics said that more than five traits are necessary to account for the bulk of variation seen in personality. Psychodynamic Perspectives - Include all the diverse theories, descended from the work of Freud- the focus on unconscious mental forces - psychoanalytic theory attempts to explain personality, motivation psychological disorders. • id is the primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle. operates occurring to the pleasure principle- demands immediate gratification of its urges. - engages in primary process thinking- primitive, illogical, irrational and fantasy oriented • ego is the decision making component of personality that operates according to the reality principle- seeks to delay gratification of the id’s urges until appropriate outlets and situations can be formed. - to stay out of trouble, the ego works to tame the unbridles desires of the id. - Wants to maximize gratification in the long run, but engages in secondary process thinking- rational, realistic and oriented toward problem solving. • superego is the moral component of personality that incorporates social standards about what represents right and wrong. - training of whats good throughout lie, many social norms are internalized and the superego emerges out of the ego round 3 to five years. - Levels of awareness • Conscious • preconscious- material just beneath the surface of wariness that can be easily retrieved • unconscious- thoughts, memories, desires, exert great influence on behavior, ie- childhood trauma, repressed sexual desires - compared to an iceberg that has most of mass hidden beneath the surface. - another. peoples lives are dominated by conflict. asserted that individuals careen from one conflict to Anxiety and defense mechanisms - unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions, work through self deception. They’re mental maneuvers that work through self deception. - repression: bury distressing thoughts in the unconscious, most basic and widely used “motivated forgetting” - projection: attribute your own thoughts to someone else but repress it in yourself - reaction formation: behave in a way thats opposite your true feelings, guilt from sexual desires often leads to this. - regression: revert to immature patterns, like if anxious about self worth, people respond by boasting not supported bc theres no evidence that you actually regress - rationalization: you create a false but plausible excuse to justify unacceptable behavior - Identification is bolserting self esteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some person or group. - sublimation- when unconscious, unacceptable impulses are channeled into socially acceptable, sometimes admirable, behaviors, ie taking up football or kickboxing if you have intense aggressive impulses. Adler’s individual psychology - believed the foremost source of human motivation is striving for superiority, a universal drive to improve oneself and master life’s challenges. • young children feel weak and helpless in comparison to adults, thus motivating them to gain new skills and talents. - Everyone feels some inferiority about something, and we work to overcome it through compensation: efforts to overcome real or imagined inferiorities. you do this by developing abilities •inferiority complex: excessive feelings of weakness and inadequacy.Adler thought that parents pampering or parental neglect could cause this. •overcompensation: hide inferiority, they work to achieve status, gain power over others, or trappings of success. worry more about appearances than reality • birth order makes a differences Evaluating it all… - research has demonstrated that unconscious forces can influence behavior, internal conflict often plays a key role in generating psychological distress, early childhood experiences can have a powerful impact, people do use defense mechanism - buttt: poor testability, unrepresentative samples, inadequate evidence, sexism, Behavioral Perspectives Skinner and behaviorism - Behaviorism is a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior. - Operant conditioning. His ideas have affected all areas of psych and have been applied to explain personality. - No structures, showed little interest on what goes ‘inside’people. Focused on how the external environment molds overt behavior. Didn’t attribute special important to childhood experiences • argued for a strong brand of determinism- behavior is fully determined by environmental stimuli. • response tendencies- people show consisted patterns of behavior because these are stable, they may change in the future, from new experiences Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory - Social cognitive theory- behavior changes environment, or thinking can change what one’s environment looks like. Unlike Skinner, psychologists who added a cognitive perspective to behaviorism state that humans are conscious, thinking, feeling beings. • Branded their behaviorism social learning theory, now bandura refers to it as social cognitive. •believes that personality is largely shaped through learning, but contends that conditioning is not a mechanical process in which humans are passive participants. People are “self organizing, proactive, self-reflecting, and self regulating” -Reciprocal determinism-the idea that internal mental events, external environmental events, and overt behavior all influence one another. Environment does determine behavior, and behavior determines environment -Bandura’s foremost theoretical contribution-Observational learning- occurs when an organisms responding is influenced by the observation of others, who are called models. • both classical and operant conditioning can occur. • Some models are more influential than others. children and adults tend to imitate people they like or respect more, attractive or powerful, same sex role models, and if model’s behavior leads to positive outcomes. • Self efficacy- one’s belief about one’s ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes - influences which challenges to take and how well they preform. Mischel and the person-situation controversy - according to this guy, people make responses that they think will lead to reinforcement in the situation at hand. So if you think that hard work will pay off, you’ll work hard. If you think hard work is unlikely to be rewards, you’ll be lazy. - People behave differently in different situations • His theories sparked debate about the relative important of the person as opposed to the situation in determining behavior. Has led to the growing recognition that both the person and situation are important determinants. Lets evaluate behavioral perspectives! - Rooted in tons of empirical research rather than clinical intuition - Skinner shows how environmental consequences and conditions mold people’s characteristic behavior, social cog expands the horizons of behaviorisms, mischel on increasing psychology's awareness of situational factors - Cons • dehumanizing natural of radical behaviorism. Skinner and other radical behaviorists are criticized for denying the existence of free will and cognitive processes. • Dilution of the behavioral approach- social cognitive theory undermines the foundation of behaviorism. • research on animals, nothing on childhood, fragmented view Humanistic Perspectives -emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth Carl Roger’s person centered theory -founders of human potential movement, which emphasizes self realization through sensitivity training, encounter groups, and exercises intended to foster growth. -based his personality theory on his extensive therapeutic interactions with clients. -personality structure in terms of just one construct- the self. • Self concept- collection of beliefs about one’s own nature, unique abilities, and typical behavior • The gap between self-concept and reality is referred to as incongruence- the degree of disparity between one’s self concept and one’s actual experience. - Affection from parents: conditional and unconditional. • will only receive affection if child is behaving well and living jp to expectations • children have less need to block out unworthy experiences because they’ve been assured that they’re worthy of affection, no matter what. - unconditional love fosters congruence. - Experiences that threaten people’s personal views of themselves are the principal cause of anxiety. They ignore, deny, and twist reality to protect and perpetuate their self-concept. Maslow’s theory of self-actualization - Hierarchy of needs: a systematic arrangement of needs, according to priority, in which basic needs must be met before less basic needs are aroused. - When a person manages to satisfy a level of needs reasonably well, this satisfaction activates needs at the next level - need for self actualization- need to fulfill one’s potential. “What a man can be, he must be.” Self actualizing people have exceptionally healthy personalities, marked by continued personal growth. Lets evaluate - makes self concept an important construct in psychology, the optimistic, growth and health oriented approach laid foundation to positive psychology - buttt: • Poor testability • unrealistic view of human nature. for example, mallow’s self actualizing people sound perfect. • inadequate evidence- humanist psychologists not research oriented Biological perspectives Eysneck’s theory - viewed personality structure as a hierarchy of traits, in which many superficial traits are derived from a smaller number of more basic traits, which are derived from a handful of fundamental higher-order traits. • personality emerges from extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism (involved being egocentric, impulsive, cold, and antisocial). • believed determined by a person’s genes • people can be conditioned more readily than others because of inherited differences in their physiological functioning. • extraversion-introversion- proposed introverts tend to have higher levels of physiological arousal, making them more easily conditioned than extroverts. - ppl who condition easily gain more conditioned inhibitions, making them more bashful, tentative, and uneasy in social situations, leading them to turn inward. Behavioral genetics and personality - research shows that many personality traits are largely inherited - twin studies show that even reared apart, identical twins were substantially more similar in personality than fraternal twins reared together (das cool!). - Shared family environment appears to have little impact on personality. Led researchers to explore how children’s subjective environments vary within families. - genetic mapping techniques Neuroscience of personality - research and theory have focused on the Big Five traits. extraversion correlated with the volume of brain regions known to process reward, while variations in neuroticism correlated with the volume of brain areas known to be activated by threat, punishment, and negative emotions. Evolutionary perspectives on personality - assert that personality has a biological basis because natural selection has favored certain traits over the course of human history. - David Buss points out that humans have depended heavily on groups. believes the Big Five traits are fundamental dimensions of personality because humans have evolved special sensitivity to variations in the ability to bond with others, cooperate and collaborate, tendency to be reliable and ethical, innovative problem solvers Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders! Abnormal Behavior: General Concepts - Szasc believed we should look at mental illness as a disorder, didn’t like the word illness. Only 70% of therapists tend to agree of disorder, with personality disorders, even less. - The medical model proposes that it is useful to think of abnormal behavior as disease. - Diagnosis involved distinguishing one illness from another - Etiology refers to the apparent causation and developmental history on an illness - prognosis is a forecast about the probable course of an illness What is abnormal behavior though? - Deviance- behavior deviates from what society deems acceptable. What constitutes normality varies from culture to culture, but all have norms. Ie- tranvestic fetishism regarded as a disorder is deviating from culture’s norm - Maladaptive/dysfunctional- everyday behavior is impaired, key criterion in the diagnosis of substance use disorders. - Personal distress- criterion met by people who are troubled by depression or anxiety disorders, subjective pain and suffering The Classiﬁcation of Disorders - Diagnose through DSM- diagnostic and statistical manual, published byAPA. - epidemiology- the study of the distribution of mental or physical disorders in a population - 1/3rd of population in 1990s. - Most common: substance disorders, anxiety, and mood Lets look at some disorders: anxiety - Excessive apprehension and anxiety, 20% of population - Five principle types of anxiety disorders: generalized anxiety disorder, phobic disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, PTSD - Generalized anxiety disorder- marked by a chronic, high level of anxiety that is not tied to any specific threat. Commonly accompanied by physical symptoms such as trembling, muscle tension, diarrhea, dizziness etc - Phobic disorder- marked by a persistent and irrational fear of an object or situation that presents no realistic danger. Mild phobias extremely common, but when someone has phobic disorder, it seriously interferes with their everyday life. • Common: heights, claustrophobia, storms, water, various animals and insects - Panic disorder- recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety that usually occurs suddenly and unexpectedly • After number of panic attacks, their concern about having one in public leads to agoraphobia- fear of going out to public places - OCD- marked by persistent, uncontrollable intrusions of unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and urges to engage in senseless rituals (compulsions). • Obsessions center on inflicting harm to others, personal failures, suicide, or sexual acts. • Feel they have lost control of their mind. • Common rituals: washing hands, cleaning of things that are clean, rechecking of locks, faucets etc. - PTSD- involved enduring psychological disturbance attributed to the experience of a major traumatic event. 7% have suffered at some point, twice is high among women (rape or assault) • symptoms: reexperiencing the traumatic event in nightmares or flashbacks, emotional numbing, alienation, probs with social relationships etc Etiology - Biological predisposition. concordance rate- the percentage of twin pairs or other pairs of relative who exhibit the same disorder. • anxiety sensitivity may make people vulnerable to anxiety disorder, some are highly sensitive to internal physiological symptoms of anxiety. • neurotransmitters, neural circuits using GABAplays role in anxiety disorders - Conditioning and learning- fears acquired through classical conditioning, person may start avoiding the anxiety inducing stimuli. avoidance response is negatively reinforced because it’s followed by a reduction in anxiety. • prepardness- people are biologically prepared by their evolutionary history to acquire some fears much more easily than others - Cognitive factors- certain types of thinking make people vulnerable to anxiety disorders - Stress- found patients with panic disorders had experienced a dramatic increase in stress in the month prior to the disorder.Also association between stress and social phobia. Dissociative disorders - class of disorders in which people lose contact with portions of their consciousness or memory, resulting in disruptions in their sense of identity. - Dissociative amnesia- sudden loss of memory for important personal information that is too extensive to be due to normal forgetting. May occur for a single traumatic event • Dissociative fugue- people lose their memory for their entire lives along with their sense of personal identity - Dissociative identity disorder involves the coexistence in one person of two more largely complete, and usually very different, personalities. Report the personalities are unaware of each other. Display traits foreign to their original • personality • patients have history of anxiety, mood, or personality disorders. • Seen more in women Etiology - Stress, fantasy proneness and a tendency to become intensely absorbed in personal experiences may make some people more susceptible (not enough evidence tho), little is known about identity disorders Mood Disorders - a class of disorders marked by emotional disturbances of varied kinds that may spill over to disrupt physical, perceptual, social, and thought processes • Unipolar (mood on one end of spectrum) and bipolar (both ends) - Major depressive disorder- persistent feelings of sadness and despair and a loss of interest in previous sources of pleasure. • central feature of depression is anhedionia- diminished ability to experience pleasure • majority of people who suffer from depression experience more than one episode. average number is 5-6. • chronic major depression associated with with severe impairment of functioning • twice as high in women, due to elevated points in their reproductive cycle, experience greater stress and adversity compared to men - Bipolar disorder- experience of one more manic episodes as well as periods of depression. One manic episode qualifies for this diagnosis. • Manic- mood elevated to point of euphoria, hyperactive, mind racing at breakneck speed - women attempt suicide more, men complete four times as many suicides. 905 suffer from some type of psychological disorder. highest for those with mood disorders Etiology - genetic vulnerability- people born with a predisposition, environmental factors determine whether it actually occurs. - neurochemical and neuroanatomical factors- abnormal levels of nrepinephrine and serotonin. • low levels of serotonin appear to be a crucial factor in most forms of depression • correlation between mood disorders and structural abnormalities in the brain - hormonal factors- depressed patients tend to show elevated levels of cortisol, a key stress hormone produced by HPAactivity - cognitive factors- learned helplessness, passive ‘giving up’behavior • pessimistic explanatory style- attribute setbacks to personal flaws instead of situational factors, tend to draw global, far-reaching conclusions about their personal inadequacies based on these setbacks. • depressed people who ruminate about their depression remain depressed longer than those who try to distract themselves. - women greater tendency to ruminate Schizophrenic Disorders - disorders marked by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech (word salad), and deterioration of adaptive behavior • Disturbed thought lies at the core, whereas disturbed emotion lies at core of mood disorder • >1%, requires lengthy hospital care, costly Symptoms - delusions and irrational though, false beliefs that are maintained even though they clearly are out of touch with reality • delusions of grandeur- people maintain they are famous or important • train of thought deteriorates, thinking becomes chaotic rather than logical and linear. - deterioration of adaptive behavior - hallucinations- sensory perceptions that occur in the absence of a real, external stimulus or are gross distortions of perceptual input. • hearing voices • voices often provide running commentary on person’s behavior (“you’re an idiot for shaking his hand”), may be argumentative, or may issue commands (“kill your sister) - disturbed emotion- blunted or flat affect, showing little emotional responsiveness. emotionally volatile, inappropriate emotional responses (laughing at a news report on a murder) Subtypes, course, and outcomes - paranoid type- dominated by delusions of persecution, along with delusions of grandeur. convinced they are being watched and manipulated, super suspicious - catatonic type-marked by striking motor disturbances, ranging from muscular rigidity to random motor activity. - disorganized type- particularly severe deterioration of adaptive is seen. Emotional indifference, frequent incoherence, complete social withdrawal, babbling and giggling, delusions center on bodily function (my brain is melting out of my ears) - undifferentiated type- marked by idiosyncratic mixtures of schizophrenic symptoms. fairly common. - critics point out there aren’t meaningful differences between the subtypes in etiology, prognosis or response to treatment, critics note catatonic subtype is disappearing, - alternate approach to sub typing: • negative symptoms involve behavioral deficits, flattened emotions, social withdrawal, apathy, impaired attention, and poverty of speech positive symptoms involve behavioral excesses or peculiarities, such as hallucinations, • delusions, bizarre behavior and wild flights of ideas. - Courses and outcomes: usually emerge during adolescence or early adulthood, 75% manifest by 30. • emergence is insidious and gradual - milder: treated successfully and enjoy a full recovery, only 20% - partial recovery and return to independent living for a time, however experience relapses - chronic illness marked by extensive hospitalization Etiology - genetic - neurochemical factors- dopamine hypothesis- excessive dopamine activity. riddled with inconsistencies though, marijuana use during adolescence - Structural abnormalities in the brain- enlarged brain ventricles, or could be a consequence of schizophrenia, or it could a contributing cause of the illness - neurodevelopmental: prenatal development, viral infections, malnutrition - expressed emotion- the degree to which a relative of a patent displays highly critical or emotionally over involved attitudes toward the patient. • good predictor of the course of a patient’s illness. when released to homes of high expressed emotion, families probably sources of more stress than of social support— higher number of relapses. Who seeks? - About 15% of US population, white, women (seek treatment), higher education level, single (divorce, separated), 1/3rd who need treatment get it. - Who provides: psychologists (phD, Psy. D, Ed. D), psychiatrists (MD, write prescriptions, physicians), can provide treatment if you have a Master’s Degree, MSW- masters and social work, psychotherapist Chapter 16:Treatment of Psychological Disorders - Freud credited for launching psychotherapy- the broad term for all the diverse approaches psychoanalysis- “the talking cure” • - Insight therapies: talk therapy, goal is to pursue increased insight regarding the nature of the client’s difficulties and to sort through the possible situations • Psychoanalysis: relieve unconscious conflicts and motives, defense mechanisms, long time consuming, expensive • client centered: emphasizes providing a supportive emotional climate for clients, who play a major role in determining the pace and direction of their therapy Does help, superior to no treatment, reasonable durable effects, equals efficacy of drug treatment, half of patients show meaningful recovery in 20 sessions - Behavioral: application of learning principles, believe the symptoms are the problem, behavior is learned, therefore whats learned can be unlearned. Insight therapists believe, for example, depression is from an underlying problem. • Systematic desensitization: used for phobias. Phobias caused through classical conditioning and the association can be weakened. - Steps: - 1. create an anxiety hierarchy - 2. deep muscle relaxation - 3. 1 & 2 • Flooding: where you’re put directly into the feared situation until you're anxiety declined. • Aversion therapy: pair an unpleasant stimulus with the maladaptive source of pleasure. Like when someone is trying to stop drinking you give them a medicine that makes them throw up every time they drink. • Cognitive therapy: correct habitual thinking errors, aka what I did - Biomedical: physiological interventions intended to reduce symptoms associated with psychological disorders. Believe that disorders are caused by biological malfunctions. • Psychopharmacotherapy is the treatment of mental disorders with medication - antianxiety drugs, antipsychotic drugs, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, - electroconvulvsive therapy: biomedical treatment in which electric shock is used to produce a cortical seizure accompanied by convulsions
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