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Textbook and Lecture Notes

by: Rachael Phillips

Textbook and Lecture Notes MSC 111

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Chapters 14, 15, and 16
Introduction to Marine Science
Gary Hitchcock, Larry Peterson
MSC 111
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This 10 page Bundle was uploaded by Rachael Phillips on Saturday January 9, 2016. The Bundle belongs to MSC 111 at University of Miami taught by Gary Hitchcock, Larry Peterson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Marine Science in Strategic Communication at University of Miami.

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Date Created: 01/09/16
Chapter 14: Plankton, Algae, Plants  Plankton drift/swim weekly o Unable to move against waves/current flow  Large diversity of planktonic organisms o Common feature: inability to move consistently laterally through water column  Term plankton/nekton describes common ecological connection (lifestyle)  First large scale systematic study plankton (1925) o Research vessel: Meteor o During German Atlantic Oceanographic Expedition  Plankton nets o Perfected for Meteor expedition; still used today o Conical net made of nylon/dacron cloth, woven in interlocking pattern o Hauled slowly behind ship or cast at depth and reeled in  o Trapped organisms flushed to pointed end  Phytoplankton  o Autotrophic  Generate glucose by photosynthesis o Primary producers o Drift within euphotic zone (sunlit area)  At least 8 major types phytoplankton  o Most prominent  Diatoms  Dinoflagellates  Picoplankton o Very small phytoplankton o Too small to be resolved by light microscope o Only caught with finest filters  Cyanobacterium o Have odd chlorophyll variant that permits them to absorb blue light at low  intensities in deep euphotic zone  Heterotrophic bacteria o Decompose organic matter spilled into water o Turn soluble organic molecules back into inorganic nutrients o Break down particulate organic matter into dissolved form, can use for own  growth  Official food chain:  o Dissolved organic matter/inorganic nutrients > diatom/dinoflagellates  (phytoplankton) > copepod (zooplankton) > fish > all go back to dissolved  organic matter/inorganic nutrients  Microbial loop: o Dissolved organic matter/inorganic nutrients > prochloroccocus/synechococcus  (cyanobacteria) > virus OR microciliates/microflagellates > both back to  dissolved organic matter/inorganic nutrients   Phycovirus: virus that infects phytoplankton  Diatoms:  o Photosynthetic efficiency increased proportion of free oxygen in earth’s  atmosphere o Most round, some elongated/branched/triangular  Frustule o Patterns of perforations through diatoms rigid cell wall  Dinoflagellates o Single­celled autotrophs o Have to flagella  One: drives organisms forward  Other: adjusting orientation/vertical position  Dinoflagellates can become so numerous they turn water rusty red o Light reflects from accessory pigments o Red tide o Harmful algal blooms (HABs) dangerous  Some dinoflagellates synthesize potent toxins  Can effect marine life, sometimes humans  Coccolithophores o Single celled autotrophs o Covered with disks of calcium carbonate fixed to outside cell wall  Act as sunshade, prevent too much sun absorption o In high concentrations can turn water milky/chalky   Because know formula for photosynthesis, measuring any one component of  photosynthesis will tell us about others o From measurement carbon taken up by primary producers,  can calculate rate of  carb production  Photosynthetic autotroph possible limiting factors: nutrients, light  Why autotrophs require inorganic nutrients:  o Construct large organic molecules that make primary productivity possible o Construct skeletons/shells  Nonconservative nutrients: nutrients that change in concentration with biological activity  Plankton bloom: period of rapid phytoplankton growth   After plankton bloom, ocean surface water depleted of nonconservative nutrients  Nutrients of dead organism sink to bottom o Photosynthetic organisms cant use them  Low nutrient concentration = most important factor limiting growth of  marine producers  Photosynthetic productivity cannot continue unless upwelling deep water returns nutrients to surface   Summer waters between Antarctic convergence/mainland Antarctica among most  productive on earth  Upwelling uncommon in tropical water (except equatorial pacific compensation depth:  o Depth at which production of carbs/oxygen by photosynthesis through day’s time  will exactly equal consumption of carbs/oxygen by respiration  o Depth at which 1% surface light penetrates   Bottom of euphotic zone o Changes with sun angle, turbidity, surface turbulence o Diatoms have deeper compensation depth than dinoflagellates o Open tropical seas = deepest potential compensation depth  However, not productive because nutrient deficient  Higher latitude productivity o Winter = very low  Dark, ice cover o Summer = very high; short period of time  Sun only stays at critical angle for few weeks o Short burst of summer productivity does not compensate for unproductive winter  Creates annual production: (of open ocean areas) o Temperate continental shelves/southern subpolar regions   Dependable light  Moderate nutrient supply  Nearshore productivity > open ocean productivity  o Nutrients from runoff from continents  Heterotrophic plankton = zooplankton o Eat primary producers o Most numerous primary consumers in ocean  Most abundant zooplankton = microflagellates/microciliates   Copepods  o 70% of zooplankton o Crustaceans  Macroplankton o Plankton > 1 cm across  Haloplankton (most numerous) [of phytoplankton/zooplankton]  o Spend entire lives as plankton  Meroplankton o Organisms that will later adopt benthic/nektonic lifestyle   Crab/barnacle/clam/sea star/etc.  o Most animals = meroplankton  Vertical migration of krill mixes nutrient rich deep water with nutrient poor surface  waters   Planktonic foraminifera  o Extend long protoplasmic filaments to snare food  o Have calcium carbonate shells (most)  White deposits of calcareous ooze built up on seabed from skeletons  Multicellular algae = seaweed o 1­5% total primary productivity   Marine forest (made of seaweed) o Discloses sheltering nurseries o Conceals complex interrelationships o Provides nourishment  No algae/seaweed grow below euphotic zone because need photosynthesis   Large intertidal autotrophs have hard life/adaptations to help o Exposed to drying effects of air/sunlight o Lashed against rocks by waves o Adaptations  Flexible bodies   Absorb shock  Resistant to abrasion  Streamlined to reduce water drag  Very strong  Warmth/lack of nutrients limit success of seaweeds o High temp = high metabolic rate  Oxygen level in warm water not high enough to support algae respiratory  needs at night o high temp = shatter accessory pigments required for photosynthesis/respiration  marine algae/plants suffer no droughts, almost always have enough co2 for  photosynthesis  seaweed require firm substrate to attach to   up to half products produced can be leaked out of blade/stipe  nonvascular  o photosynthetic autotroph that doesn’t have fluid transporting vessels  thallus = body  o blade, stipe, holdfast  accessory pigments (masking pigments) o light absorbing compounds similar to chlorophyll  o presence enhances photosynthesis  absorb dim blue light at depth, transfer energy to adjacent chlorophyll  molecules  o can be brown, tan, olive, green, or red  give marine autotrophs their color  green algae = chlorophyte  brown algae = phaeophyta (what beachgoers see)  red algae = Rhodophyta (most common) Chapter 15: Marine Mammals  Sea lions:  o Brown o Bark loudly  o Walk on land with their large flippers o Have visible ear flaps o otarioid  Seals o Have small flippers o Wriggle on their bellies on land o Don’t have visible ear flaps o phocidae  Pinnipeds evolved from arctoid carnivores (bear like) o Entered ocean to take advantage of new/abundant food resources created by  upwelling nutrient rich waters  Pinnipeds at top of food chain o Diet = mostly fish/squid o Change as get older from milk > zooplankton > fish > (sometimes) birds/other  pinnipeds o Eat similar foods, diet varies depending on ecosystem/seasonal availability  Harbor seal o Northern hemisphere o Cosmopolitan o 5­6 mill   Most numerous type of seal o Neritic (coastal, shallow waters), form large groups o Feed on bottom fish, preyed on by killer whales/great white sharks  Harp seal o Harp seal adults feed mostly loose groups schooling fish/some crustaceans o Adults dive deep—about 150­200 meters (to feed on bottom fish) o Pups eat mainly zooplankton (in form of small amphipods) o Juveniles feed at intermediate depths, on capelin fish o Adults can migrate >1000 km o Hunted for pelts in Canada, Greenland, russia, Norway o Hunted by inuit for food  Threats to seals/sea lions o Increased human presence along coastal areas  Destruction of habitat  Competition for food  Pacific harbor seal and salmon in pacific northwest  Legalization of lethal methods of removal of certain seal/sea lion  species cut down on competition to fish stocks  Impact of tourism on seal pops  Dangers of oil spills/chemical runoff from land  Chemicals introduced into seals’/sea lions’ environments can result in algal blooms which are harmful to animals  Oil spills destroy coastlines  Seals/sea lions die of being introduced to toxic elements, as well as hypothermia  Carnivore o Sea otter   Smallest marine mammal  No blubber layer  Insulation from air trapped in dense fur  Keystone predators in west coast kelp forests  Voracious—eat up to 25% body weight daily o Polar bear  Semiaquatic   Considerable time in water  Feed primarily on seals  Capture prey through breathing holes in ice  Impacted by climate change  Artic warming threatens polar bears o Endangering polar bears o Melting/retreat of ice in arctic already had an effect on polar bear habitat, may  ultimately contribute to extinction   Sirenia  o Manatees, dugongs, sea cows o Front flippers, no rear limbs  Swim with mainly tail  Thick blubber layer o Strictly vegetarian  Eat seagrass, other vegetation o Manatees reach 4.5 m, 600kg o Hunted extensively at one time o Major threats now are from coastal development/boat traffic  Manatees:  o Florida about 3000 individuals o 150 died in 1998 red tide o Long seasonal migrations  Cetacea o Whales, dolphins, porpoises  90 species—85 marine, 5 freshwater (dolphins) o Front flippers, tail, no rear limbs  Many have dorsal fin  Muscular tail ends in horizontal flukes o Streamlined for efficient swimming  Example of convergent evolution o Blubber layer  Insulation  Buoyancy o Breathe through blowhole on dorsal surface  Single   Double  Phylogeny of cetacean show common ancestry shared with artiodactyla, hypothesized  evolutionary origin of both from older Paleocene age condylarthra  Two major groups of living whales: mysticetes and odontocetes  Mysticeti (baleen whales)—11 species  o Includes largest animal ever on earth  Blue whale—up to 33.5 m long, 100+ tons o Baleen plates attached to upper jaws  Composed of keratin (same protein as hair, fingernails)  Squeeze water through baleen and lick off retained food (usually  organisms)   Baleen whales: right, blue, grey, humpback  Baleen (keratin): grows throughout life, roof of mouth, filters plankton/fish  Odontocet (tooth whales)—66 species  o Sperm whales—3 species  Sperm, dwarf sperm, pygmy sperm  Bulbous head contains spermaceti (waxy substance) than may function in  buoyancy and sound generation  Sperm can dive up to 3000 m and stay under water for up to 2 hours  Feed on fish, squids (especially giant squid)  Produce ambergris (undigested material in stomach) o Toothed whales—30 species  Beaked, beluga, false killer, narwhal, orca, pilot  Most common in cold water  o Dolphins and porpoises—33 species  Distinctive beak  Travel in pods  Many found in cold water rather than warm water  Large whales do extensive migrations to arctic water  Dolphins are more abundant of two groups  Differentiated by fact that dolphins have neck bones that aren’t fused  Porpoises have neck bones that are fused together  Baleen communicate with each other but don’t use acoustics or echolocation  Toothed whales use acoustics to find food/bottom of ocean  Baleen whale anatomy: tail shape for propulsion forward, fins for stability, grooves on  throat side allow them to expand mouth cavity, two nostrils/blowholes at top, lack major  fins on dorsal side  Baleen whales o Largest, deep divers o Migrations o Communicate, no echolocation  Toothed whales o Echolocate o Limited migration o Pods  gray whale o whale skeleton small relative to body size o pelvis vestigial, remnant left from ancestors o ribcage relatively small compared to most mammals because when diving, have to collapse lungs  gray whales turn on side on soft sediment, take in sediment, strain out sediment to collect  mollusks, small fish, etc.   toothed whales chase their food and catch it  cetacean abundance o status   whales hunted extensively for centuries   aboriginal whaling (ekimos) o non­aboriginal whaling   began off New England in late 1600s o 1860s—explosive harpoon introduced o Early 1900s—antarctic whales  hunted o 1946—IWC founded o 1972—US Marine Mammal Protection Act (can harvest whales) o 1985—IWC moratorium on commercial whaling  o Norway, Japan, Iceland still practice whaling   IWC allows aboriginal whaling  During 1700/1800 whaling expanded in US, harvested for blubber (baleen)   With development of plastic/fossil fuels, demand for whales went down   IWC founded to regulate whaling   Japan initially didn’t want to sign IWC, US said they would revoke right to fish in US  waters if didn’t sign  Most whaling done in northern hemisphere (Norway/Iceland) done on small whales o Most that’s harvested is sold to japan   Most commercial whaling done around Antarctica of larger whales  Most whales go toward arctic/Antarctica during summer because that’s when  zooplankton blooms occur, stay for about 3 months  Largest whales almost 100% rely on zooplankton (krill)  Gray whale don’t eat as much zooplankton, rely on benthic  organisms  Blue whales predominantly breed in warm waters in fall/winter, but there isn’t a lot of  food  In summer they go north to feed, during the migration pattern they don’t eat  Depending on species they could give birth only every 5­10 years o Incubation period 1­2 years   populations don’t intermingle  rare to see them in the warmest waters because it’s too hot o crossing between two hemispheres could lead  to overheating  Roger Pain started to publish on whale songs o Each whale has individual song o Consists of repeating verses o Each individual changes song slightly o One related group inherits song from mother o Can identify a family group by characteristics of song  Killer whales raise voices to be heard over boat noise o The effort may be wearing them out as they try to find food amid dwindling  numbers of salmon o “talk” more during foraging than traveling, suggest mealtime conservations  key to coordinating hunts  Temp/pressure affect propulsion of sound  o Feasible for one species to keep track of who’s there throughout entire north  atlantic  US Navy during cold war had extensive system of hydroforms deployed in SOFAR  channel o Recorded ships o Group of marine mammologists used old navy sensors to track whales  Bottle nose dolphins o Hang out in groups of predominantly females o Know most about dolphins because can relatively easily observe them o Dolphins not afraid of people, porpoises are  Organisms that first went into ocean had nose similar to dog, nose went to bottom of head  As breathing went up, hearing went up as well o Melon used to focus sound outward, bottom jaw used to focus sound in ear  Dolphin echolocation: sound is generated in nasal air sacs, received in ears located in  lower jaw o Intensity/spacing of clicks allows them focus sound different objects o Can change frequency/duration to focus in  Minke whale o Norwegian whaling o 750 per year o Goal: export to Japan ($300/kg)  In Japan they educate school kids about the gentle giants of the sea (whales), then  proceed to feast on fried whale meat  Most whale pops are stable now, some pops off cali have started to increase


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