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Mid East Studies

by: Frederick Notetaker

Mid East Studies Anthro 2114

Frederick Notetaker
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Mid East studies




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This 12 page Bundle was uploaded by Frederick Notetaker on Saturday January 9, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Anthro 2114 at University of Missouri - St. Louis taught by in Fall 2013. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Mid East studies in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Missouri - St. Louis.

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Date Created: 01/09/16
Anth 2114 Midterm Exam REVIEW The exam has three parts for a total of 100 points. The exam will take the entire class period. To study, I suggest going back over your notes and the slides on MyGateway, paying close attention to names, dates, bolded words, and recurring themes. Part I: Matching key terms (20 questions worth one point each for a total of 20 points) The key terms will come from the bolded words on the slides in MyGateway. Examples: 1. Osman I a. Founder of the Ottoman Empire 2. Kemalism b. Ideology of the followers of Atatürk 3. Tansu Çiller c. The female Prime Minister of Turkey from 1993-1996 Part II: GeoQuiz (Fifteen countries worth two points each, one for location and one for spelling, for a total of 30 points: Palestine, Israel, Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Yemen) Part II: Short Essay (five questions worth ten points each for a total of 50 points) These questions should be answered in 5-7 sentences. Examples: 1. What are three of the most important aspects in Turkey’s history and how did they shape Turkish lives? 2. Explain three ways Britain shaped the modern Middle East after WWI. Anth 2114 Midterm Review Sample Short Essay Question 1. What are three of the most important aspects in Turkey’s history and how did they shape Turkish lives? Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, Kemalism, military-enforced secularism, Tansu Ciller, Erdogan, PKK F 1. What are three of the most important aspects in Turkey’s history and how did they shape Turkish lives? Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, Tansu Ciller, and Erdogan and Kemalism and PKK. Instituted reforms and modeled Turkey off of EurDpean nation- states and modernizing and westernizing. Tansu Ciller was the female Prime Minister in the 1990s. Erdogan is the current Prime Minister. Kemalism is military-enforced secularism. PKK is the Kurdish organization calling for autonomy that the Turkish government calls a terrorist organization. 1. What are three of the most important aspects in Turkey’s history and how did they shape Turkish lives? The three most important aspects in Turkey’s history are the founding of Turky by Kemal, Kemalism, and Erdogan and the PKK. Kemal founded Turky like a European nation-state. Kemalism is military inforced socialism and communism through military coups over the years. In recent years, the military cannot overthrow the government anymore now that the AK party under Eroggand won. The third most fights the Turkish army. Turkey fights terrorism and the PKK. Thesethat shape Turkish lives because the country is in many ways like European countries but is Muslim and cannot join the EU because it is muslim and fights terrorism and invaded Cyprus and bans the headscarf. 1. What are three of the most important aspects in Turkey’s history and how did they shape Turkish lives? Three of the most important aspects in Turkey’s history were its founding my Mustafa Kemal, Kemalism, and the modern religious resurgence. Kemal, called Ataturk or Father of the Turks, foundeB Turkey as a Europeanized nation-state, by imposing a Monday through Friday work week, requiring everyone to take last names, and banning religious education and the wearing of religious clothing like headscarves and turbans. Kemalism was the name for the movement in the military that enforced Europeanized secularism through military coups at many points in history. In the 1980s, the religious resurgence brought religious education back into schools and the Justice and Development Party under Erdogan won the elections that might change Turkish lives like bringing back the headscarf. Erdogan’s wife wears the headscarf and military officers can’t overthrow the government any more. 1. What are three of the most important aspects in Turkey’s history and how did they shape Turkish lives? The history of modern Turkey has been shaped by many factors including the army’s long battle against the Kurdish separatists under the PKK and the battle with Greece over Cyprus, but three of the most important aspects of its history are: the foundation of the modern state under Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the long legacy of Kemalism, and the recent religious resurgence. An Ottoman military officer, Mustafa Kemal, named Ataturk or Father of the Turks, founded Turkey in 1923 to be a Europeanized nation-state through many policies like imposing a Monday through Friday work week, requiring everyone to take last names, and banning religious education and the wearing of religious clothing like headscarves and turbans. He also banned the fez, which was seen as a sign of backwardness. After his death so soon after the founding of the country, his legacy was carried on through the military. This legacy was called Kemalism and was military-enforced secularism, through many coups over the years. Turkish lives experienced a democracy guided and checked by the military. However, in the 1980s, the religious resurgence in the society sought the legitimacy for public displays of religious identity like headscarves and religious education in schools. The recent election and reelection of the AK Party in 2002 and 2007 headed by Erdogan, whose wife wears the headscarf, may signal a shift in Turkish politics away from Kemalism. Muslim is an adherent of Islam Shari’a the way Sharia is the moral code and religious law of Islam. Hadith hadith (plural aḥādīth) in religious use is often translated as 'tradition', meaning a report of the deeds and sayings of Muhammad Hijab the scarf Hajj is an Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca and the largest gathering of Muslim people in the world every year. It is one of the five ... Mecca holy city muhamed was born in Constantinople istanbul Tanzimat series of reforms promulgated in the Ottoman Empire between 1839 and 1876 under the reigns of the sultans Abdülmecid Arab Revolt was initiated by the Sherif Hussein bin Ali with the aim of ... te Lawrence Treaty of Sevres ) was the peace treaty between the Ottoman Empire and Allies at the end of World War Young Turks The Young Turks was a secularist Turkish nationalist reform party in the early twentieth century, favoring reformation of the absolute monarchy of the Ottoman Mustafa Kemal founder of turkey Kemalism modern secularism in turkey PKK Kurdish resistance Kurds Introduction Kurds , a non-Arab Middle Eastern minority population that inhabits the region known as Kurdistan, an extensive plateau and. Cyprus island turks and Grand Ayatollah cardinal in Iran Ruhollah Khomeini Ruhollah Mostafavi Musavi Khomeini known in the West as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian religious leader and politician, and leader of the 1979 Iranian ... Hostage Crisis 1979 iranian Ali Khameini As the head of state, Khamenei is considered the most powerful political authority in Iran.[5][6] Khamenei was the victim of an attempted assassination in June 1981 that paralyzed his right arm.[7][8] The biggest challenge to his leadership in recent years has been the 2009 Iranian election protests following the 2009 presidential elections[9] during which he voiced support for President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.[10] Beginning from the time of Muhammad's marriage to his first wife Khadijah, 1 Who was Muhammad and what events in his life impacted Islam to what it is today? Muhammad was the prophet Islam who was granted this task by Angel Michael.. Effect Part of Muhammad's legacy was to end infanticide and establish explicit rights for women. Islam teaches that men and women are equal before God. It grants women divinely sanctioned inheritance, property, social and marriage rights, including the right to reject the terms of a proposal and to initiate divorce. Muhammad was orphaned at an early age. He once remarked that, "Heaven lies at the feet of mothers." As the father of four daughters in a society that prized sons, he told other fathers that, if their daughters spoke well of them on the Day of Judgment, they would enter paradise. Today, Islamic legal and social systems around the world approach and fall short of women's rights by varying degrees. Muslims themselves generally view Islam as progressive in these matters. Many Muslim feminists hold the view that the problems presently hindering Muslim women are those that hinder women of all backgrounds worldwide- oppressive cultural practices, poverty, illiteracy, political repression and patriarchy. There is a strong, healthy critique of gender oppression among Muslim feminist authors and activists worldwide. 2 What led to the downfall of the Ottoman Empire? The European powers wanted to expand Economic problems: Competition from trade from the Americas Competition from cheap products from India and the Far East Development of other trade routes Rising unemployment within the Empire Government problems: Ottoman Empire became less centralised, and central control weakened Sultans being less severe in maintaining rigorous standards of integrity in the administration of the Empire Political problems: Sultans becoming less sensitive to public opinion The low quality Sultans of the 17th and 18th centuries 3 Explain three ways colonialism shaped the modern Middle East. The impact of colonialism went far beyond the relationships of economic and political imperialism that theorists of the Left have amply elaborated upon. Colonialism also survived in the forms that state ideologies, political visions, and institutions of the new states took. In the premodern era Muslims were conscious of ethnic, linguistic, and regional differences among them, but politically they were united under first the caliphate and later empires and sultanates, whose shifting boundaries represented not the borders of nation-states as the term is understood today, but the writ of rulers who ruled in the name of Islam. The idea of a Muslim territorial state, much like the idea of nationalism, is thus an import from the West. The inclusion of the concept of the territorial state into Muslim politics and the actual boundaries of Muslim states are both products of colonialism. 4 Who is Mustafa Kemal and how has he contributed to modern Turkey? Mustafa Kemal Atatürk; 19 May 1881 (Conventional) – 10 November 1938) was a Turkish army officer in the Ottoman military, revolutionary statesman, and the first President of Turkey. He is credited with being the founder of the Republic of Turkey. His surname, Atatürk (meaning "Father of the Turks"), was granted to him in 1934 and forbidden to any other person by the Turkish parliament. Atatürk was a military officer during World War I. Following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I, he led the Turkish national movement in the Turkish War of Independence. Having established a provisional government in Ankara, he defeated the forces sent by the Allies. His military campaigns led to victory in the Turkish War of Independence. Atatürk then embarked upon a program of political, economic, and cultural reforms, seeking to transform the former Ottoman Empire into a modern, secular, and democratic nation-state. Under his leadership, thousands of new schools were built, primary education was made free and compulsory, while the burden of taxation on peasants was reduced. The principles of Atatürk's reforms, upon which modern Turkey was established, are referred to as Kemalism. 5 What were some of the leading causes of the 1979 Iranian Revolution? Its causes — why the Shah (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi) was overthrown and why he was replaced by an Islamic Republic. The revolution was in part a conservative backlash against the westernization and secularization efforts of the Western- backed Shah, and a not-so-conservative reaction to social injustice and other shortcomings of the ancient regime. The Shah was perceived by many Iranians as a puppet of the United States whose culture was contaminating that of Iran. The Shah's regime was seen as oppressive, brutal, corrupt and extravagant; it also suffered from basic functional failures — an overly-ambitious economic program that brought economic bottlenecks, shortages and inflation. ANTH 2114 Cultures of the Near and Middle East Fall 2013 BOOK REVIEW BONUS OPPORTUNITY Write a 4­6 page book review of a book about the anthropology or literature of the Middle East  from the following list. It must be typed in 12­point font, double spaced, and include full citation  (any style as long as its consistent) when referencing specific page numbers. This assignment will be for a maximum of 20 bonus points added into your total grade. I strongly recommend you  take advantage of this bonus opportunity. Include:  The name and background of the author, and how they present their authority to tell you  about their subject  The main subject, argument, or thesis of the book  A summary of the content in the chapters, focused on the main points of each chapter  A conclusion of how persuasive or resonant you found the author's argument or point  based on their perspective The book review is due December 4, the last day of class.  BOOK LIST Literature ­Almost any work by Orhan Pamuk (check with me first) ­Almost any work by Naguib Mahfouz (check with me first) Arab Spring ­ The Arab Uprisings: What Everyone Needs to Know by James Gelvin, 2012 (208 pages) ­ The Arab Uprising: The Unfinished Revolutions of the New Middle East, 2012 (304 pages) ­ Distant Witness by Andy Carvin, 2013 (310 pages) Anthropology in the Middle East ­ Recognizing Islam: Religion and Society in the Modern Middle East by Michael Gilsenan, 2000  edition. (288 pages) ­ Life As Politics by Asef Bayat, 2009 (320 pages) ­ New Media in the Arab World by Eickelman and Anderson, 2  edition 2003. (240 pages) ­ Marriage on Trial by Z.Mir­Hosseini revised edition 2001. (272 pages) Turkey ­ Faces of the State: Secularism and Public Life in Turkey, by Y. Navaro­Yashin, 2002 (264  pages) ­ The Gülen Movement: A Sociological Analysis of a Civic Movement Rooted in Moderate Islam,  by Helen Rose Ebaugh, 2009 (134 pages) Egypt ANTH 2114 Cultures of the Near and Middle East Fall 2013 ­ Veiled Sentiments: Honor and Poetry in a Bedouin Society by Lila Abu­Lughod, 2000 (356  pages) ­ Politics of Piety by Saba Mahmood, 2005 (233 pages) ­ Putting Islam to Work by Gregory Starrett, 1998 (370 pages) ­ Connected in Cairo by Mark Allen Peterson, 2011 (288 pages) Lebanon ­ Enchanted Modern by Lara Deeb 2006 (275 pages) ­ Hezbollah by Augustus Norton 2009 (216 pages) Iraq ­ Guests of the Sheik by E. Fernea, 1995 (368 pages) ­ Baghdad Burning: Girl Blog from Iraq by Riverbend, 2005 (304 pages) and/or part II, 2006  (240 pages) Iran ­ Passionate Uprisings: Iran’s Sexual Revolution by Pardis Mahdavi 2008 (344 pages) ­ We Are Iran: The Persian Blogs by Nasrin Alavi 2005 (384 pages) Israel/Palestine ­ Hamas: Politics, Charity, and Terrorism in the Service of Jihad by Matthew Levitt, 2007 (336  pages) ­ Palestinian Identity: The Construction of Modern National Consciousness by Rashid Khalidi,  2009 (320 pages) ­ Facts on the Ground: Archaeological Practice and Territorial Self­Fashioning in Israeli Society by Nadia Abu El­Haj 2002 (363 pages) ­ Birthing the Nation by Hanan Ashrawi, 2002 (300 pages) ­ Security and Suspicion: An Ethnography of Everyday Life in Israel by Juliana Ochs, 2011 (240  pages) Syria ­ Ambiguities of Domination by Lisa Wedeen 1999 (251 pages) ­ A New Old Damascus: Authenticity and Distinction in Urban Syria by Christa Salamandra 2004 (216 pages) Saudi Arabia ­ Girls of Riyadh by Rajaa Alsanea 2008 (304 pages) ­ A Most Masculine State: Gender, Politics, and Religion in Saudi Arabia, 2013 (334 pages) If you have another book in mind, run it by me first. ANTHRO 2114 Cult Near & Mid East Frederick Eccher 8/23/2013 Reading Journal 1 State of the Middle East 7­13, 113­119 Reading the Into I found myself thinking about my friend Hakan from Turkey and his  great love of anything to do with the Ottoman Empire, I hope to learn more about that as  we progress through the class. I also found myself wondering how and why do they  divide the Middle East at Sudan? What makes its problems so much more distinctive that  its clearly different from the Middle East?  Later looking at the statistics in part 3 I have to wonder how good are these statistics and  how can you accurately measure a region when its borders are not really set? Anything  close by is usually lumped in by news agencies or different political agencies for that  matter. Which suggests the Middle East is more of a place of the minds political creation  than a specific place with specific people and values. America may be similar in nature  but it has set borders and protectorates that do not change at the whim of any politician. Struggle for Survival 187­202 My first thought when reading the bio was I did not expect to be reading about a Jewish  doctor. Dry and boring at first it started to suck me into the conflicts such as the woman  who was stabbed by neighborhood boy because of a Nationalist Ideology. It reminds me  of the 9/11 terrorists who were middle class people from nice families.


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