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Sports, Ritual, and Death: The Archaeology of Greek Myths

by: Frederick Notetaker

Sports, Ritual, and Death: The Archaeology of Greek Myths Anthropology 3225

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Sports, Ritual, and Death: The Archaeology of Greek Myths
Michael B. Cosmopoulos




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This 16 page Bundle was uploaded by Frederick Notetaker on Saturday January 9, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Anthropology 3225 at University of Missouri - St. Louis taught by Michael B. Cosmopoulos in Spring 2014. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Sports, Ritual, and Death: The Archaeology of Greek Myths in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Missouri - St. Louis.

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Date Created: 01/09/16
1 Zeus: what is he the god of? What is his name in Roman religion? What is his attribute? ZEUS (JUPITER) *di-= “sky” Law and Justice Xenia lightning bolt eagle sceptre 2 Hera: what is she the goddess of? What is her name in Roman religion? What is her attribute? HERA (JUNO) Family female sexuality and fertility sceptre cow 3 Poseidon: what is he the god of? What is his name in Roman religion? What is his attribute? POSEIDON (NEPTUNE) posis+de (=wheat)Lord of the Deep +Amphitrite trident horse 4 Apollo: what is he the god of? What is his name in Roman religion? Which one is his most important sanctuary? why? APOLLO Civilization sun science… laurel trees bow and arrows lyre Delphi (oracle)/Python 5 Hermes: what is he the god of? What is his name in Roman religion? HERMES (MERCURY) God of travellers and merchants messenger of the Gods protector of thieves 6 Artemis: what is he the goddess of? What is her name in Roman religion? What is her attribute? ARTEMIS (DIANA) Mistress of AnimalsVirgin goddess ……….Archery fertility of animals 7 Athena: what is he the goddess of? What is her name in Roman religion? What are her attributes? Which is her main sanctuary? ATHENA (MINERVA) Wisdom smart battling Gorgoneion Owl Athens 8 List the first generation gods. ZEUS (JUPITER) POSEIDON (NEPTUNE) HADES (PLUTO HERA (JUNO) HESTIA (VESTA DEMETER (CERES)) 9 What is the symbolism of the iconography of the Parthenon metopes? Classical period 447-432 BC North metopes Trojan War East metopes Giantomachy West metopes Amazonesmachy South metopes Centaurmachy 10 What event is represented on the Parthenon frieze? founding myth of the city of Athens 11 What are “doric refinements” and what is their purpose? 12 How does the primitive Mother Goddess evolve in the historical period? How are her characteristics divided among which goddesses? Division of characteristics of Great Goddess: Artemis: fertility of animals Aphrodite: human sexuality Hera: marriage and family Demeter: fertility of plants and crops 13 Mystery Cults: definition and purpose Religious Cults that only a few were initiated to in order to give those few a better afterlife. 14 What are the ancient Greeks’ views of death? That you only got to eat the blood of your offerings, you sort of hung around for all eternity 15 Which goddesses were worshipped at Eleusis? HADES (PLUTO) Acheron Eleusis DEMETER (CERES) Eleusis Demeter and Persephone Ganymede Red Figure Style project for The Archaeology of Greek Myths Frederick Eccher 18 March 2014 This was a fun project to do. I started in the Greek Cultural center looking for ideas and struck up a conversation with the Art student at the desk. She pointed me to Blick Art Supply store on 6300 Delmar and she was right about their knowledge and care for art and materials. I went with naturally red oven bake clay not knowing what to expect honestly. Having read about one students attempt to do this project using the 3 phase method. It shattered in 5 pieces and I learned to follow the directions. I picked up black and red paint to shade and decorate my wine cup tribute to Ganymede who I had mistakenly thought was Hebe before doing more research… Ganymede In Greek mythology, Ganymede is a divine hero whose homeland was Troy. Homer describes Ganymede as the most beautiful of mortals. He was the son of Tros of Dardania, from whose name "Troy" was supposed to derive, and of Callirrhoe. His brothers were Ilus and Assaracus. In one version of the myth, he is abducted by Zeus, in the form of an eagle, to serve as cup-bearer in Olympus. The myth was a model for the Greek social custom of paiderastía, the socially acceptable erotic relationship between a man and a youth. The Latin form of the name was Catamitus from which the English word "catamite" derives. Ganymede was abducted by Zeus from Mount Ida, near Troy in Phrygia. Ganymede had been tending sheep, characteristic of a hero's boyhood before his privileged status is revealed. Zeus either sent an eagle or turned himself into an eagle to transport the youth to Mount Olympus. In the Iliad, Zeus is said to have compensated Ganymede's father Tros by the gift of fine horses, "the same that carry the immortals", delivered by the messenger god Hermes. Tros was consoled that his son was now immortal and would be the cupbearer for the gods, a position of much distinction. In Olympus, Zeus granted him eternal youth and immortality and the office of cupbearer to the gods, supplanting Hebe. All the gods were filled with joy to see the youth, except for Hera, Zeus's consort, who regarded Ganymede as a rival for her husband's affection. Zeus later put Ganymede in the sky as the constellation Aquarius, which is associated with that of the Eagle (Aquila). A moon of Jupiter, the planet named for Zeus's Roman counterpart, was named Ganymede by astronomer Simon Marius. Red Figure Pottery Red-figure vase painting developed in Athens around 520 B.C. to about the late 3rd century B.C. It replaced black-figure vase painting within a few decades. Its modern name is based on the figural depictions in red color on a black background, in contrast to the preceding black-figure style with black figures on a red background. Red-figure vases were exported throughout Greece and beyond. For a long time, they dominated the market for fine ceramics. Only few centers of pottery production could compete with Athens in terms of innovativeness, quality and production capacity. Of the red figure vases produced in Athens alone, more than 40,000 specimens and fragments survive today. Technique Red figure is, put simply, the reverse of the black figure technique, both were achieved by using the three-phase firing technique. The paintings were applied to the shaped but unfired vessels after they had dried to a leathery, near-brittle texture. The normal unburnt clay was of orange color at this stage. The outlines of the intended figures were drawn either with a blunt scraper, leaving a slight groove, or with charcoal, which would disappear entirely during firing. Then, the contours were redrawn with a brush, using a glossy clay slip. Detail in other colors, like white or red, were applied at this point. The relief line was probably drawn with a bristle brush or a hair, dipped in thick paint. Then, the vases underwent triple-phase firing, during which the glossy clay reached its characteristic black color through reduction, the reddish color by re-oxidation. Since this final oxidizing phase was fired using lower temperatures, the glazed parts of the vase did not re-oxidize from black to red: their finer surface was melted in the reducing phase, and now protected from oxygen. The new technique had the primary advantage of permitting a far better execution of internal detail. In black-figure details had to be scratched into the painted surfaces, which was always less accurate than the direct application of detail with a brush. Red-figure was generally more lively and realistic than the black-figure silhouettes. They were also more clearly contrasted against the black backgrounds. It was now possible to depict humans not only in profile, but also in frontal, rear, or three-quarter perspectives. The red-figure technique also permitted the indication of a third dimension on the figures. Research Sources Ganymede (mythology), , MAR 2014, wikipedia Red-figure pottery, , MAR 2014, Wikipedia Ganymede pouring Zeus a libation. Attic red figure calyx krater by the Eucharides Painter, c. 490-480 BC. Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York), Levy-White Collection, L.1999.10.14., ,Date 13 September 2007, Wikipedia 1 How does life change from the Palaeolithic to the Neolithic period? Palaeolithic Food Gathers, Wandering tribes Neolithic period Food Producers, Early Cities, Selling Items 2 Differences between Minoan and Mycenaean Art Minoan ladies of the court MIDDLE BRONZE AGE (ca. 2,000-1,600/1,500 BC) artistic lifelike Naturalistic Mycenaean Art Warlike simple 3 Differences between Classical and Hellenistic Art Classic no nude women, Idealistic Hellinistic Nude goddesses, realistic expresions 4 What is a polis? What forms of government emerged in the Greek poleis? Archaic period (700-480 BC) city-state (polis) Three forms of government: tyranny, oligarchy, constitution (democracy) 5 What is Idealism, when does it appear in Greek art and how is it expressed? Classic 500-323 BC no nude women, Idealistic, pure expressionless 6 What is Realism, when does it appear in Greek art and how is it expressed? Hellinistic 323 – 31 BC Nude goddesses, realistic expresions 7 Differences between Ionic and Doric order Ionic order Bases, more detail, more columns Doric order no bases or spirals 8 Origin of word mythos; types of myths; components of myths Origin of word mythos Nature of Myths: traditional story Components: plot, characters, setting Types: divine myths, legends, folktales Study of myths: ancient and modern 9 When is Greek mythology created? In what types of poetry is each type of myth expressed? Mention one poet and one poem for each type of myth Dark Ages 1000-700 BC ca. 750 BC Heroic Mythology Epic poetry (Epic cycles) Homer (Iliad - Odyssey) Ca. 700 BC Divine myths (Cosmogony and Theogony) Didactic poetry Hesiod (Cosmogony - Works and Days) 10 Creation of gods: make a plan of the genealogy of divine beings and gods CHAOS Gaea + Tartarus Eros Erebus Nyx (Moerae-Nemesis) Typhoeus Uranus Mountains Pontus Erinyes Giants Cyclopes Hecatonchires Titans: Hyperion [Helios, Selene {+Endymion}, Eos] --Cronus +Rhea) Phaethon Zeus & Gods 11 What is anthropomorphism and how is it expressed in Greek mythology? Refer to both individuals and social organization Gods are like humans 12 According to Greek mythology who creates men and why? Who creates women and why? Prometheus -creation of man(Ovid, Metamorphoses Deukalion (Prometheus’ son) + Pyrrha (Pandora & Epimetheus’ daughter -deceit of Zeus (Hesiod, Theogony) -removal of fire -punishment (Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 13 Zeus: what is he the god of? What is his name in Roman religion? What is his attribute? ZEUS (JUPITER) *di-= “sky” Law and Justice Xenia lightning bolt eagle sceptre 14 Hera: what is she the goddess of? What is her name in Roman religion? What is her attribute? HERA (JUNO) Family female sexuality and fertility sceptre cow 15 When, where, and why were the Olympic Games created? When were they abolished? religion (Olympic games) 776 BC; this is based on inscriptions, found at Olympia The Olympics were of fundamental religious importance, featuring sporting events alongside ritual sacrifices honoring both Zeus 500 ad 1 What do you know about the Jason and the Argonauts? Jason was famous for his role as the leader of the Argonauts and their quest for the Golden Fleece. He was the son of Aeson, the rightful king of Iolcos. He was married to the sorceress Medea. Because he belongs to mythology, he may have existed before the Greek Dark Ages (1100-800 BC.) Jason appeared in various literature in the classical world of Greece and Rome, including the epic poem Argonautica and the tragedy Medea. 2 What do you know about the myths of Thebes? The foundation of the citadel Cadmeia by Cadmus, and the growth of the Spartoi or "Sown Men" The tale of Laius, whose misdeeds culminated in the tragedy of Oedipus and the wars of the "Seven Against Thebes", the Epigoni, and the downfall of his house; Laius' pederastic rape of Chrysippus was held by some ancients to have been the first instance of homosexuality among mortals, and may have provided an etiology for the practice of pedagogic pederasty for which Thebes was famous. See Theban pederasty and Pederasty in ancient Greece for detailed discussion and background. 3 What was the relationship between Atreus, Agamemnon, and Menelaus? Atreus was the father of Agamemnon and Menelaus 4 What is the main storyline of the “Iliad”? it tells of the battles and events during the weeks of a quarrel between King Agamemnon and the warrior Achilles. Although the story covers only a few weeks in the final year of the war, the Iliad mentions or alludes to many of the Greek legends about the siege; the earlier events, such as the gathering of warriors for the siege, the cause of the war, and related concerns tend to appear near the beginning. Then the epic narrative takes up events prophesied for the future, such as Achilles' looming death and the sack of Troy, prefigured and alluded to more and more vividly, so that when it reaches an end, the poem has told a more or less complete tale of the Trojan War. A Rage of Achilles-Agamemnon B: Achilles stays out-catalogue G: Duel Menelaos-Paris-Love scene D: Battle E: The Trojans lose Z: Hector and Andromache H: Battle Q: Gods decide not to intervene-battle I: Greeks ask Achilles to participate K-S: battle, Patroklos killed by Hector T: Achilles in battle U: Achilles defeats Trojans F: Battle of Gods X: Duel and killing of Hector Y: Burial of Patroclos W: Priam and Achilles 5 When and by whom was the “Iliad” composed? Homer date to 760–710 BC 6 What is the importance of the “Iliad”? It shows that war makes men into monsters and gives a link to where Troy was and when it was destroyed by the Trojan Horse 7 What are “nostoi”? Which composite word of the English vocabulary contains the word “nostoi”? The Nostoi relates the return home of the Greek heroes after the end of the Trojan War. In current critical editions only five and a half lines of the poem's original text survive. Nostolgia homesick from olgos pain and nostos return to home 8 What is the historical background of the Trojan War? Mycenaean civilization (Mycenae= the most powerful city) Ca. 1600-1100/1000 BC Heinrich Schliemann found Troy by matching clues from the Iliad Trojan War (possibly ca. 1260 BC) Troy VI: probably Homer’s Troy 9 What is the connection between Poseidon and the Fall of Troy? The horse is the image of Poseidon the god of earthquakes which likely destroyed Trojan walls in 1260 BC 10 Who was Telemachos and what what is role in the Odyssey? Telemachos was Odysseus son and help his father kill the suitors 11 Mention and describe very briefly at least three of Odysseus’ adventures Odysseus and the Cyclops – blinded by a spear after Odysseus tells the Cyclops his name is nothing Odysseus and the Sirens – tied to the mainsail so he could hear them sing Odysseus and Circe – Odysseus uses a herb to not be turned into a pig and lives with Circe for a year 12 Who was Calypso and what role does she play in the Odyssey? Calypso was a sorceress in Greek mythology, who lived on the island of Ogygia, where she detained Odysseus for several years to be her husband. Eventually Zeus orders her to let him go. 13 What is the double importance of the Odyssey? It means that every moment in life is precious and that its about the journey not the destination. Return of the veteran 14 What do you know about the Treasure of Troy? 1945, it disappeared from a protective bunker beneath the Berlin Zoo. The treasure had been secretly removed to the Soviet Union. In September 1993 the treasure turned up at the Pushkin Museum in Moscow. The return of items taken from museums has been arranged in a treaty with Germany but, as of January 2010, is being blocked by museum directors in Russia. They are keeping the looted art as compensation for the destruction of Russian cities and looting of Russian museums by Nazi Germany in World War II. THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI-ST. LOUIS Sports, Ritual, and Death: The Archaeology of Greek Myths (Anthropology 3225) Greek Art and Archaeology (Art History 2212); Wednesdays 4-6:30 pm Instructor: Professor Michael B. Cosmopoulos (click here for biographical information) Office: Department of Anthropology, 537 Clark Hall, Tel: 516-6241 E-mail: Office hours: Wednesdays 2.30-4.00 pm Course Description Since the beginning of our existence, humans have pondered the mysteries of life and death and have strived to find meaning in a constantly changing world. In western civilization, Greek mythology and religion represent humanity’s earliest attempts to deal with the greater forces that affect our lives and to understand our world. In this course we will try to understand the Greeks’ views of life, death, and the supernatural by studying their myths, rituals, religious festivals, sports and theater. The sources of our exploration are two: the fascinating archaeological discoveries of ancient Greek sites and relevant readings from the ancient Greek literature. The myths will be illustrated with examples of artistic representations from ancient, Renaissance, and modern art. The lectures will be supplemented by videos and films. Textbook (recommended, not required) B. Powell, Classical Myth. Prentice Hall, Fourth Edition or later. Course Requirements THERE IS NO FINAL EXAM IN THIS COURSE. Your grade will be based on the following: 1) 4 tests (20 points each, dates indicated in yellow in the schedule below): 80 points 2) Research project DEADLINE APRIL 30 20 points For the research paper you can select an art object from the Greek Culture Center and study its artistic, social, mythological, or religious perspective. Instead of a research paper, you have the option of creating an art project based on the original, either a copy or something totally new. Please see detailed instructions in the end of this Syllabus ("Guidelines"). Grading scale for assignments: A+=20-19. A=18-17. A-=16-15. B+=14-13. B=12-11. C+=10- 9. C=8-7. D=6-5. F=4-0. Bonus: During the semester there will be occasional public lectures organized by the Greek Chair. If you attend one or more of these lectures and write a summary you can get extra points, which will be added to your final score. More information in class. Attendance and use of electronic devices Attendance is NOT mandatory in this course, but strongly advised, especially if you choose not to purchase the textbook. The use of ALL electronic devices (including laptops, cell phones, ipads, etc.) during class is strictly prohibited, unless you make prior arrangements with me. Course Grade breakdown 95-100 A 78-83 B 55-63 C 89-94 A- 70-77 B- 50-54 D 84-88 B+ 64-69 C+ 0-49 You don't want to know CLASS SCHEDULE (subject to modification) WEEK 1  Introduction to Greece and Greek Art and Archaeology (Powell,ch. 1) JANUARY 22 WEEK 2  Introduction to Greece and Greek Art and Archaeology (cont'd) (Powell,ch.1) JANUARY 29 WEEK 3  Introduction to Mythology, Greek Myths, and Legends (Powell, ch. 1) FEBRUARY 5  Theories of Myth Interpetation (Powell, ch. 23)  Myths of Creation. The Rise of Zeus (Powell, ch. 4) Text: Hesiod, Theogony WEEK 4  The Origins of Mortals (Powell, ch. 5) FEBRUARY 12 Text: Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound  Myths of the Olympian Gods: Zeus and Hera (Powell, ch. 6) ARCHAEOLOGY: OLYMPIA-OLYMPIC GAMES Test 1 WEEK 5  Myths of the Olympian Gods: The Male Gods (Powell, ch. 7) FEBRUARY 19 Text: Homeric Hymn to Apollo ARCHAEOLOGY: DELPHI  Myths of The Olympian Gods: the Female Gods. Athena (Powell, ch. 8) ARCHAEOLOGY: THE ATHENIAN ACROPOLIS WEEK 6  Myths of The Olympian Gods: the Female Gods. Athena (Powell, ch. 8) FEBRUARY 26 ARCHAEOLOGY: THE ATHENIAN ACROPOLIS WEEK 7  Myths of Fertility; Demeter and the "Great Goddess". The Eleusinian MARCH 5 Mysteries. (Powell, ch. 9). Text: Homeric Hymn to Demeter ARCHAEOLOGY: ELEUSIS  Myths of Fertility: Aphrodite and Dionysus; Greek tragedy (Powell, ch. 10) Text: Euripides, Bacchae ARCHAEOLOGY: GREEK THEATERS  Myths of Death: Encounters with the Underworld (Powell, ch. 11) WEEK 8 Text: Homer, Odyssey book 11 MARCH 12 ARCHAEOLOGY: BURIAL MONUMENTS  Heroic Myths. (Powell ch. 12) The Myths of Athens: Theseus. (Powell, ch. 15) Text: Bacchylides,Odes WEEK 9 Test 2 MARCH 19  The Myths of Crete (Powell, ch. 16) Text: Apollodorus, Library and Epitome ARCHAEOLOGY: THE MINOANS. KNOSSOS, THERA, AND ATLANTIS MARCH 26 NO CLASS—SPRING BREAK WEEK 11  The Myths of Early Mycenae and Tiryns. Perseus (Powell, ch. 13) ARCHAEOLOGY: THE MYCENAEANS. MYCENAE, TIRYNS APRIL 2 WEEK 12  HERACLES (Powell, ch. 14) APRIL 9 Text: Homeric Hymn to Heracles WEEK 13 Test 3 APRIL16  OEDIPOUS AND THE MYTHS OF THEBES (Powell, ch. 17) Text: Sophocles, Oedipus Tyrranus WEEK 14  JASON AND THE MYTHS OF IOLCUS (Powell, ch. 18) APRIL23 Text: Apollonius, Argonautica  THE TROJAN WAR, I. THE HOUSE OF ATREUS; THE ANGER OF ACHILLES (Powell, ch. 19). Text: Homer, Iliad WEEK 15  The Trojan War, II. The Fall of Troy; The End of the House of APRIL30 Atreus (Powell, ch. 20) Text: Aeschylus, Agamemnon ARCHAEOLOGY: TROY  The Return of Odysseus (Powell, ch. 21). Text: Homer, Odyssey ARCHAEOLOGY: ITHACA Deadline for submission of assignments: April 30 WEEK 16 Test 4 MAY 7 Final Review GUIDELINES FOR RESEARCH ASSIGNMENTS Please follow these guidelines as you complete your assignments, otherwise you will lose points. I. RESEARCH PAPER LENGTH The research paper must be about 2,000 words of main text (about 8 typed double-spaced pages), in addition to bibliography and figures. SUBMISSION GUIDELINES  You are obliged to clear your topics with me and to submit an outline of your paper before you start writing. Unapproved papers will not be accepted  All papers must be submitted in electronic format (e-mailed or on a disk). Printed copies will not be accepted.  Projects will not be accepted after the deadline  Because papers will be screened for plagiarism, before you submit your papers you are strongly advised to process them through Turnitin ( . FORMAT AND CONTENT In addition to the main body, each paper should include the following:  Title page, with the title of the paper, your full name, course # and date.  Table of Contents  Preface, in which you briefly explain why you selected your topic, what its importance is, and what procedure you have followed in your research.  Main Body of the Paper. The main body should be divided into Separate Sections with Headings, like small chapters. DO NOT write a continuous essay without sections.  Bibliography  Lists of Figures (with the sources of the figures) and/or Tables, if any  Tables and Figures Start by collecting your bibliography. Depending on the subject, you should use at least 3-5 titles. First make a list of the books and/or articles you are going to use. Then read the more general material and decide what you paper should include or what questions or problems you will try to solve. It is very important to make a framework or a table of contents of your paper in the beginning. SOURCES and CITATIONS The next step is to start studying your sources. ATTENTION: the majority of your sources should be books and articles, NOT THE INTERNET! Internet sources may be used to complement your bibliography but they should not be used instead of books.If you use internet sources, make sure you list the url address of the web page from which you retrieved the information. You are required to use at least three books or articles in addition to internet sources. You have to keep detailed notes of what you think is most important (do not forget always to record the source of the information). After you have collected all the information you need, you have to start synthesizing it. First assimilate the material and then present the conclusions the way YOU understand them. Each time you use in your text something somebody else has written, you must make a reference, either in a footnote, or in brackets. The name of the author with the year of publication and the page number will suffice (e.g. Coulton, 1987, 15). The full title should be given in the bibliography. In the bibliography, the way to present books and articles is the following. In the case of books, you underline or italicize the title and give the date and place of publication. In the case of articles, “you put the title in quotation marks”, underline or italicize the name of the journal, and write the number of the volume and the page(s) of the article. For example, a book should be listed as: Coulton, J.J., 1987 Greek Architects at Work. London. An article should be listed as follows: Johnson, E.F., 1988: “Food in Bronze Age Greece”. Archaeological Journal 36, 314-335. Once you have finished writing, you have to recheck all your references and make sure that everything is in order. Whatever you write, it should reflect your OWN ideas. PLAGIARISM NEVER PRESENT SOMEONE ELSE’S IDEAS OR FINDINGS AS YOUR OWN! If your paper is a word for word copy of books or even of another student’s paper YOU ARE IN BIG TROUBLE!! PLAGIARISM is a serious offense. Those guilty of copying others’ work, or of borrowing phrases and ideas from other sources –INCLUDING THE WEB!!!-- without proper acknowledgement (see above) will automatically fail the course. II. ART PROJECT This can be a reproduction of an ancient Greek monument or work of art at the Greek Culture Center, or even a totally new piece of art inspired by the original. Any medium is acceptable. All art projects should be accompanied by a 1,000 words write-up containing basic information about the source of your inspiration and a description of the procedures you followedAt least two citations and a basic bibliography are required.


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