History 150 Entire Semester
History 150 Entire Semester History 150 West in the World
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History 150 West in the World
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Date Created: 01/10/16
08/26/2015 History 150 Notes Exam 1 Notes PreHistory o 3 million years ago until 10,000 years ago human beings walked the earth without any real form of organization. Known as ‘Hunters & Gatherers’ Survival mentality o Cooperation – Having to work together for easier survival rate Surviving but not thriving 30100 people in a village o Communication 10,000 years ago – Neolithic Revolution o The discovery of agriculture (farming) In one place, being able to grow, farm, and harvest it. o Rise of permanent settlements Not being nomadic anymore Population of a village grows exponentially Increases the ‘Type’ of people Hunters and Gatherers were just strong and fast Now you can have weaker, slower people, with higher intellect Specialization – Is key! o Specialize in how to make the farming more efficient and the tricks of farming. i.e. What crops can grow at this location, and when to harvest Accidental discoveries, like using manure to fertilize the crops. o With a raising population due to being able to feed more people. There are more specialist in new categories that Hunters & Gatherers never imagined doing before. o Being able to pass down information is key! Mesopotamia o Located near present Iraq, in the Middle East in general. Earlier civilizations are located in hotter geographical areas because it takes the way of a fatal potential of hypothermia and other cold related deaths. o Has a bunch of CityStates that are independent of one another, they know they exist. Availibility of water is the most important part of starting a civilization, RIVERS. Tigris and Euphrates are the two main rivers through Mesopotamia Tigris and Euphrates rivers are incredibly rough to navigate o Afterlife in Ancient Mesopotamia There is a hellish place to go when you die a bad person, or if you are a good person you could be reincarnated a bad spirit. Pessimism Ancient Egypt o Located around the Nile River. Easy going river Floods every year to the same line, enriching the soil o Afterlife for Egyptians was a lot different than the Mesopotamians. When you died, you go do the exact same thing in your afterlife. Their life was so good, they couldn’t imagine a better afterlife Back to Mesopotamia o Sumerians, from the CityState of Sumer discover the ability to maintain a ‘written language’ Known as Cuneiform Makes marks into the wet mud that include messages o Creation of the first symbolic language that survives Being able to be passed down easily and isn’t dependent on drawing skills. It never changes, stays the same generation to generation 08/27/2015 Babylon o First written Law o King Hammurabi first king of Babylon Approx. 1700 BC Comes up with the Code of Hammurabi The code of Hammurabi is written in stone! In the town square of Babylon for everyone to see Oral contracts are not as official or believable as a written contract o Hammurabi’s code is SEVERE An eye for an eye type of Law. o If you get killed, you deserve to be killed Class – Wealth If you are rich, you get treated better. If a poor person takes out a rich persons eye, the poor person could be put to death If a rich person takes out a poor persons eye, the rich person could have to pay a hefty fine Gender roles Favorable to men If a woman is widowed she basically receives her husband’s rights Trade Trading with other citystates Incredibly wealthy citystate Hebrews o Very religious group of people o They were Jewish o Hebrews had influence from Mesopotamia Especially the ‘eye for an eye’ saying o Monotheist, only have one god. Not the first ones to do this Yahweh, god of the Hebrews 3 main points about Yahweh Sovereign o He doesn’t share his power with anything. He is the SINGLE god. o He controls everything, the wind, earth, everything! Transcendent o He is above nature, not a part of nature. o He controls all of nature, he created all of nature, can change nature, but he isn’t a single part of nature Good o Yahweh is a nice guy, doesn’t want anything bad to happen. But something good o “free will” o Moral code, do things because it is right and what you are supposed to do, not from fear of a group of gods Judeo – Christian Philosophy o Idea of being a good person o Basis of Western Civilization Ancient Greece notes on paper in my white binder Homer, Iliad, Sparta, Arete, Olympian Gods 09/2/2015 Athens o Most important place in ancient civilization o Not landlocked On the Mediterranean sea Ability to travel becomes easier Trade because of the ability to travel o Cosmopolitan People coming to visit Athens Like the New York City of its time Accepts all kinds of people, embraces everyone’s strength o Have a Naval military instead of just a ground force o For a long time Athens used to be a lot like Sparta They used to try to grow crops Unlike Sparta, they do not enslave people o Solon offers a solution to their crop problems 594 B.C. Solon speaks to the government in Athens Becomes known as Solon the Reformer Just states that the soil isn’t meant to grow these crops Decides grapes grow plentiful here and make it the main crop Grapes = Wine Olives grow just as easy as grapes Olives also make Olive oil used for cooking Soil (Very clay like) = Pottery Make big pots of wine and oil and sell them for a lot of money Cash Crop = just growing a crop to sell it for money o Athens becomes the richest city of its time because of Solon o Creates early democracy (Direct Democracy) Direct Democracy means everyone gets to vote on everything But only ‘Citizens’ get to vote Foreigners and Woman don’t get to vote Also must own land to vote o Greek Theatre came popular because of Greece Greek Chorus Thespis is in the Chorus He jumps out of the Chorus and begins speaking back to it Invents modern theatrical dialog Invented Thespian – Modern acting o Sophocles is a great Greek playwright (496406 BC) Oedipus Rex is his most famous play o Universal Order o 490 B.C. Ionia is living under the Persian empire Ionia is a Greek citystate Ionia up rises from the captivity of the Persian Empire Athens decides to help their Greek brothers (Ionia) King Darrius I is the Persian king at the time 490BC sends over a fleet of ships with soldiers to take over Athens o Battle of Marathon o Athenian military whoops the Persian Soldiers King Xerxes I (Darrius’ son) swears revenge on the Athenian city state 480 BC, King Xerxes first course of action is to take down Athens and the rest of Greece o Plan of actions is to send troops to the North of Greece and walk down and take down everything in its path o 250,000 Soldiers to fight in Greece! All of Greece decides to unite Persia runs into Sparta first, the huge military garrison The battle of Thermopylae o 300 Spartans defend the mountain pass versus the Persians o They do not defeat them, but majorly slow them down. They were outnumbered 300 to 10,000 Athens Plans for the battle against Persia Themistocles makes a plan to fight the battle where they have the best chance of winning it o Need to lure them into a NAVAL Battle o They abandon the city to lure them into the water o Intellect over Brawn Persian navy is huge! o Also bigger ships, which is bad for maneuverability o Battle of Salem’s Bay GREECE IS VICTORIOUS 479 B.C. Battle of Plataea The Spartans finish off the Persian army! In the aftermath of the Persian Wars, Athens becomes the Capital of Greece Leader of Delian League o Athens begin to tax other polises for common defense o Athens decides to use the money for other things later on Temples, Statues, etc… Begins to cause a lot of animosity Sparta does not join the Delian League, they create the Peloponnesian league Ends up being a Rival League WAR (Civil War) – Peloponnesian War Socrates o (469 – 399 BC) Murdered o Introduces Dialectics Teaching by conversations o Believes in universal rules… Morality Plato o Different than Socrates He is more abstract and more elitist o Wrote a book called ‘The Republic’ His interpretation of a Utopia (Perfect Society) o 3 forms of citizens The Rulers The most intellect, the ‘best’ Soldiers They will defend the Rulers and the city Producers Workers Aristotle o Plato’s student o His writings’ are saved most through the Middle Ages o He is a practical philosopher Popularized moderation for human urges or activities “Middle Class” 09/09/2015 Alexander ‘the Great’ o Student of Aristotle o From Macedonia Macedonia known as the HillBillies of ancient civilizations around the time when Greece was a huge empire o Philip of Macedonia King of Macedonia, unites and organizes the Macedonian empire Father of Alexander the Great o Alexander had a SPARTAN upbringing Also practiced arête Aristotle becomes his teacher o (356323 BC) Dies at the age of 33 o Alexander the Great loves HOMER Also the ancient Greeks and everything they were about He wants to be Greek o Hellenic means actually Greek Hellenistic means Greeklike With a little touch of the Spartans o 336 BC – Philip (Alexanders father) gets assassinated o Alexander the Great may have planned assassinated his father Alex becomes King o Decides to get revenge on Persia for starting a war against Greece! Defeats them o Turn “enemies into allies” o Encourages his soldiers to marry the “defeated” Tries to create a WORLD COMMUNITY o Travels all the way to India o 323BC he dies Don’t know how he died o He creates an Empire But it won’t last after he dies 09/11/2015 Roman Republic o 509BC – 27BC Roman Empire o 27BC – 509AD o Slow progression towards an empire Begins as a citystate Rome o City on the Med. Sea Also on the Tiber River Useful, nice river o Starts off as a CityState that wants to be like Athens Not as wealthy as Athens o Ruled by the Etruscans Rome is like a colony, like America was to England o In 509 BC (Start of the Roman Republic) they get their independence. They stopped paying taxes to the Etruscans Stopped taking orders from the Etruscans o Rome has to do something to defend themselves from the Etruscans Rome decides to expand They create a military Intention of creating a military was defending their independence over the Etruscans Slowly expand to create a buffer zone between Rome and Etruscans. o Romans want to Unite all of Italy Everyone around them is unorganized so it isn’t that hard to expand over Italy They turn enemies into allies after they defeat them Copy Alexander the Great ideals The city of Rome was still in control o They treat people well As long as citizens paid their taxes, they didn’t care who they worshipped or what they did o Rome gets bigger because of TRADE Begins to get in conflicts because of the Islands right off the Med. Sea Incredibly important navy bases or boat stops Carthage and Rome fight over those islands Become quick enemies Fight over Sicily and Messina o Rome’s first great WAR – The Punic Wars Between Carthage and Rome o 1 Punic War (264241BC) Huge NAVAL war Like the Battle of Marathon (Greeks and Persians) Roman wins surprisingly Rome controls all the islands in the Med. Sea now Sicily, Messina, Sardinia, Corsica Carthage gets mad and plans to make a full scale attack vs Italy o 2 Punic War (219201BC) Carthage lands in Portugal and decided to come up behind Italy They use African Elephants in their war Leader of the Carthage empire is Hannibal He doesn’t lose a single time on his way to Rome 70 Miles from Rome Hannibal gives Rome its biggest defeat 216BC Battle of Cannae o He defeats 70,000 men Rome decides to raid Carthage in Northern Africa Plans to get Hannibal and his army back to Northern Africa and get out of Italy 202BC Battle of Zama Hannibal gets his first lost Scipio Africanis defeats Hannibal o Roman Republic extends into Northern Africa and a lot of Southern Europe Becomes a city state into an entire region 09/14/2015 Roman Republic (509 BC – 27 BC) o World empire/community o Create a system Rule by Law = Republic o Trying to create a LAW OF NATIONS Effort to create perfect laws Need to create laws that will work wherever they are in the Roman Republic Also need to create laws that will work no matter when they exist Extend into the future forever Pox Romana Peace of Rome Time of happiness in terms of living and peace o People leave their farms to fight in the Punic wars When the soldiers come back from war, there is none to be found. A lot of unemployment o Rome begins to have “Homeless people” People with no land and no work Rise in violence happens within the city of Rome o Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus come up with a solution Old law that says that not one person can own more than 100 acres of land The brothers decide that they (Rome) should enforce the law The Roman higher ups assassinate them Because they are some of the people that own 1000+ acres o Military leader are also political leaders o Julies Caesar (100 BC – 44 BC) He is a politician first and foremost 1 Triumvirate Julius Caesar o Politician Crassus o Banker Pompeii o General In 59 BC Julius Caesar accepts a military mission to Gaul He begins to send “Letters from Gaul” Becomes really famous from this In 53 BC Julius Caesar stands at the Rubicon river Julius Caesar wins the fight! He starts to solve the Roman Republic problems March 15 , 44 BC Julius Caesar get assassinated 09/16/2015 Roman Republic (On its last legs) o 2nd Triumvirate Octavian Adopted son of Julius Caesar Tries to restore what Julius was trying to do Marc Anthony Powerful military leader Lepidus Backs out because he is going to lose to the 2 above Doesn’t want to die o Octavian vs. Marc Anthony & Cleopatra (Leader of Egypt) o 31 B.C.E. Battle of Actium Octavian wins the battle! o First thing Octavian does is he purges his political enemies Gets rid of them Kill the people who killed Caesar and were affiliated with killing Caesar Gets rid of ones that simply disagree with him o Gets rid of the Senate o 27 B.C.E. Octavian appears in front of the Senate Decides to resign, senate talks him out of it. Says he won’t be king, but be called a Princeps o Becomes a Caesar (A position highly regarded as emperor). After his adopted fathers name o Changes his name to Augustus Caesar(Used to be Octavian) Roman Empire (27 B.C.E. lasts until 409 A.D.) Augustus Caesar successfully makes the transition Augustus Caesar rules from 27 B.C.E. to 14 A.D. Stability Continue “Rule by Law” that originally started the Roman Republic o Emperor is above the Law o Roman empire Provides: Aqueducts Water for people Roads Extremely well kept Can get to one place to another really easily Makes it easier to make money Also faster way to send troops “Fair” Taxes Do not tax more harshly than what is reasonable Religious Freedom Worship however you want as long as you pay your taxes 09/18/2015 Palestine (Is within the Roman Empire) o Homeland of the Hebrews People of the Jewish faith o 4 different sects of Judaism Sadducees People that run the Jewish community in Palestine Upper class of Jewish society in terms of religion and religious leadership o Leaders of the temple, the people who control the religion Wealthiest of the Jews in Palestine They collect taxes! o Not pay them! Bound by the written law of Judaism o The Mosaic Law Pharisees Greatest number of Jews in Palestine o Oral tradition They begin looking to the future o Into possibly having an afterlife Essenes Didn’t discover them until 1947 o With the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls “endofdays” o There is going to be someone who comes and takes the Jews out of this realm into another o Messiah Zealots Want independence from Rome! Causing acts of terrorism and assassinations in “Gods’ name Jesus (4 B.C.E. – 29 A.D.) o Regarded as an enemy by the Sadducees and the Romans Have no real information from him o Preaches ethical behavior is more important than ritual behavior o Tells people to repent now! o Sadducees see Jesus as a religious trouble maker o Romans see Jesus as a political agitator o He is going to be accused by the Sadducees and convicted by Romans For the act of TREASON o He is going to be sentenced by Pontius Pilate He is going to be Crucified o After Jesus dies There is a 5 sect Jewish – Christians o Saul of Tarsus member of the Diaspora Diaspora just means Jews not living in Palestine Saul changes his name to Paul (567 AD) He spreads the Christian religion outside of Judaism. NOT JESUS St. Paul (5 – 67 AD) o He Travels to spread the word of Jesus o Uses the Roman roads to spread the word of Jesus faster o Everyone speaks the same language within the Roman Empire. o Gentiles People St. Paul meets up with Women like it because they are looked at as equals in the eyes of God Men do not like it so much because Circumcision ETHICAL over RITUAL Make a religion that accommodates more and more people o Everything that Jesus says > Mosaic Law o PAUL = Christianity 09/21/2015 Christianity o Transformed into a fullfledged religion by St. Paul (Formerly Saul of Tarsus) o Reaches the peak of popularity in 392 A.D. Theodosius makes it the state religion of Rome When Rome is going down the drain o Rise of popularity also makes a perfect mirror of the decline of Rome o Each city has a Bishop A bishop is a Christian leader of the city o Rome has the most important Bishop The Bishop of Rome is the most important Bishop of all Eventually called the POPE o No written book about Christianity yet o Gospel 66 A.D. the first 3 gospels appear. Synoptic Mathew Mark Luke 110 A.D. John o Greater emphasis on Jesus’ suffering Christians are becoming targets o Persecuted/tortured o For being blamed what is going wrong in the world Jesus was JEWISH o What was Jesus? Was he a god? Or the most important prophet? 325 A.D. Bishops come together in a Synod to decide what was Jesus Council of Nicaea o Decides how Jesus is going to be regarded o Nicene Creed Jesus = God! o St. Jerome (340 – 420 A.D.) He translates the Bible into Latin Also the New Testimate Most people don’t read Latin o St. Ambrose (340 – 397) Is the Emperor above of within the Christian Laws? Decides the Emperor is within Christian Law o Pope > Any other person alive (Including King and Emperor) He will be able to order the kings to do whatever he wants o St. Augustine ( 410 AD he writes: City of God Rome sacked, has been taken over by barbarians St. Augustine says that these cities are Cities of Men Prepare yourself to be a citizen of the City of God (Heaven) Ethical > Ritual 09/23/2015 Starting Exam 2 Notes Roman Empire o Agricultural problems Owning large tracts of land for one person Latifundia (Large Farms) o Diocletian (285 305 A.D.) When he was emperor of Rome Roman emperor who is witnessing the problem of agriculture “Desperate times call for desperate measures” o Tax Collector No one wants to be the tax collector Because people tend to not be able to pay taxes and beat up the tax collector o “Farmer” No one wants to be a “farmer” (Laborer) Because people don’t want to work on someone else’s farm and get bad pay o “Jobsforlife” If you are a tax collector and farmer you work there for life It is hereditary You pass down to your kids and they become farmers o Constantine (306 – 337) When he was emperor He splits the Roman empire in half One half ruled from Rome o Becomes the capital of the Western Roman Empire Other half ruled from Constantinople o Becomes the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire o Western Roman Empire Falls first Christianity rises as a religion Also as a socialpoliticaleconomical Pope becomes the leader of W.R.E. o Eastern Roman Empire Begins to thrive Development of Islam Becomes known as the Byzantine Empire 09/25/2015 “Middle” Ages (Dark Ages) 500 – 1300 o Early M.A. 500 – 1050 o High M.A. 1050 – 1300 o The time in between the fall of the Roman Empire and the start of the Renaissance o Greco – Roman The Roman Empire still remains Not physical the empire but the structures and the Ideals that civilizations strive for in the Middle Ages o Germanic Tribes Become the most powerful because they are the toughest people in a tough environment o Christianity Completely takes over after the fall of Rome. Becomes the lead of social, political, militarily, and economic terms. Not just Religious o Decentralization Drop back down to “CityState” era from over 1000 years ago. Not even really city states, more like towns or Fiefs Known as Fief or a Fiefdom Basically a town or a township Latifundia, with a bunch of people working there on the farm People there are peasants whom are bound to the land to make money o Not SLAVES Lord is the Leader of the Fief Lord owns the Land They pass it down to their children o Aristocracy Separated by social classes Not just by money, but by position of power. Peasants are of the lowest social class o Lord – Peasant relationship Peasants work on the crops that are beneficial to the lord Lord gives the Peasants protection He gives his house for protection when the peasants need somewhere to run to The house continues to get bigger and bigger until it is a Castle with a Draw Bridge and a Moat o Lords have the money To build Castles To make military equipment Or to fight in general Lords becomes specialized soldiers Become KNIGHTS Not all Lords are knights, but all knights are lords. o Knights become a Terror organization They test their swords on peasants at time. Acting brutally towards the peasants The exact people that they are supposed to defend o Wars begin in the “Middle” ages for no real reasons rather than land Pope finds the brutality and war not in good taste Because all of these people are Christian and things are getting out of hand within Christianity o If you want to fight someone that is not a part of the Christian group then that is okay o Pope’s reforms “Seasons of War” Limit the amount of fighting going on Limits when you can, and cannot go to war Use the time that they can’t fight, to prepare for fighting Chivalry The code that the knight is supposed to live by First and foremost beyond anything else knights are Christians o Must behave Christian like o Supposed to engage in aspects of your life beyond war Almost equal to arête o Have a “Lady” An aristocratic woman that you are married to You need to be Charitable o You need to be that protector Not chop their heads off Beginning to recreate the pyramid of hierarchy with Christianity and Society Pope at the top o Soon the king becomes right under the pope Peasants at the bottom 09/28/2015 “Middle Age” o Christianity is defined by the Popes Popes exert their authorities to make themselves important o Pope Gregory I (590604) Sets precedence that the Pope is the most important authority of the entire religion Gregorian Reforms Gregorian chant comes from this Sets up the pyramid, placing himself at the top. o Most important people to have an alliance with is the Germanic Tribes He develops a relationship with the Germanic Tribes o Germanic Tribes They are trying to bring together a large group of people under one authority Clovis is going to conquer most of Gaul (Present day France) 496: Clovis converts to Christianity That means everyone else in the Germanic tribes are Christians Germanic tribes become successful in unifying Western Europe o Charles Martel Nicknamed “The Hammer” 732: Charles Martel beat the Moors Moors were a Muslim tribe in Spain The o Pepin the Short 753: He conquers a group in central Italy called the Lombards. Lombard’s are a group of nonChristians threatening the Pope After Pepin defeats them he takes all of Italy. o Then he gives it to the Pope. Calles it the PAPAL STATES He gives Western Europe is son Charles o Charles the Great (Charlemagne) Greatest leader in the time of the Middle Ages Charlemagne rules from 768814; 46 years! He brings together the only great empire during the Middle Ages He travels around and defeats a lot of people Saxons Lombard’s Vikings Bohemians Moors o Christian vs. Muslim o Song of Roland is not fact, just an epic poem on behalf of Charlemagne Charlemagne had a huge empire that he was able to unite and defend He is like Alexander the Great who lived Known as the Carolingian Empire Carolingian empire is in constant battle Unlike Rome whom is able to govern themselves without constant warfare o 800 Christmas Day: Remember this date! Pope Leo III on this day he crowns Charlemagne Emperor of the Romans (Holy Roman Emperor) Still beneath the Pope in authority o 814 Charlemagne dies He leaves it to his only soon; Louis the Pious For his lifetime, he keeps the empire together o 840 Louis the Pious dies He splits it up between his three sons Treaty of Verdun To the West Charles the Bald gets that empire It becomes France To the East Louis the German Becomes Germany Section in between the east and one Lothair Middle Kingdom All 3 brothers fought amongst themselves for land 09/30/2015 Day OFF 10/2/2015 The breakup of Charlemagne’s Empire o Paris becomes a major city Capital city in France Lord/Mayor Hugh Capet (987 – 996) o Lord of all the Lords o Starts the Capetian family line They keep getting stronger and stronger Slowly develop a STATE A state is a Nation o England Becomes a nation in one fellswoop England also has fiefdoms all over the place They have the desire to unify for protection o William of Normandy Decides he is going to invade England 1066 is when he decides to invade England 1066: Battle of Hastings England decides to unify against a common enemy o Edward the Confessor vs William the Conqueror William wins the Battle of Hastings in 1066 England losing this battle was probably the best thing that has ever happened to them They will unify, become more civilized, be more organized o Henry I (Son of William the Conqueror) Becomes king of England He organizes his nation (England) He creates a census Domesday book o Shire Sheriff have political power Bishops have religious power Henry the 1 creates common law! Looks a lot like the Roman Empire A lot like the Law of Nations from the Romans o No matter where you go the rules are the same o King Henry purposefully copied the Romans because what they did work Enforced by the “Kings Court” They are judges on horseback listening to cases to enforce justice Puts England WAY ahead of every other European Nation o Henry the II Creates a “trial by jury” A judgement by your peers and people indifferent to the situation o King John I (Henry the II’s Son) Not the best King He is engaged in a war He needs money He tries to take them from the Lords throughout all of England John signs a contract giving the Lords more power 1215: Magna Carta ”Great Charter” The king just signed that document to give the Lords more power It creates a Parliament o House of Lords Political body like the Senate from the Roman Empire The House of Lords have more say than what the Senate did from the Romans House of Commons Wealthy people that don’t have the title of Lord Voice isn’t all that great CityMiddle Class Residence of the “Burghers” In France they are known as the “Bourgeoisie” 10/05/2015 Rise of Europe o Building of the State (Nations) Slow development of France England developed in one fell swoop 1066: Battle of Hastings Germany “Confederation” Prussia is the most powerful region of Germany o Pope also grows in power More than any single country Grows the Christian religion Pope Gregory VII Most dominant Pope in the Middle Ages He dominates the Kings He also instructs them o On proper behavior o No different than Chivalry for Knights Also instructs on Politics/Military o Pope out of his jurisdiction on these topics If you do not follow his orders o He will Deny your right to rule 1 Action Say that God has spoken to him and that they are not worthy of ruling nd Excommunicate you 2 Action You are kicked out of Christianity and when you die you go straight to Hell rd Interdict citizens 3 Action Excommunicate all of the Kings citizens Lead citizens to revolt o Popes gain unbelievable authority o The Crusades Muslims have control over the “Holy Lands” The Popes want the “Holy Land” back Even though it was never theirs to begin with 1095: Pope Urban II calls forth all of the leaders in Europe Called the Council of Claremont Urban says that God wants the Christians to have the land and not the Muslims They go and fight at Jerusalem and Palestine Why are the people in Western Europe doing this? Pilgrims: They genuinely believe that the Pope talks to God o People traveling on behalf of Christianity Penance: Forgiveness o If you die in this war, you go straight to heaven no matter what you have done on this earth o If you live, all of your sins are wiped free Adventure o Opportunity to travel outside of Europe o 1 Crusade Successful for the Europeans Mainly because of element of surprise 1099: Christians capture Jerusalem Figure out that the cross on the shield doesn’t make you impenetrable nd o 2 Crusade 1174: Islam calls a “Jihad” Jihad means “Holy War” Saladin is the single greatest warrior in all of the Crusades He takes back all of the territories that all of the Christians have conquered rd o 3 Crusade French send their king – Philip Augustus England send their king – Richard the Lionhearted Germany send their king – Frederick Barbarossa Dies the most humiliating death, drowns because he jumps in water from excitment 10/07/2015 Crusades o 1095 – 1291: Crusades (Christianity vs. Islam over the “holy land”) Christianity start warfare vs. Muslims Gap grows between Jews and Christians also o Trade New area within the European war Good side effect after a huge war Brings people together Italian CityStates flourish in Trade Venice, Sicily, Florence, Milan Have a great Navy o Dress ships for money Entering a World Community Big reason was because of Trade o Same reason why Greece(Athens) created a world community Spices were a great trade back then o Came from the MiddleEast Italian citystates become incredibly wealthy o They don’t really fight in the war They use their navy to drop off the army o Lords leave They go off to fight in the Crusades Peasants take care of the farm themselves They do not need the Lords anymore Lords become unhappy at this situation o Pope Pope loses credibility in talking to God. Most people think that the Pope is just a guy not really talking to god now. He is NOT A political leader A militarily leader He is A religious leader o That doesn’t actually talk to god, no one does “rebirth” or Renaissance (1350 – 1600) o Returning the Western Europe to the days before the Middle Ages o Based on money They are now producing enough food for people to have jobs other than farming o They had a head start because they learned from the Romans and the Greeks They try to recreate a world community that civilizations succeeded to do before them Like Rome and Greece o Italian citystates were the richest among all place because of trading spices o Secular Christianity Italian separate everyday life from Christianity Twohalves of your life Religious side o Engage in it however you want Your day to day life o Live your life how you want Back in the Middle Ages you would suffer something because That is what Jesus did Or you are preparing for the afterlife o Most important citystate in Italy Florence Lorenzo the Magnificent “Patronage” Hiring an artist to make a work of art In the middle ages all works of art were religious because o The only people able to afford it were the churches Lorenzo brings competition for the artists o He pays artists to do work o Churches use to make them do it for free Gives them a Choice Between who to work for o Example: The Pope, or the Emperor Or what kind of art you want to do o Music, Sculpting, or painting Donatello Invents “nude” o Beauty of the naked human body Statues of naked people Any work of art nude He is protected by his patrons o Physically and o Financially Michelangelo A devout Christian Pope Julius II o Gives Michelangelo a task Sistine Chapel He did it for free 10/9/2015 Last week continued o Leonardo da Vinci “Universal Renaissance man” Everything he touches he comes up with an amazing idea Architect, Painter, Inventor, Military Strategist Not exactly like Arête Mostly the intelligence side Be better than anyone else Mona Lisa Subtle smile Also can represent the Renaissance o Curious, mysterious, secret Realism o Politics Niccolo Machiavelli (1459 – 1527) The Prince Throws out the idea that the Emperor is within the church, and not above it A ruler must rule without religion “ends justify the means” o A political leader must always look at the ultimate goal o Ultimately crucial that you respond in the appropriate way o For every crisis, there is a responsible response 10/14/2015 Renaissance cont. o Italy Secular Christianity Separation between life and religion Was not being antireligion or antiChristian o Spread to the rest of Western EU Christian Humanism Not separating Humanism to Christianity But adding Humanism to Christianity Expand within the confines of Christianity o Erasmus (Dutch) Traveler Phenomenal intellectual He pokes fun at Christianity In an attempt to improve it He believes that it has some major flaws He also pokes fun of Woman Saying that they are treated worse than they should be o And it shouldn’t be that way He points out the problems with unfairly treating woman He sees each gender as equals “In Praise of Folly” A book written by Erasmus An attack on the Christian church that uses Satire Devout Christian Looking to improve Christianity by pointing out its flaws Put to death by the Church o Rabelais (France) Also approaches Christianity “Gargantua and Pantagruel” A book written by Rabelais Enjoys religious beliefs and earthly treasures o Earthly Treasures i.e. Human Nature Should include not just Christian nature but also Human nature o From the Renaissance Secular Christianity Christian Society Music o Not just Christian music, any music Drink o Enjoy yourself, in moderation Sex o Enjoying sex, just for sex. Not necessarily for procreation. o Thomas More (England) “Utopia” Literature of a perfect society Presents a perfect society as o Christian Socialism – Share in the wealth Jesus was not wealthy Wealth was corrupting o William Shakespeare (15641616 England) Playwright that revives Greek ideals Characters are “flawed” They are humanistic 10/16/2015 Reformation o Martin Luther (14831546) A German Studies the LAW on his own He has a legal mind o A mind looking for a legal answer in everything he pursues Cannot overcome his fear that he is not going to heaven Gives up law to become a MONK He reads and studies the Bible With a legal mentality In order to get to “Heaven” it must be by the Grace of God How do you get the Grace of God? According to the church in Rome: o Faith Everyone must believe in God and Jesus o “Good” Works Be a good person Be a good Christian Ethical over Ritual Martin Luther challenges the church of Rome o Faith He believes that this is the only thing the Grace of God judges Roman church practices Indulgences A way to get out of Purgatory faster and into Heaven earlier The church prints out these indulgences and sells them for money Martin Luther is against Indulgences Because he thinks that Rich people wouldn’t have to do anything to get into heaven then 1517: Wittenberg John Tetzel comes to town bringing indulgences selling them Carnival like Martin Luther can’t take it anymore o He writes down all of the problems that he has with the church right now Called the 95 Theses Then he nails it to the door of the Wittenberg church o Church is not too pleased with Martin Luther Martin Luther gets support o Specifically from Frederick of Saxony (Frederick is an aristocrat) He guarantees the safety of Martin Luther o He does this for a couple of reasons They are both German Also Fred has something to gain from this The popes don’t like the Aristocrats in Germany o The popes keep interf
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