Trilobites to T.rex Midterm Study Guide
Trilobites to T.rex Midterm Study Guide IFS2087
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This 10 page Bundle was uploaded by Grace Elite Notetaker on Saturday January 9, 2016. The Bundle belongs to IFS2087 at Florida State University taught by Dr. William Parker in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 620 views. For similar materials see Trilobites to T. rex: History of Life on Earth in Liberal Arts at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 01/09/16
MIDTERM STUDY QUESTIONS Describe the differences between Darwinian and Lamarkian concepts. According to Darwin, how would faster horses develop? According to Lamark? What did Darwin observe in the Galapagos that gave him the idea and why? • BOTH thought that life had changed gradually over time and was still changing, that living things change to be better suited and adapted to their environments, and that all organisms are related. • The BASIC DIFFERENCE between Lamarckism and Darwinism is that Lamarck proposed that adaptations were acquired because organisms needed them, whereas Darwinism states that the adaptations developed by chance through mutations and selection takes place by natural selection. In a sense, natural selection becomes the driving force for change. • LAMARK is best known for his Theory of Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics • LAMARK: If an organism changes during life in order to adapt to its environment, those changes are passed on to its offspring. • LAMARK: change is made by what the org anisms want or need. • LAMARK: Population of individuals all of the same kind (identical characteristics in all members). Individuals capable of transformation. • LAMARK: For example, Lamarck believed that elephants all used to have short trunks. When there was no food or water that they could reach with their short trunks, they stretched their trunks to reach the water and branches, and their offspring inherited long trunks. • LAMARK also said that body parts that are not being used, such as the human appendix and little toes are gradually disappearing. Eventually, people will be born without these parts. • DARWIN believed that the desires of animals have nothing to do with how they evolve, and that changes in an organism during its life do not affect the evolution of the species. • DARWIN said that organisms, even of the same species, are all different and that those with variations that help them to survive in their environments survive and have more offspring. • DARWIN: The offspring are born with their parents' help ful traits, and as they reproduce, individuals with that trait make up more of the population. Other individuals, that are not so well adapted, die off. ( Natural selection/survival of the fittest) • DARWIN: ex. Most elephants used to have short trunks, but s ome had longer trunks. When there was no food or water that they could reach with their short trunks, the ones with short trunks died off, and the ones with long trunks survived and reproduced. Eventually, all of the elephants had long trunks. • DARWIN HORSES: Faster horses would develop because the fastest horses would survive and mate with each other while the slower ones die off. So basically mating two fast horses would develop faster horses. • LAMARK HORSES: Train horses to run fast and let them mate. The offspring are fast because their parents became fast after being trained. • DARWIN OBERSVATIONS: Galapagos tortoises had different shells on each island. He saw Finches too! Each finch species had a different type of beak, depending on the food available on its island. Later, Darwin concluded that several birds from one species of finch had probably been blown by storm or otherwise separated to each of the islands from one island or from the mainland. The finches had to adapt to their new environments and foo d sources. They gradually evolved into different species. Discuss five (5) “rules” used in relative dating and how they work (use diagrams). What did Smith add? Why was this addition important? • Relative Dating = placing rocks in their proper sequence of formation (which formed first, second, third etc.) 1. Original Horizontality : All rock layers were originally horizontal 2. Superposition: in an undeformed sequence of sedimentary rock, each bed is older than the one above it and younger than the one below it. Older on Bottom. Younger on top. 3. Lateral Continuity: A principle holding that rock layers extend outward in all directions until they terminate 4. Crosscutting Relationships : rock formations that cut across other rocks must be younger than the rocks that th ey cut across. 5. Inclusions: pieces of one rock unit that are contained within anothe r. The inclusions within a rock are older than the rock containing the inclusion because the inclusions had to have been there in order to be “included” in the rock • Smith Added: using fossils so you can tell the difference • Smith was able to correlate rock layers all over England based on characteristic fossils within the layers. • Helped trigger a revolution in geology. Geologists used his methods to discover even older geological formations whose outcrops were scattered across England Describe in detail how 14C dating works. What materials are datable? What are 4 necessary things and how can we derive them? What can bias the method? • How 14C dating works short: 14C formed in u pper atmosphere by cosmic rays. Mixes with rest of C as CO2. Taken in by living plants and animals. Measured as ratio 14C/12C. • Long: method of age determination that depends upon the decay to nitrogen of radiocarbon (carbon-14). Carbon-14 is continually formed in nature by the interaction of neutrons with nitrogen-14 in the Earth’s atmosphere; the neutrons required for this reaction are produced by cosmic rays interacting with the atmosphere. Radiocarbon present in molecules of atmospheric carbon dioxide enters the biological carbon cycle: it is absorbed from the air by green plants and then passed on to animals through the food chain. Radiocarbon decays slowly in a living organism, and the amount lost is continually replenished as long as the organism takes in air or food. Once the or ganism dies, however, it ceases to absorb carbon-14, so that the amount of the radiocarbon in its tissues steadily decreases. Carbon-14 has a half-life of 5,730 ± 40 years—i.e., half the amount of the radioisotope present at any given time will undergo spontaneous disintegration during the succeeding 5,730 years. Because carbon -14 decays at this constant rate, an estimate of the date at which an organism died can be made by measuring the amount of its r esidual radiocarbon. • COMMON MATERIALS: “LIVING THINGS! “Bone, Wood, Charcoal, Linin, Wool 1. You must know that the sample had some of the parent isotope when it was formed. No point in trying to date a sample if it had none of the parent. 2. You must have some way of knowing the parent/daughter ratio in the sample when it was formed. You can measure this ratio now, but what was it at the start? 3. You must know the decay rate of the parent/daughter pair. This is measured in modern labs. 4. You must be sure that the sample has been a closed system - no additions/removals of parent or daughter. • Half life- set by observing • Problems • Industrial revolution released 12C into atm. • Nuclear bomb tests created 14C • Contamination • Atmospheric variations: the radiocarbon concentration of the atmosphere has not always been constant; in fact it has varied significantly in the past Discuss the following evolutionary patterns and give examples: convergent evolution, adaptive radiation, iterative evolution, h eterochrony, ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny. • Convergent Evolution: Organisms evolve similar body structures because those body structures work well for their environment, food source, and habitat but these organisms are not closely related; look similar because of their environment unrelated organisms come to resemble each other. “similarity in unrelated forms” o flight has evolved in both bats and insects, and they both have wings, which are adaptations to flight. However, the wings of bats and insects have evolved from very different original structures. • Adaptive Radiation: process by which a single species or small group of speci es evolves into several different forms that live in different ways; rapid growth in the diversity of a group of organisms “ when new feature opens new life habit ” o The finches of the Galapagos Islands provide a classic example of adaptive radiation—the evolutionary process through which a single lineage gives rise to species occupying diverse environmental niches. o legs à tetrapods (amphibians, reptiles, mammals, dinosaurs) o wings à birds • Iterative evolution: A repeated evolution of similar or parallel structures in the development of the same main line. There are many examples of iterative evolution in the fossil record, spanning a wide range of groups. This evolutionary conservatism is probably owing to the overriding morphogenetic control exerted by certain regulatory genes. “same evolutionary sequence” o Trilobites • Heterochrony: developmental change in the timing or rate of events, leadi ng to changes in size and shape. “Differences in timing of development during ontogeny (the development of an organism) o Paedomorphosis- Juvenilization (young growth extended into adult) § Ex- baby has big face and no hair – adult has big face and no hair o Peramorphosis- adultization ???? § ???? • Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny: "Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny " is a catchy phrase coined by Ernst Haeckel, a 19th century German biologist and philosopher to mean that the development of an organism ( ontogeny) expresses all the intermediate forms of its ancestors throughout evolution ( phylogeny). o Growth tends to reflect evolutionary history Describe Seilacher’s Triangle and how it impacts adaptations. What are spandrels and how do they relate to adaptations? Why is it difficult to determine why an adaptation originated? • • Compromise among competing constraints 3 points: -functional (adaptation) - phylogenetic (pathway options) -structural (available materials) • Before everyone look at an adaption and asked what function it served. Yet, this doesn’t work for all features. • Spandrels are these beautiful arches in architecture between two columns (and the columns are used in support of the building). The Spandrels are not an intregal part in the achitecutre of the building (they are decorative), but you wouldn't have them without the intregal columns → the idea is a contingeny → you can have things "go along for the ride' in the course of evolution, even if they don't necessarily have adaptive significance. Discuss the steps in the scientific method and the possible sources of bias mentioned. Mention Occam’s razor, uniformitarianiasm, inductive and deductive. Why are there no laws in Geology? 1. Start with a question (curiosity) 2. Gather data – observations (“cloven hoofprint of theory”) 3. Formulate Hypothesis (creative; can have more than one) 4. Test the Hypothesis (creative; try to make it fail) 5. Formulate Theory (implies integration) 6. Test Theory (creative) 7. If Theory has passed exhaustive testing – formulate Law • No real “Laws” in natural science o Its hard to test everything • Apparent conflicts between different ways of exploring the world often result from the true nature of the questions being asked • Political versus Scientific: Florida Gov’t decides limestone is not composed of minerals. o Indiana State Legislature: Pi =3.2 • Faith versus Scientific: Debate over cloning humans o – what are the real questions? • Debate over creationism versus evolution o – what are the real questions? • OSCAR’S RAZOR: if you have two hypotheses which both explain the observed facts then you should explore the simplest. • Note: It has been said : "The simple hypothesis was shown to be false. The truth is more complicated. Therefore Occam's Razor doesn't work." However, the principle doesn't tell us anything about the truth of an hypothesis, rather it tells us which one to test first. You might also find it easiest to test several possibilities at the same time - thus you would be using Multiple Working Hypotheses. • Uniformitarianism is the principle or assumption that the same natural laws and processes that operate in the universe noave always operated in the universe in the past and apply everywhere in the universe. It has included the gradualistic concept that "the present is the key to the past" and is functioning at the same rates. Uniformitarianism has been a key first principle of geology and virtually all fields of science, but naturalism's modern geologists, while accepting that geology has occurred across deep time, no longer hold to a strict gradualism. • Scientists use both inductive and deductive reasoning to address biological problems. • Inductive Reasoning is sometimes called the "from the bottom up" approach. When we use inductive reasoning, our specific observations and measurements may begin to show us a general pattern. This might allow us to formulate a tentative hypothesis that can be further explored, and we might finally e nd up making some general conclusions. o This bee stung me. It is a hymenopteran. o This wasp stung me. It is a hymenopteran. o This fire ant stung me. It is a hymenopteran. o I'm starting to see a pattern here. All hymenopterans have stingers. • Deductive Reasoning is sometimes called the "from the top down" approach. In this case, we start with a general idea and work down to the more specific. o All wasps have stingers. (General idea that you inductively reached before.) o This thing in my hand is a wasp. o Therefore, this thing can probably sting me! (specific conclusion) o The experiment necessary to test this hypothesis might be painful. Discuss the evolution of life from the early archean to the end of the Proterozoic. Mention Snowball Earth, BIF’s and Lynn Margulis’ theory. • The Snowball Earth hypothesis posits that the Earth's surface became entirely or nearly entirely frozen at least once, sometime earlier than 650 Mya (million years ago). • Discuss the evolutionary steps, timing and genera involved in the evolution from fish to reptiles. Mention the fossilizable features used to document the transitions. • Fish to amphibians- Amphibians have legs • Amphibians to reptiles - Eggs don’t fossilize, so we look at the ears and toes. Modern Reps don’t have ear noches. Discuss the contributions of the following scientists to the study of early life: Miller and Urey, Stanley Fox, Jack Szostak, and Tom Czech. • Sydney Fox – heating amino acids in phosphoric acid yields polypeptides • Miller-Urey Experiment • 1980’s: Tom Cech – discovered ribozymes – RNA molecules that act like enzymes • 1990’s: James Ferris discovered that montmorillonite clay could cause spontaneous formation of RNA from nucleotides • 1990’s: Jack Szostak (Nobel Prize 2009) – discovered RNA replicase – RNA molecule that can assemble RNA sequences, used natural selection to “artificially evolve” better molecules – by 2001 could add 14 nucleotides, 97% ac curate • 2002: Szostak discovered that fatty acids would form cell -like vesicles, grow and divide, especially if montmorillonite clay was present. 1. We theorize that the early earth had few continents, high heat flow, and anoxic atmosphere. Discuss the data w hich allows us to come to these conclusions and explain why. When did large continents form? When did oxygen start to become present? • 1st Atmosphere: H O,2H S, 2Cl, CO, CO , NO 2 CH f2om vo4canoes • 1 Oceans: acidic, brackish, anoxic • HOW DID WE KNOW? • No Free Oxygen? o No red beds (they were green and gray way back then) o Detrital pyrite (fools gold) and uraninite • Few Continents? o No continental sediments o Deep water sediments § Cherts, muds, graywackes • High Heat Flow? o Ultramafic lavas – Komatiites • Why are Banded Iron Formations, detrital pyrite, red beds, and Komatiites important in unraveling the early conditions on earth? When does each occur, what does each signify and why? • Banded Iron Formations: marks the period that enough photosynthesis wahappening that there was left over oxygen. • Red beds- Oxygen made them red • Deyrital pyrite there before oxygen • Around 2 billion is when there was enough oxygen that things are reacting to it. Discuss the endosymbiosis theory of Lynn Margulis. What important transition in the history of life is involved and how/when did this transition occur? What is the fossil evidence? RNA evidence? Any modern examples of this occurring? • Her hypothesis originally proposed that: o mitochondria are the result of endocytosis of aerobic bacteria o chloroplasts are the result of endocytosis of photosynthetic bacteria o in both cases by large anaerobic bacteria who would not otherwise be able to exist in an aerobic environment. o this arrangement became a mutually beneficial relationship for both cells (symbiotic). • ALSO o Rna in mitochondria more similar to bacteria than its own cell o EX- AMEBOAS o FOSSIL: • What is “Snowball Earth?” When and why is it thought to have occurred? What data is there? What effect did it have on life? • The Snowball Earth hypothesis posits that the Earth's surface became entirely or nearly entirely frozen at least once, sometime earlier than 650 Mya (million years ago). • WHEN:HAPPENED DURING PROTEROZOIC • WHY: Earth had reductions in C02 his would have made the global climate colder, creating larger areas of ice and snow • Effect on life: It was a filter for life. Discuss the evolution of life from the first single cell to the Cambrian metazoa. Mention timing of appearances, important fossil occurrences and mechanisms of evolution. Are all of these forms ancesto rs of groups alive today? How can we tell? • Single cells in earliest archean. Some are bacteria. • Cells stay small until 2 bill • We start seeing bigger cells (Eukaryotes) • After snowball earth, we find boded metazoa • Once we get to the Cambrian , we start seeing hard parts. Which leads to an explosion of finding “Life” Describe the currently accepted theory of the origin of the Solar System. What data does it explain? Who is credited with it? How do our Moon, asteroids, and Pluto fit in? Briefly mention an alternative theory and why it is not accepted. • Our Solar System formed about 4.6 BYA • Nebular theory (CURRENTLY ACCEPTED) o Developed by German philosopher Immanuel Kant 1755. Solar system condensed from a rotating nebula o Nebula contracted under gravity o Initial rotation of the cloud accentuated by conservation of angular momentum. o Cloud flattened into a disk. o Gases in the disk condensed, began to clump together into planetesimals o Gravitational compaction at the center of the disk compressed matter enou gh to start nuclear fusion - the Sun. o Planetesimals collided to form larger bodies, sweeping their orbits, resulting in planets. o Radiation pressure from young sun blew the light gaseous compounds (H, He, Ar, Ne) away from inner planets • How the moon fits in: Currently accepted hypotheses view moon as result of a very early collision between earth and large body (planetesimal?). o Impact was sufficiently energetic that low density material (representing part of the earth and the foreign body) was thrown off into orbit, forming the moon. o Remaining material from both bodies, including the denser components of both, formed the earth. • How asteroids fit in: Collisions and gravitational interactions cause constant change in the asteroidal orbits. Some have adopted elliptical orbits that bring them very close to other planets. A few, called NEO’s, have passed very close to the earth (e.g. closer than our moon) and have undoubtedly collided with the earth and other planets in the past. • PLUTO: Pluto is odd - a small rocky body, it's highly eliptical orbit is inclined to the plane of the ecliptic and periodically brings it inside the orbit of Neptune. • Near Miss Hypothesis: o T. C. Chamberlain(~1900), among others, o Rogue star passed close to the sun o Mutual gravitational attraction drew tendrils of solar matter out of each star o Material sent spinning around the stars as they separated. o Matter later condensed into the planets Describe the different methods of fossilization and what data is preserved . What is a Lagerstatten (give an example)? • Mummification/Whole Organism • Original Material • Permineralization- You can’t do chemistry on it but 3d structure is preserved. • Casts - When minerals fill in the hollows of an animal track, a mollusk shelor another part of an organism • Molds- When a leaf, feather, bone or even a body of an organism leaves an imprint on sediment, which hardens and becomes rock • Carbonized film- • Carbon Film- • Impressions- • Trace fossils (ichnofossils) - evidence of an organisms activities Examples: foot prints in the mud and sand that becomes stone, trails, paths, or burrows made by worms and other animals • Lagerstatten: are geological fossil deposits that are rich with varied, well -preserved fossils, representing a wide variety of life from a particular era. These spectacular fossil deposits represent an amazing "snapshot" in time. • EXAMPLE: Burgess Shale 14. Describe the differences between all opatric and sympatric speciation. What new species have we observed to form? Why are there so few observed new species ? • Speciation is the process by which an ancestral species splits into two or more new species. It's sometimes difficult to determine when speciation has occurred because it is often a gradual process, and not all evolutionary changes result in a new species. For speciation to occur, members of an ancestral species must become isolated from each other. • Allopatric speciation, the most common form of speciation, occurs when populations of a species become geographically isolated. When populations become separated, gene flow between them ceases. Over time, the populations may become genetically different in response to the natural selection impo sed by their different environments. • Allopatric speciation is considered the dominant mode of speciation among most groups of organisms. It's easy to see how things like the appearance of a mountain range, a canyon or a body of water could isolate populations of organisms. Once two separate populations are established, different selective forces could alter these populations enough to establish new species. • Sympatric speciation occurs when populations of a species that share the same habitat become reproductively isolated from each other. • NEW SPECIES: Fruit Flies • WHY WE DON’T SEE: Takes multiple generations 15. What is a species ? How are fossils species different? What things can confuse fossil species definition? If an alien race dug up a graveyard, how many species would they find and why? • Fauna • Species: a group of potentially interbreeding population of individual organisms which are reproductively isolated from other groups • Size and sex can confuse fossil species definition • If an alien dug up a grave yard they would find a male skeleton and female skeleton and think they were different species because the structures are different. Same if they find baby skeletons.
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