MGMT 5621 - Human Resource Management
MGMT 5621 - Human Resource Management MGMT 5621
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MGMT 5621 Human Resource Management (Fall 2015) Professor Breaugh Office: 218 Express Scripts Hall Phone: 3145166287 email address: email@example.com The information contained in this syllabus may change during the semester. Changes will be announced in class. Unless otherwise noted, assignments are to represent your independent effort. ==================================================================== Course Materials: I expect that you will have read the relevant material prior to class. a) Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart & Wright Fundamentals of Human Resource Management, 2016. b) Slides used in the course should be be downloaded from the course’s MyGateway site. c) Readings: (unless otherwise noted, you can download these from the UMSL library website). Urbina, I. (2013). “As OSHA Emphasizes Safety, LongTerm Health Risks Fester.” New York Times, March 30. You may need to use Lexis/Nexis. Jargon, J. (2009). “Latest Starbuck’s Buzzword: ‘Lean Japanese Techniques.’” Wall Street Journal, August 4, A1. (online, Eastern edition). Tucker, M. (2012). “Show and Tell.” HR Magazine, January, 5153. Winkler, C. (2006). “Job Tryouts Go Virtual.” HR Magazine, September, 131134. Levitz, J. (2010). “UPS Thinks Outside the Box on Driver Training.” Wall Street Journal, April 5, B1, Perman, S. (2013). “For Some, Paying Sales Commissions No Longer Make Sense.” New York Times, November 21, B4. Needleman, S. (2009). “Theory and Practice: Burger Chain’s Healthcare Recipe.” Wall Street Journal, August 31, p. b4. Google search: Needleman Burger chain Topics NHGW Other 1) Introduction 227 2) Trends in HRM 2959 3) Equal Opportunity and Safety 6298 Keeping Sprint’s …(p. 9697), also video Urbina. Topics NHGW Other 4) Analyzing Work & Designing Jobs 101129 Jargon. See page 128: paying people to quit. 5) Planning & Recruitment 132163 Tucker 6) Employee Selection & Placement 167197 Winkler. Exam 1 7) Training Employees 200233 Levitz. 8) Developing Employees 236266 9) Creating & Maintaining HighPerformance Organizations 270296 read once quickly, Container Store (p. 29 ). 10) Managing Employees’ Performance 298329 11) Separating & Retaining Employees 332361 12) Establishing a Pay Structure 366393 “Salary Conundrum” case (handout) 13) Recognizing Employee Contributions With Pay 395421 Perman “Did the Incentive System Work?”case (handout). 14) Providing Employee Benefits 423456 Needleman 15) Collective Bargaining & Labor 460492 16) Managing Human Resources Globally 495527 (skim) Exam 2 Course Requirements: Exams: There will be two exams. The format of these exams will be voted on by the students. Dates will be announced well in advance. Attendance: In order to perform well in this class, your attendance is necessary. If you miss class, you are responsible for the material covered. Participation: For a number of classes, you will be asked to prepare material for class discussion. I will regularly make announcements concerning written participation assignments in class and on the course’s MyGateway site. Major Written Assignment: The written assignment will be due near the end of the class. More details will be given midway through the semester. Extra Credit: I will provide an extra credit assignment for those who are interested. Course Evaluation: The percentages listed are approximations. The weight given to each requirement may change slightly. a) Exam 1 . . . . . . . . . . 50 points b) Exam 2 . . . . . . . . . . 50 points c) Major Written Assignment . . . . 60 points e) Attendance and Participation . . . 40 points I believe the subject matter of this course will be important for you no matter what career you choose. I would like to make taking this course a valuable and enjoyable experience for you. Please feel free to come see me during the course of the semester. I cannot emphasize too strongly the importance of your attendance. MGMT 5621 Exam 2 Frederick Eccher 1 Company Benefits a sizable percentage of total compensation. Cost has increased dramatically over the years. 1930s, about 3% of payroll. Today can be 30%-40%. (see Figure 14.1) Increase started during WWII, benefits was not controlled. Many workers do not have a good sense of what benefits cost. Some workers do not value some benefits – proper tradeoff between benefits and salary. Legally Required Benefits can not be gotten rid of such as Social Security/Medicare. Four aspects: -retirement income, -disability income, -survivor benefits, -health- care expenses if taking social security or on disability. Unemployment Insurance: lost job through no fault of your own (not terminated for cause). -rate paid is linked to state (some pay more), company’s prior usage which is an incentive not to layoff people. -must be actively looking for work. Workers’ Compensation: -benefits: disability pay, medical care, death benefit, rehabilitation. -cost to employer: type of job, state, employer’s experience rating. -employer protected from lawsuits unless it intentionally contributed which is difficult to prove. Family and Medical Leave Act: 12 weeks of unpaid leave. -exemptions: 1 year of tenure, at least 25 hrs. per week, not in top 10% pay. -most don’t take 12 weeks. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.-dependents through age 26.no lifetime cap on payments.must cover children with pre-existing condition. Paid Leave: vacation, holidays, sick leave, personal days. Medical Insurance: most important benefit to most people. Over recent years, less often offered. -Cobra: can often extend coverage, p. 434. Other Insurance: e.g., life, disability Retirement Plans: Defined benefit plans: years of service, average salary. -can encourage people not to leave. -can count on what plan will be worth at retirement unless company “defaults”. -can be hard for employer to estimate $ needed to fund pension. (Frequently underfunded) I think a defined contribution program: would work best for this company. Employee has an individual fund to which the employer contributes. Employee may also contribute depending upon the plan. 401k, Employee Stock Ownership Plan- company stock/risk. More mobility. Frees employer from risk of underfunding. Easier to administer (no PBGB). Issue: ability to diversify - % in company stock. Many workers don’t take advantage of it but estimate is 70% do. So 70% happier individuals in the company with this plan. And for the other 30% provide a cafeteria style plan where they can pick and choose what they want to spend that 640 on. 2 360 employee evaluations -360-degree appraisal: Is it more development or does it evaluate what they do more? Will the firm have more confidence in a consensus/what if people don’t put much effort into the evaluations? How much time is involved in doing all these ratings, 3-5 people rating 1 person taking half an hour each per rating might eat into a lot of productivity? How confidential is it and what might be the blowback of negative ratings? Will it be all electronic or will it be a number of forms to be returned. P244 There are lots several benefits, organizations collect multiple perspectives of managers performances, allowing employees to compare their own personal evaluations with the views of others. It also establishes formal communications about behaviors and skill ratings. Studies show increased performance and better behaviors coming from the 360 system, greatest from people who receive lower rating than they give themselves, as long as the its reliable and consistent assessing behaviors and job related skills. Limitations are a significant amount of time involved for raters to complete evaluations. Some managers may try to identify negative feedback and punish the people who give it. Facilitators are needed to interpret results correctly at times. Managers need ways to act on the feedback in order to improve their performance for example taking courses or have someone mentor them. 3 San Diego Catholic school teacher was fired for an ex-husband with a restraining order coming after her at school. She could have been moved to a different school that the ex didn’t know about. This obviously creates an adverse impact on her as she has done nothing wrong. It opens the door for a wrongful termination suit. Outcome fairness/justice: are all employees treated the same in terms of result. No one else went through this at the school but it’s not fair to take it out on her. Procedural justice: fair methods used: e.g., a written policy that applies to everyone. Obviously the school had no policy and just fired her to simplify the matter. Interactional justice: explanation of decision, respectful interaction. Respectfully they should have at least found her a new job if they didn’t want to deal with the ex. New Belgium brewing did employee stock ownership plans (ESOP): where the firm distributes shares & places them in a trust (exempt from income taxes, but if company loses value it could be a bad thing for the workers). p. 410, 51% of shares must be in the company’s own shares (risk of great loss). This actually improves employee morale as they see themselves as working for themselves rather than the company. Lincoln electric did guaranteed jobs and piecemeal rate for jobs instead of laying people off to save money. Piecework Rates: -straight or differential (higher rate with greater amount of work). Quality may be neglected but at Lincoln they inspect everything for quality. Best for routine, manual labor jobs (windshield installer). Normally no direct incentive to learn new skills but some of their best workers enjoy the perks of Performance Bonuses: making 100,000 a year vs the average 60,000. 4 Pros and Cons of mentoring P249 Most mentoring relationships develop informally as a result of interests shared by the mentor and protégé. According to research, the employees most likely to seek and attract a mentor are emotionally stabile, have the ability to adapt their behavior to the situation, and high needs for power and achievement. One major advantage of formal mentoring programs is that they ensure access to mentors for all employees, regardless of gender or race. It can also ensure high potential employees are matched with wise mentors in key areas and the mentors are hearing the challenges facing employees. Mentors may have a hard time coaching people that they are assigned to however and therefore multiple mentors might be needed for the employee. Mentoring is not a substitute for therapy. Mentoring is most successful when voluntary instead of forced on the unwilling. A good mentor might have his career hurt as discussed in class by standing by the side of the protégé instead of the company. 5 Sales training program for poor performers boosts sales up 10% Often training is conducted without systematic study. 1. Is it a training problem? Maybe sending the worst salespeople to the training gave them more motivation to sell. 2. Was past training effective? This seems effective with an increase of 10%, is it the same as previous informal training or different? Did changing location do the trick? 3. If so, could training be made more effective or efficient? Why is this formal training increasing productivity and will it affect everyone even the best salespeople the same or will it be a waste of your best people time and therefore a waste of money. Needs Assessment: evaluate the the employees, and the employees’ tasks to see if training is needed for all salespeople or just the poorest performers. Does the firm have sufficient budget, time to give it to everybody. Will the firm support transfer of training to workplace with supervisor support, coworker support. Will their need to be follow-up training later to keep the 10%. Person Analysis: are people deficient in terms of competencies? Is training an appropriate way to address deficiencies? Who needs training? Evaluation of Training criteria: 1. trainee satisfaction. 2. Learning: 3. transfer to job (boss observes behavior change). 4. Individual performance improvement (more repeat business). 5. Return on investment. (Mayo Clinic example, p. 223) Research design: 1. pretest/posttest. 2. Two groups (trained vs. control). 6 Declining membership for unions over the last years. Membership in private sector unions is declining. (Figure 15.1, p. 464) due to bad reputations, teamsters, construction unions. Government laws reduce need for union because there is more safety in the workplace now. Fewer manufacturing jobs (e.g., automation). Location (South & West: less union tradition). Foreign competition: must be able to compete. Deregulation: airlines, etc. can’t pass on a fixed cost. More effective company resistance. Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization Strike (PATCO) (1981). Where the Air Traffic Controllers went on strike and didn’t come back to work. 1980s - present: continued decline of unions. Pressure for profits. Moving jobs to other countries (Nike). Automation of skilled labor reducing the need for workers. Two-tier contracts. New autoworkers contract. -old tier: $28.00 per hour. -new tier: $16-19.00 per hour. Unions are far more prevalent in Europe than in the US with coverage rates of 80 to 90% and therefore have much more power in the rest of the world. Their role is usually mandated by government. Unless unions overseas can help increase profits they may start declining as well for similar reasons as the us unions. 7 Bonuses for exceeding sales goals on product lines. When you have multiple product lines and one sales much better than the other you are rewarding the salespeople for focusing on that one product line to get their sales bonus rather than trying to sale all of the product lines. So consider paying the Market rate for overall sales. That way people can compare against what others are making at other employers. Or establishing a different pay structure: Which will get priority, product line A that sales really well and makes a little money for the company or Product line B that sales badly but makes a lot of money for the company. Maybe they need to Pay for the Organizations Performance so the salespeople are all in this together. Measuring Results: see p. 312. Management-by-Objectives: ideally start-of-the-year meeting to jointly set goals. The goals: specific, measurable, and with time frames.-person’s goals tied to department’s & organization’s goals. -issues with this as well: The goals: set too low/high, not measurable. Conditions change during year. Hard to compare people that have different goals. Can lead to a short-term focus. Not good for development. Prone to deficiency (things get left out). Frederick Eccher *Issue for Discussion: The Adobe case (p. 328) is to be handed in on 11/17 1 How can managers at Adobe ensure that the feedback they provide during checkins is effective? By using performance management to ensure that employees activities and outputs contribute to the organizations goals. Fit with strategy, validity, reliability, acceptability and specific feedback to make sure they are understood and then check in later to make sure they the employee has the hang of it. The manager can compare previous work to current work to show the results of the check in. 2 In terms of criteria for effective performance management, what advantages does Adobe gain and lose by shifting its methods from rating individuals to measuring results? It looks like Adobe followed Microsoft’s example and rate performance based on each employee’s accomplishments, use of coworkers input, and contribution to worker success which makes the best possible environment for work environment. CheckIns became easier and more effective than the old system, and manager have gotten better at helping the employees improve. Involuntary departures are more common and voluntary departures are down 30%. In other words the non performers leave instead of the talent. MGMT 5621 Human Resource Management (Fall 2015) Professor Breaugh Phone: 3145166287 Office: 218 Express Scripts Hall email address: firstname.lastname@example.org Option one Ameren Customer Service Reps. Frederick Eccher Due Dec 2 A Names of people interviewed, phone, addresses Interviews were conducted at the UMSL vet center on 16 Nov Monday from 11:301pm and 19 Nov Thursday 8:3010 with Michelle Isenberg and Nya Grimes. Strategic Workforce Specialist, Human Resources T 3145542796 F 3142060175 E email@example.com B Description of entry level job Customer Service Rep Overview Customer service representatives are the direct link between the company that they work for and the clients looking for service. They are the initial point of contact and it is their job to help customers, answer their questions and to provide assistance. Customer service representatives may perform a variety of duties depending on the type of company products and services provided to the public. Job functions may include resolving complaints, processing exchanges, or routine calls for providing information and guidance. When the customer has an account with the company, a representative will usually open the customer’s file in the company’s computer system. Representatives use this information to solve problems and may make changes to customer accounts, such as to update an address on file or cancel an order. They also have access to responses for the most commonly asked questions and to specific guidelines for dealing with requests or complaints. In the event that the representative does not know the answer to a question or is unable to solve a specific problem, a supervisor or other experienced worker may help. Many customer service representatives answer incoming calls in telephone call centers, which are increasingly called customer contact centers. Others interact with customers face to face or by email, live chat, or other methods. Some workers specialize in a particular mode of communication, such as voice, email, or chat, but others communicate with customers through more than one contact channel. For example, voice agents, who primarily deal with customers over the phone, may respond to email questions when there is downtime between calls. Customer service representatives work in almost every industry and their job tasks can vary depending on where they work. For instance, representatives who work in banks may answer customers’ questions about their accounts, whereas representatives who work for utility and communication companies may help customers with service problems, such as outages. Representatives who work in retail stores often handle returns and help customers find items in their stores. Some representatives may help to generate sales leads, sometimes making outbound calls in addition to answering inbound ones, although selling is not their main job. Customer service representatives typically do the following: Listen and respond to customers’ needs and concerns Provide information about products and services Take orders, determine charges, and oversee billing or payments Review or make changes to customer accounts Handle returns or complaints Record details of customer contacts and actions taken Research answers or solutions as needed Refer customers to supervisors, managers, or others who can help Customer service representatives need strong listening and speaking skills to clearly and accurately respond to customer inquiries and concerns. They must listen carefully to customers to understand their needs and concerns to be able to resolve the call as efficiently and effectively as possible. Workers who interact with customers by email, live chat, or other nonvoice contact channels must write well, using correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation. They must respond to questions and complaints in a friendly and professional manner. Customer service representatives interact with many different people. Creating and maintaining positive relationships is an essential part of a customer service representatives job. Workers must be patient and polite, especially when dealing with difficult or angry customers. When addressing customer issues, customer service representatives need to analyze situations, investigate problems, and determine solutions. Many customer service representatives work in call centers, or customer contact centers. Others work in insurance agencies, banks, stores, or other organizations that interact with customers. Some work from home. Although the number of athome agents is still relatively small, their numbers are growing. Customer contact center workers usually sit at a workstation with a telephone, headset, and computer. These centers may be crowded and noisy, and the work can be repetitive or stressful, with little time inbetween calls. Customer service representatives who work in retail stores may interact in person with customers. Whether they interact by phone, chat, or inperson, they occasionally may have to deal with difficult or angry customers, which can be challenging. Customer service representatives typically have at least a high school diploma and are usually trained on the job. An increasing number of customer service representatives receive training in a classroom setting and also through shadowing another customer service representative. Training usually lasts about two to three weeks, although it can last as long as several months. This training generally focuses on the company and its products, customers’ most commonly asked questions, and the computer and telephone systems the representatives will be using. New workers may handle easier questions or complaints and receive extra supervision and support. Some customer service representatives are expected to update their training regularly. This is particularly true of workers in industries such as banking, in which regulations and products are continually changing. Some customer service representatives may need some college education or an associate’s or bachelor’s degree, as employers increasingly demand a more skilled workforce. Those who answer questions about insurance or financial services often need a license. Licensure requirements vary, but usually include passing a written exam. Some employers may provide training for these exams. The expected growth of industries that specialize in customer service, like telephone call centers, should lead to more job openings in the coming years, as will consumers’ increasing appetite for products that require service and support. The Bureau of Labor Statistics projects employment in this profession to grow 12.6 percent by 2022, which is about the average growth rate for all occupations. An additional 298,700 jobs will need to be filled. Salary Customer Service Representative Salaries 8,673 Salaries Updated Nov 14, 2015 National Avg $34,064 $25k Min $50k Max St. Louis, MO Area Avg $35,233 $24k Min $49k Max The median annual salary for a customer service representative was $30,870 in 2013, according to the BLS. The top earners pulled in more than $50,570, while the lowest earners made less than $19,640. The highestpaid customer service representatives work in the following industries: natural gas pipeline transportation, oil and gas extraction, and natural gas distribution. In terms of metropolitan areas, the bestpaid customer representatives work in California in the metropolitan areas of San Jose, San Francisco and Oakland. Training Customer service reps can receive training both within and outside the company they work for. For example, some representatives are trained by vendors that offer clinics and seminars on the product they’re selling. Most customer service representatives only need a high school diploma to get a job, but some employers require new hires to have an associate or bachelor’s degree. High school or collegelevel courses in business, computers and English or communications are also helpful to have under your belt. Most customer service reps work in call centers and undergo company training, which generally focuses on the company and its products but may also include a primer on basic communication skills, answering frequently asked questions and phone and computer systems. Customer service representatives who provide financial and insurance information to customers may be required to obtain a state license. Job Outlook Employment of customer service representatives is projected to grow 13 percent from 2012 to 2022, about as fast as the average for all occupations. Overall job opportunities should be good. Those with good customerservice and computer skills should have the best job prospects. Ameren Benefits Ameren's competitive, attractive and comprehensive benefits package reflects the corporation's size and stature as one of the nation's lowestpriced, highestquality energy providers. Here is a brief description of Ameren's benefits package for fulltime, regular employees: Medical Insurance Ameren supplements a major portion of the cost for medical coverage for all fulltime, regular employees and eligible dependents. Coverage begins on the first day of employment. The employee’s cost for coverage is deducted from their paycheck on a pretax basis. Dental and Vision Insurance Dental and vision benefits are available for fulltime, regular employees and eligible dependents. Union employee coverage varies per local contract. Life Insurance Ameren provides employees with Basic life insurance and Accidental Death and Dismemberment (AD&D) coverage. Most employees also have the option to purchase Supplemental life and AD&D coverage. LongTerm Disability (LTD) Fulltime employees are eligible to participate in the LTD Plan, which provides an income to an employee in the case of an extended illness. Retirement Plan The Ameren Retirement Plan helps provide a solid foundation of retirement income for an employee. Employees are 100% vested in their account balances after completing 3 years of service with Ameren. Savings Investment Plan Most regular employees are eligible to participate in the Ameren Savings Investment Plan (SIP) immediately upon employment. An employee can choose from a variety of investment funds, offering varying levels of risk. An employee’s elected percentage is invested into their account on a pretax or aftertax basis. Employees receive a company match on contributions, which is dependent on management or local union packages. Flexible Spending Accounts (FSA) Ameren employees can choose to participate in two separate FSA accounts each year Dependent Care and/or Health Care. Employees contribute to the FSA on a pretax basis, reducing their taxable income. The accounts can be used to pay for qualified day care or healthcare expenses with pretax dollars. WorkLife Employee Assistance Program Ameren's WorkLife Employee Assistance Program (EAP) provides both confidential professional assistance to employees and members of their immediate family for personal problems, as well as serving as a resource for finding appropriate community services, including financial, legal, community referral resources and mental health/chemical dependency care that is convenient, affordable and confidential. An independent private consulting firm that specializes in confidential assistance for employees operates the WorkLife EAP. The WorkLife EAP is provided at no cost to employees. Paid Holidays, Vacations and Sick Leave Employees receive paid holidays, (location dependent), as well as paid vacation time. Employees also are provided with a sick leave allowance based on employment type. Sick leave allowances typically increase as an employee’s length of service with Ameren increases. Time off for Special Purposes: Military service Jury duty Death in family Educational Assistance Program Ameren pays up to 75% of an employee’s tuition and some fees for approved degree programs, up to and including the master's degree level. In addition, courses related to an employee's work, or courses that qualify the employee for a promotion are reimbursed. A reimbursement is issued upon receipt of final grades at the end of the term. Stock Purchase Plan (DRPlus) Ameren offers a stock purchase plan called DRPlus to all employees. The DRPlus Plan provides a convenient means of purchasing shares of Ameren Corporation Common Stock (ticker symbol: AEE), without the payment of any brokerage commissions or service charges. The DRPlus Plan is entirely voluntary, and the employee can begin or terminate participation at any time. My thoughts on Ameren after the interviews. By almost any measure: size, assets, revenues, sales, or market value Ameren ranks among the top 25% of the nations utitlites. Ameren pay starts at 18 an hour for this position which turns into 34,560 a year and usually requires a high school Diploma sometimes an associate’s degree. In other words Ameren pays higher than the market rate for all positions. At Ameren tenure matters because most people rarely leave with turnover between 23%. The supervisor of the customer service rep generally needs retail management experience or something similar. They focus on the customer getting very involved which often times leads to overtime but also a satisfied customer. Ameren has a 10 step selection process before anyone is hired. Step 1 and Step 2 Reviewing and applying for the job at the Ameren website which is more difficult than it sounds due to poor website design. Step 3 The candidate resume and information are reviewed for the position in a matter of days, because nothing is posted for long. Step 4 Is the most critical to selection for the candidate, the phone screening will let the HR rep know whether to bring the candidate in or not. Step 5 Candidates are sent to a testing center which flunks most out because it has a high job validity and not everyone is really qualified who gets to this point. Step 6 Initial interviews are set up for those candidates that pass the qualification test. Step 7 If there is something that needs to be cleared up there may be a second interview. Step 8 An offer is made contingent on passing a background check and drug screening. Step 9 Background check and drug screening Step 10 If everything checks out then the candidate is given a start date. Now Ameren does an excellent job of screening applicants and placing qualified individuals in the right spots because they will likely be there a long time. My recommendation really comes down to the website. Making it more user friendly. Just getting to the jobs page is a trick, then you still need to log in, then finding the almost invisible boxes to click to let you apply good luck. Then after you’ve filled out all the information finding the submit button is another task that’s almost impossible. C Company spoken to Ameren. D any relevant forms you can provide, performance appraisal, interview questions, names of tests used. The information contained in this message may be privileged and/or confidential and protected from disclosure. If the reader of this message is not the intended recipient, or an employee or agent responsible for delivering this message to the intended recipient, you are hereby notified that any dissemination, distribution or copying of this communication is strictly prohibited. Note that any views or opinions presented in this message are solely those of the author and do not necessarily represent those of Ameren. All emails are subject to monitoring and archival. Finally, the recipient should check this message and any attachments for the presence of viruses. Ameren accepts no liability for any damage caused by any virus transmitted by this e mail. If you have received this in error, please notify the sender immediately by replying to the message and deleting the material from any computer. Ameren Corporation Quick Facts: Customer Service Representatives $30,580 per year 2012 Median Pay $14.70 per hour EntryLevel Education High school diploma or equivalent Work Experience in a Related Occupation None Onthejob Training Shortterm onthejob training Number of Jobs, 2012 2,362,800 Job Outlook, 201222 13% (As fast as average) Employment Change, 201222 298,700 Works Cited http://www.wikihow.com/WorkAsaCustomerServiceRepresentative https://www.sokanu.com/careers/customerservicerepresentative/ http://www.glassdoor.com/Salaries/customerservicerepresentativesalarySRCH_KO0,31.htm http://money.usnews.com/careers/bestjobs/customerservicerepresentative http://www.bls.gov/ooh/officeandadministrativesupport/customerservicerepresentatives.htm https://www.ameren.com/careers/benefits Rebuttal Word has been a nightmare with this project and I fixed the format for you. It it now 19 pages instead of 10. I answered all four sections you laid out in the project. I interviewed 2 Ameren Employees who helped me as much as they could giving you their contact info as well. Only 3 people were able to do this project because it was monumentally harder than the other project. You make one comment focus on the job at Ameren and if you read past the preliminaries you should see I do talk about how Ameren is a superior company as evideneced by low turnover and seniority being issues at the company. It pays higher than average wages and once people get in they do not want to leave. This translates into superior job performance from the ground up with managers going the extra mile to make sure customers are happy. You also critique my 10 step model that Ameren uses for recruiting, selection and appraisal of all job candidates. Step 1 and 2 are the website, you ask what makes it poor and had you read my recomendation section you would have gotten the answer to that question which is its not user friendly, getting to the jobs page is hard and then you have to go back and login before you can go back and start applying, the boxes you need to click to submit the pages and apply for the job will take minutes to find because they are almost invisible on the background. Step 5 The types of tests are job specific tesie if you can't perform the test you will not do well in the position, which is high a validity test. Step 7 The initial interview is basically making sure you are presentable and a right fit for the Ameren culture, because you have based the phone (Creeper) interview, and passed the skill test in step 5. I would say I provided twice as much information as the rest of the class, its relevant to the assignment because it answered everything you asked. If you wanted something different than you need to get more detailed with the guidance for your assignment including grading rubrics on exactly what you are looking for and how much points everything breaks down. Also as only 3 people out of 31 were able not willing to do this assignment at all doing it should score higher than average points than the easier assignment that the rest of the class went with. There should indeed be extra credit to the 3 people who completed this assignment because of the difficulty level of getting outside people to work with us at all. So going over your arguments for giving me apparently the lowest score in the class I have given you 10 reasons my paper deserved a much better grade then you gave me. Good night and God Bless. Frederick Eccher Name _________________________________ MGMT 5621, Exam 2, Fall – 2013 3) Essay: A friend asked your advice for managing his/her career. Based on the material we covered, what advice would you offer? (5 points, 12 minutes). Lots of good tips offered for managing a career a) selfassessment: wants, abilities, constraints. b) set goals. c) action planning: e.g., 1. seek a mentor. 2. network. Can’t emphasize enough! 3. constantly update skills (develop expertise in an important area). 4. seek out forums to publicize competence (e.g., inhouse task force, present to external group). not enough to be competent, others must know it. Constantly ask yourself: Where do you want to be in “x” years? Are the actions you are taking leading you there. What actions might you take to avoid being let go? If you were let go, what “things” would make it easier to find a new job? 4) Other Issues: a) Glass ceiling. b) Succession planning: 1. what types of people are needed? 2. do we have such people ready? 3. what do we need to do to create such a pool of people? 4. issue of secrecy/who are the “chosen”? look for cues. c) Dysfunctional managers: 1. a key flaw, but worth “saving”. 2. is person motivated and able to change? What are you doing to manage your career? 4) Essay: An employer is unhappy with the performance of individuals it has recently promoted. The firm relies on two factors in deciding who gets promoted: past performance as rated by a person’s immediate supervisor as part of the annual review process and a promotability rating (i.e., how ready is this person to be promoted) made by the immediate supervisor as part of the annual review process. A friend of yours who works for the employer has asked for your advice on how the employer might improve the quality of the promotion decisions it makes. What advice would you offer? (5 points, 13 minutes). Beyond the fundamental decisions about how to use competencies as part of your employee performance management process (core, leadership, functional, etc.), and which specific competencies are important to your organization/to a department/to a role, as an HR professional, you also need to stop and consider "how" you want managers to assess and rate competencies. There are a variety of approaches and schemes, each bringing its own unique benefits. Deciding which is best for your organization can be a challenge. Here are some general guidelines to help you determine your needs and select an appropriate rating method for your performance appraisal process. Questions to ask yourself How important is the competency to the role? Do employees across the organization demonstrate the same competency in the same way? How well do employees understand the competency? Is it important for your employees to know specific details on their competency demonstration or need for improvement? Is there a risk that managers will evaluate a competency inconsistently? Is that a problem? How many levels of performance do you need to document? (e.g., pass/fail, 3levels, 5levels, etc.) Do you want to force scores to be either better or worse than average? Will you be using competency ratings to drive compensation (pay for performance) strategies? Will you be using competency ratings to drive succession planning? Choosing a rating scale Whichever employee rating scheme you choose, you'll need to decide on a rating scale to use. You may be able to use a universal rating scale to evaluate all competencies; however, there are circumstances where you might want or need to use different rating scales for different types of competencies. The rating scale you use can be as simple as "Demonstrated/Not Demonstrated" or can include several levels of performance "5 Outstanding; 4 Exceeds Expectations; 3 Competent; 2 Needs Improvement; 1 Unacceptable". When choosing a rating scale, you need to first think about how you will use the rating information, and then decide how many data points, or what level of granularity you need in your ratings. If you're using competency ratings to drive compensation or succession planning programs, you'll want a large enough scale to be able to differentiate between levels of performance; a 5 point scale is typically effective. If you want to discourage "average" ratings and force either a better or worse than average score, choose a scale with an even number of ratings 4 or 6; these kinds of scales are preferred by organizations that are resultsoriented and that manage a more competitive environment. Some competency models, like Lominger's, use a six point rating scale, reserving the 6th rating level to identify a competency that is overused, to the employee's detriment. If you don't need to differentiate between levels of performance, a simple 2point rating scale may be sufficient. Choosing a rating scheme Short or simple rating scheme A short or simple rating scheme provides a definition of a competency and invites managers to choose a rating that characterizes the level of performance demonstrated by the employee. Simple rating schemes also sometimes invite managers to provide comments about their rating or the employee's performance. They are typically used for assessing your entire workforce's demonstration of core competencies, or for assessing very specific competencies that an employee either demonstrates or does not. Although it's important for all rating schemes, with a short rating scheme it's especially critical for you to provide detailed competency descriptions that use language and terminology familiar to your workforce. Pros: Quick and easy for managers to fill out. Good for competencies where not everyone needs to demonstrate the same level of performance. Gives everyone a general sense of their level of performance, and gives the organization overall a "pulse" on performance. Cons: Doesn't give employees detailed feedback on what they need to improve unless the manager provides detailed comments. May be harder for managers to evaluate in a consistent way since the description tends to be highlevel. Detailed rating scheme A detailed rating scheme includes not only a general description of a competency, but also descriptions of the various levels of demonstration. Managers rate an employee by choosing the description that best describes their behavior, and can also usually provide additional comments. This rating scheme is ideal for evaluating leadership competencies and functional or rolebased competencies. Pros: Detailed rating schemes tend to result in more consistent ratings because managers are assessing employees based on specific behavior descriptions. Employees get clear information about how they are performing and can see descriptions of higher levels of performance, so they know what/how to improve. Cons: Can make your employee evaluation form very long. Writing the detailed descriptions of the various levels of demonstrations is time consuming. Managers and employees may not read the behavioral descriptions carefully or completely because of "information overload". Matrix rating scheme In certain circumstances, to effectively evaluate performance, you need to assess and capture a variety of data, including things like: date observed, frequency of demonstration, method of observation, initials of the person who observed, etc. These criteria are especially important for evaluating clinical competencies in healthcare settings, but can also be important for functions like call centers or manufacturing. Some organizations also choose to have managers first identify the level of performance required for a particular competency, and then rate the employee's performance. In all these cases, a matrix format is the most effective method to rate competencies Quick way to gather details of the assessment. Easily handles large number of competencies. Provides managers and employees with lots of detail about performance. Cons: Doesn't give employees detailed feedback on what they need to improve unless the manager provides detailed comments. Brief rating key can sometimes lead to mistakes or misinterpretations. Of course, having a talent management tool that gives you the flexibility to choose the best rating scheme, and even mix and match schemes, is key. Criteria for effective performance management 1. validity: free of contamination & deficiency. Figure 10.2 a. how determined? No “true score” – agreement? b. political considerations. developmental usage vs. HR decisions. accurate ratings may not be the primary goal of raters (true at your place?). 2. specific feedback. 3. practical/accepted by users. 2. Appraisal Systems: basic issues. a) objective vs. subjective measures: 1. objective (widgets produced, # of sales). appear accurate. hard to measure all aspects of job (deficiency?). 2. subjective: situational constraints (e.g., poor equipment) can be easily incorporated. some element of subjectivity is almost always involved (e.g., choosing what objectives to focus on, how much to weight each). b) common “errors” that can occur (see page 318). 1. similar to me. 2. contrast error: evaluated lower if group has star performer. 3. distributional errors: leniency/stringency/central tendency. 4. halo. 5. recency: lack of documentation. 3 Evaluators. (supervisor is traditional source). a) able to rate accurately: 1. knowledge of what job calls for (e.g., customer?). 2. knowledge of ratee’s performance (coworker?). 3. sufficient time available. 4. understand system (e.g., how good is “excellent”). training? 5. system allows it (e.g., constraint of forced distribution approach). b) motivated to rate accurately: (e.g., subordinates & leniency). 1. intrinsic motivation: understand why doing so is important. 2. extrinsic motivation: rewarded for doing so. (subordinate?). Would you provide accurate ratings of a supervisor or a coworker who isn’t performing well? Would it matter if you were anonymous? c) specific sources: 1. supervisor: traditional. willing to rate poorly if it reflects on him/her? have to work with the person after session. 2. coworkers: may observe important (unique) information. liking vs. competition. 3. subordinates: confidentiality. insight into what job calls for. 4. self: good for development assuming selfinsight. but inherent conflict. 5. customers: becoming more commonly used. 6. other: e.g., outside experts? secret shopper? 360degree appraisal: *development vs. evaluation. *more confidence if consensus/what if lacking? *time involved. *confidentiality? *number of forms returned. b) Rating individuals: 1. attributes: graphic rating scale: (Figure 10.3). a) easy to develop. b) leniency. c) vague (“initiative”, “average”) → legal challenges. 2. behaviors: a) critical incident measures (can be very effective): notes on daytoday behaviors. sometimes only focus on negative. shouldn’t have recency problem. often combined with another approach. importance of sharing in a timely manner. b) behaviorallyfocused scales. liked, tied to job, cost to develop, hard to compare across jobs (don’t pay attention to MixedStandard scale). behaviorallyanchored rating scale. behavioral observation scale (Figure 10.5). Giving Perf. Feedback: (good material, p. 319 322). a) endofyear vs. informal (coaching/use of notes). b) different perspectives (manager vs. ratee). c) more confident if data from multiple sources. Legal Concerns: adverse impact? a) performance measures are jobrelated (physical appearance?). b) formal process: forms, training, documentation. c) source(s) is (are) reasonable. *key issue can be consistency: same poor behavior from two people has different consequences. 5) I am responsible for hiring drivers for a firm that delivers packages to businesses in the St. Louis area. My goal is to try to hire drivers who show up for work, remaining on the job for at least a year, are honest, and perform well (e.g., don’t have traffic accidents, offer good customer service). Currently, in order to be hired, an applicant must: (a) have a Missouri driver’s license, (b) have lived in Missouri for at least 12 months (so he or she knows the roads), (c) receive a good reference from his/her most recent employer, (d) have a “clean” driving record for four years (no accidents, no traffic tickets), (e) pass a drug test, and (f) “pass” a structured interview. I am thinking about modifying our selection process to improve it. For example, I was thinking of adding either an integrity test or a credit reference check to predict honesty. What are your thoughts on the current selection system? What factors should I consider in deciding whether to modify it? In responding, show your wisdom in terms of the field of human resource management. (13 points, 24 minutes). My goal is to try to hire drivers who show up for work, remaining on the job for at least a year, are honest, and perform well (e.g., don’t have traffic accidents, offer good customer service). Currently, in order to be hired, an applicant must: (a) have a Missouri driver’s license, Why cant they have any drivers license (b) have lived in Missouri for at least 12 months (so he or she knows the roads), Anyone can get lost know matter how long they’ve been in Missouri, gps works just fine (c) receive a good reference from his/her most recent employer, does that have any job validity (d) have a “clean” driving record for four years (no accidents, no traffic tickets), anyone can hit you causing an accident (e) pass a drug test, and adverse impact for medical marijuana users (f) “pass” a structured interview. Adverse impact for minorities? 6) I work for a company that has never had a performance appraisal system. I have been charged with implementing one. Unfortunately, I know almost nothing about the topic. I am not responsible for doing the detail work on the appraisal system we institute (e.g., designing forms). Rather, I am to outline the parameters of what we are looking for in an appraisal system. Once we have made decisions about “big picture issues”, we will work with a consulting firm in designing the final system. I have sought your help. Your task is to enlighten me with regard to major issues to consider in deciding on what we want in an appraisal system. In presenting your ideas, you need not be concerned with the issue of how performance feedback information is presented to employees (9 points, 18 minutes). 2. Appraisal Systems: basic issues. a) objective vs. subjective measures: 1. objective (widgets produced, # of sales). appear accurate. hard to measure all aspects of job (deficiency?). 2. subjective: situational constraints (e.g., poor equipment) can be easily incorporated. some element of subjectivity is almost always involved (e.g., choosing what objectives to focus on, how much to weight each). b) common “errors” that can occur (see page 318). 1. similar to me. 2. contrast error: evaluated lower if group has star performer. 3. distributional errors: leniency/stringency/central tendency. 4. halo. 5. recency: lack of documentation. Name _________________________________________ MGMT 5621, Exam 1, Fall – 2014 *In responding to questions, show your expertise (e.g., note why the issue is important). *Please hand in this sheet with your answers. *The time estimates are intended to give you a sense of how much detail is sought. Short Essay: Discuss the concept of job analysis. Why is it important? What factors should concern a person in selecting one or more job analysis approaches/strategies? (6 points, 14 minutes). Job analysis is the process of gathering and analyzing information about the content and the human requirements of jobs, as well as, the context in which jobs are performed. This process is used to determine placement of jobs. Job analysis defines the organization of jobs within a job family. It allows units to identify paths of job progression for employees interested in improving their opportunities for career advancement and increasing compensation. There are many ways to perform a job analysis, but all require the cooperation of the employee in the position, his or her manager(s) and others the employee must work closely with while performing his or her job duties. 1. Involve employees by having them complete job analysis forms. 2. Interview employees, asking them specific questions about their job duties and responsibilities. 3. Obtain log sheets from employees with information about each of their tasks and the time spent on each task for at least one full work week. 4. Complete desk audits where you observe employees doing their jobs at different times of the day and days of the week and track what they do and for how long. 5. Interview supervisors and managers, and other employees, clients and customers the employee may interact with while performing the job. 6. Compare the job to ot
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