IAH 204 Notes (all notes before 1st exam)
IAH 204 Notes (all notes before 1st exam) IAH 204
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Date Created: 01/10/16
Social Context of Early China Tensions b/w the political center (the Zhou) court & regional lords: Constant warfare & widespread desires for peace and order: o This violent era of competition b/w the domains was one of the most intellectually creative in China’s history The Ideographic sign Def: A written sign of a single syllable that represents the idea of an object rather than the sound of the speech as exemplified in the phonetic language The classic of Poetry It is an anthology of 305 ancient poems: The collection has been in circulation since the 6 century bc It was used as a cultural encyclopedia across the social divide b/w the high & low e.g. text, manual, courtship Content Popular Songs Elegance Great Odes Subject Matters Love, war, hardship, of agricultural life Style: straightforward in immediate imagery & musical nature Mode: self- expressive The Osprey The scholarly versions is the translation by Bernhard Kalgreen Kwan- mimic sound of osprey Lovely is the good girl whom a gentleman desires Controversy on the interpretation of “The Osprey” o Confucian scholars interpret the bird as a symbol for the royal king in political allegories What is the desire of the poet? Does the poem open the door for the claim to regulate/ influence the world? CP13 What is the reason to attach the poem to royalty? The Mao Commentary “Great Preface” Over-politicize the poem Regulate the world/relationship with the virtue of the Queen Consort The poem does not open the door for this allegorical assertion Possible reasons: o Canonization of Confucian thought o Make the love poem respectable The impact o The Mao renditions became the politically correct reading of the Classic of Poetry during the Han dynasty o The allegorical imposition represses diverse voices o Open Ended approach vs the closed designation Significance of the critical debate o The interactions b/w defiant undercurrents and the dominant powers have given rise to renewals of literary creations Intellectual Foundations Confucius and Laozi th Cultural context (6 century BC) The social crisis: o Competition of leadership among states: o Uncertainty and change Thinkers emerged to respond with the chaos: o Debates and dialogues among different schools of thought: o Redefinitions of the previous ideas: Contextual Reference China (722-481 BC) The West Confucius (551-479 BC) Laozi (?) probably contemporary to Confucius Plato 429-347 BC) Warring States (403 -221 BC) Mencius 371-289 Aristotle (384-321 BC) Zhuangzi Xhani Confucius View Confucius in historicity: o Perceive his thought w/out the canonical glory inscribed in the Han Dynasty: o Explore the significance of his thought: o The impact of his school of thought: The Analects Put together by his disciples 1. Moral Power is the principle for the social hierarchy Through mastering oneself and returning to ritual one becomes humane. If for a single on can master oneself and return to ritual, the whole world will return to humaneness” (The Analects) 12:1 Personal responsibility constitutes the basis for social stability. Moral Power “Let the ruler govern as he should, and the minister serve as he should. Let the father regulate as he should, and the son act as a son should” ibid, 12:11 Filial piety in the family; loyal submission to the ruler in the state: The social order is hierarchical as described in the analogy b/w a family and a state. Priority of family over the state (21/31) Redefining the concept of “gentleman” nobility Nobility is acquired through personal cultivation 21/31 A. Advocate character over birth: against the hereditary privilege B. Cultivate oneself in the here and now: “What you do not want yourself, do not do to others” 12:2 C. Moral behavior is reciprocal 21/31 2. On Learning: “To learn, and at due times Learning and Thinking ``When I hold up one corner of a square to anyone and he does not come back with the other three, I will not bother to go over the point again” Learning without thinking is labor lost; thinking without learning is perilous” 2:15 Learning and thinking are complementary: Complexity He is critical to hereditary systems, but is I favor of established norms, such as the idealized past over the present, age over youth The conversation: (11;25, CP 31-32/119-123): 1. Administrate the state of 1000 chariots: 2. Administrate the state of 60 or 70 li wide 3. Be at the services of a royal ancestral temple: 4. Fear my words will not be so well chosen as the other three, Bathe with others and return home singing: What is the response of the master to the last student? The political ideal and the personal preference do not have to exclude each other The Daoist (Taoist) Contention What is the Way/ Path? o It is the logic which underlies operations of the living universe o “the Way/ Path that can be spoken of is not the constant Way 35/79 o It is difficult to explain the Way in concrete terms o The language can only point to the Way A different focus: Focus on the relational and individual concerns. ‘The nameless is the beginning of Heaven and Earth” 35/79 The nameless logic is prior to the name that is given to the object We have to study the nameless logic in order to understand the named object Interrelation of being and non-being (Laozi) We build walls but none of us in Humpty Dumpty We use the empty space enclosed by the wall (Laozi ch 11) o Use the empty space to make a judgment of the wall or idea How to we think? What may have led Huizi to his position? CP 43 DO we have to think like the carpenter? o No Do we have to exclude other views if we are carpenters? o No we want to be open minded How does Zhuangzi view the tree? o Can use it for shade, and plant in an open space Is the tree useless b/c the carpenter cant use it o No There are alternatives to using the tree Self-preservation of the tree What has them have such different views? What do you think about the gnarled tree? o Huizis position Says its useless o Zhuangzi’s position Much larger view Shade and self-preservation of the tree Can we think outside the conventional box? Useful or Useless? Our feet use only a small area of the ground while walking Is the unused ground useful or useless? o Useful b/c people can use the ground o Can we walk freely if we only have the ground the size of our footprints? No o We need to walk and think freely and we need space to do that Recap: Personal responsibility is the basis for social stability Learning and thinking are inseparable: Political ideal is not superior to everyday preference Tension within Confucian School and Daoist Contention Mencuis, Xunzi, Laozi, Zhuangzi Mencius 371-289 BC Human nature is originally good Uncalculated compassion Motivations of actors in interactions 44/114 People can be corrupted unless the strive to preserve their innate goodness Individual capacity to improve oneself through self-cultivation 44/115 On the government The mandate of Heaven o Heaven oversees a moral order in which the objective of a ruler is to provide well- being and prosperity for his people 44/115 The kingly government: o Win the hearts and minds of common people instead of being obsessed with profit o Share the joy with the people o Ruler is not above the law Totalitarian Government o One who despoils humaneness is called a thief; one who despoils rightness called of robber 46/125 o The mandate of Heaven is not unconditional o Rulers are also defined by their actions o Ministers should remonstrate the corrupt ruler, and withdraw from his court if he does not listen Contributions The critical implications: A corrupt ruler disqualifies himself to rule. o A ruler is not above the law The political ideal of individual scholars is to engage in social actions Individual actions define who they are Xunzi (Hsun Tzu, 298-238 BC) Had polished essays Challenge the notion of Mencius: o The nature of man is evil Man’s inborn nature is to seek for profit People are prone to violence His goodness is a result of his active molding through self-cultivation On Government Was a magistrate Emphasize social control & strict law A ruler is responsible to transform people with laws and punishments Disorder is a result that man does not follow the moral principle His thought has a considerable impact on the Qin and Han dynasties On learning “Learning must never cease. Blue comes from the indigo plant, yet it is bluer than indigo” 49/161 6062662 Product can be better that the primary source Learning can lead us to reach a higher level 49 It is important to learn by comparison The higher one gets to broader view one gains Learning and Beyond Turn others knowledge into our own strength “surely learning is learning to unify oneself” CP 50 Learning can bring coherence to oneself CP50 Hold firm to one’s inner power CP 50 Confucian Outlook: The social stage is the whole world. Daoist- The social stage is part of the living world. Overlaps the Confucian outlook Contextual Reference A) The Reform (356-350BC) Strengthened powers of the Qin state -Legalist advisor: Lord Shang(390-338BC) B) How does the political center Rule regions? Rise of Qin State The change in the power relation The state over the family against the Confucius notion Advocate war as a means to strengthen powers of the ruler State laws define responsibilities for all members except the ruler The centralized state inspired both awe and dread, for it wielded unprecedented power and controlled vast resources (CP 61/229) The Qin Empire (221-207 BC) Construction of a centralized administration o Foster a bureaucratic structure o Divided the nation into 36 provinces o County magistrates were appointed, salaried, and subject to recall Create new elites dependent upon the ruler Legalist practice: o Ruler would enforce state power and regulate control on the resources and maintain power o Loyalty to the state above the family tie: o Repression of Confucian scholars Achievement of the Qin Empire Built highways, canals and connect city walls o A total of over 4,000 miles of highway o Standardized writing and measurement Peasant Uprising (209-206BC) The ruthless rule of the state: o Exaction of resources and strict laws Peasant revolt o Leaders: Chen Sheng and Wu Guang o Personal experience of the suffering o Initially 900 people, then over 10,000 soldiers o They established political power in today’s Henan The Impact Profound effect of the downfall o The Qin rule was too harsh o Terror and strength alone could not rule the world for long CP60 o “Fault of Qin” by Jia Yi (201-169 BC) How did he describe the First Emperor of Qin Empire? CP 61 How did Jia Yi describe peasant leaders Farm hands led the uprising to challenge the emperor CP 62 Men of courage wrecked the Qin Empire which was both powerful and strong What were the key reasons for the Qin Empire to fall? 1. Rulers lack humaneness and rightness 2. Preserving power differs for seizing power 3. Repressing diverse opinions in counter productive The men of vision would not help the ruler Consolidation of Power in the Han dynasty (202BC – 220BC) The lesson the Han rulers leaned from fall of Qin The need of a state orthodoxy to consolidate the state legitimacy The Legalist-Confucian amalgam with bureaucratic control o Staff the office with Confucian literati o The emphasis of hierarchical principle on duties CP 58 Constructions of institutional statecraft o Literati convinced the monarch that they were indispensable to legitimize imperial powers and make the social structure work CP 57 Confucian scholars claimed the could bring out the hidden meaning in classics to highlight the art of governing Mao Commentaries became part of Statecraft Canonization of Confucian thought The imperial academy (124 BC) o Confucian classics became the orthodox scripture o Internal changes within the Confucian school A) Systematic B) Conservative a. Limits of criticism power brokers b. The change in the larger picture c. The canonization of Confucian thought rendered their thought systems marginal Complex relations b/w rulers and Literati The monarch provided them with prestige and power CP 57 They supplied knowledge to consolidate the state The Tension: o The cost for literati to be assimilated into the political structure is the loss of their independent base in the public space o The individual resistance against the exercise of sectioned violence of the power broker in the public and cultural arena Recap: Canonization of Confucian thought The Intellectual Dilemma Courage to face the Tyranny The Grand Historian Contextual Reference The function of historical writings To impart tradition and provide edifying moral examples from the classics CP 68 Record: o Illustrate moral principles o How do they expect to achieve this goal? o Deduce the underlying principles and descry the pattern hidden beneath the events Re-define historical writings Accentuate the personal experience of individual characters in the past Focus on historical figures who dare to interact with doctrinaire powers o Highlight specific characteristics of the historical characters o Inject his view into descriptions and comments Emphasize the choice made by courageous contenders Grand Historian: Sima, Qian The Letter What are the reasons for the Grand Historian to defend Li Lang? A brave general without sufficient troops; soldiers used up all arrows but the relief never came CP 65 How to view his defeat in the context of his life contributions CP 65 Intention was to set the Emperor’s mind to rest and stop malicious plots CP 65 Reasons to choose life The difference lies in what is done by dying… Courage and fearfulness depend on the situation..” CP 65 His refusal to accept the accusation CP 64 He could not leave the work of personal importance unfinished CP 66 His independent writing would validate his character CP 66 What does he try to achieve? Compile neglected knowledge of former times CP 66 Draw the principles behind the success and defeat Explored the interactions in power politics The irony: his words got him in trouble and got him respect Bian He’s Jade Why is the man of Chu sad? o His Jade has been judged a mere stone CP 70 o Feet were cut off A most honorable gentleman has been called a fraud CP 70 What can we learn from the story o Can’t judge a book by his cover o How to view the popular view o Open-minded The General (Lien Po) & The Retainer (Lin Xiangru) What is the problem for the King of Zhao to face at the beginning? o What is the suggestion by the Chief Eunuch? o Suggest his Stewart How does he justify his recommendation of his Retainer? Cp72 o Retainer suggested bare through and stood up and told the general what was going on What is the central message of his personal story? o The Retainer is righteous and courageous Two reasons they cannot refuse the trade Qin is strong and Zhou is weak Choice of conscience The refusal would put us in the wrong CP 72 What is his promise to his King? o Pledge to bring back the Jade How does the retainer get the Jade back? o There’s a blemish on the Jade o Smash my head on the jade What are his words while standing against a pillar What is the concern of the King of Qin? What may have empowered the Retainer o His character o Brave o Can the retainer succeed if he views the King of Qin superior to him? Courage Intelligence View both as able players Is the Retainer determined by his state Zhao which was weak? The second round What is the reason for the Retainer to ask the king of Qin to play the pitcher? CP 76 o To humiliate the King How does the Retainer threaten the King of Qin? CP 77 o He could smash the king’s head Why does the king of Qin give in? o He didn’t want to die What does this episode mean? o One can defeat the enemy if Courageous, intelligent and lvl the playing field Third round What is the reason for the General to humiliate the Retainer? o General was the one that fought the battles o All the Retainer can do his direct o When the Retainer Is the General more powerful than the King of Qin? What do you think of the choice made by the Retainer What about his character Put the state first His character is not corrupted by powers Highlight the courageous Retainer “A man who knows he must die acts courageously, for it is not hard to die, only hrd to face death.. Other men, of course might have been paralyzed by fear, but he summoned up the courage to strike awe into the enemy. Recap The character of the retainer is not corrupted by the power he has gained, nor is the Grand Historian embittered by his misfortune. The individuality of the Retainer outshines the powerful King The independent stance of the Grand Historian in power politics Traditional China in the middle age (3 -6 century)d th Historical Context Large scale famine The Yellow River shifted its course (11AD) The government was unable to cope with the disaster Peasant Uprisings CP90 o The Red Eyebrows 17-26 AD o The Yellow Turbans 184 Suspicion of Confucian Dominance o Confucian thought was only a thin layer” of the cultural reality The Warlord in social chaos The Warlord Cao Cao (155,220) o The man : Born in today’s Anhui o Rose from obscurity o Known as brutal and cunning o Accomplished poet The Short Song Express his personal views of instability and uncertainty in life CP92 o Format o Convention of a banquet song o Morality is on his mind o His desire to get rid of melancholy By drinking the wine o Thank his guests o CP 94 Reevaluation of literary activities “On Literature” by the Crowned Prince, Cao Pi (187-226) Why do men of letters hold one another in score CP95 o Literati often use their own merits as the ground to attack others o It is impossible for anyone to be accomplished in all styles in literature Possible reasons One’s own forte often becomes the ground of which to level attacks on fellow writer’s gifted in other ways The lack of an appropriate knowledge of oneself The blindness in rooted in self-centered prejudice How to outgrow the bias? 1. Examine materials with our own facilities rather than bow to reputations CP 96 2. Understand literary works are similar at the core but different in details 3. Possession of a particular skill does not authorize one to look down upon others View ourselves and others on equal terms The importance of literary activities CP 96 The literary engagement is comparable to that of governing a state, for literature lives on to eternity Misfortune did not deter the one from writing, nor prosperity the other Value a brief moment more than a piece of jade a foot long The larger picture Debate with utilitarian approach to subordinate literature to ruling politics Yang Xiong renounced poetic expositions of his youth CP 91 Is it smart to dismiss the invaluable knowledge produced in literature b/c of its fictional nature? Live to one’s heart’s content Tao Qian, Master Five Willows o Born in a gentry family o Held several minor posts and reigned on his own choice o How did he get the name as “Master Five Willows?” o Personal life, tended to the garden Choose to live happy life o Personal choice Poor but carefree Wealthy but he’s bound to the rules of the court o “The Peach Blossom Spring” Is the Utopia relatable to everyday individuals? How does the fisherman describe cave scene? There are ordinary houses, lush fields, and beautiful ponds They wore the same clothes- everyone is equal – wear everyday ordinary clothing – not gods – simple Emotionally happy and enjoy a happy life Reason for living in the cave? o Run away from the Qin dynasty Interpret the work, different from the personal experience of Master Five Willows o Expressed his desire to live in the carefree kingdom which is very different than the reality he lives in Literary Contributions What it means to be happy, and how a person could choose to live to his heart’s content The critical significance of the literary allegory: Carefree and the happy modes that the social reality lacks in the historical moment Recap: what it means to be happy, and how an individual can chose to live to his heart’s content in social chaos. The personal choice is not determined by sociopolitical reality The carefree and happy modes in the allegory are what the society lacks in the historical period Cultural Developments The Tang Dynasty Known for the poetic contributions Social and Cultural Context Court politics o The historical fact is overshadowed by the popular image Construction of new elite Examination o Highly styled form Play the power game Open door policy of metropolitan culture Men take the examinations o Young women could be educated o Believe that romance is possible o Choose own spouse Spread cultural ideas, powerful, more freedom, more accepting of different ideas o Eager to experience other cultures33333333 Minorities in China Cultural Exchange with central Asia The Monk: Xuan Zhuang Decline of the Tang dynasty An Lushan rebellion o Took the capital Changan in 756 o Peasants uprising led by Huang Chao 875-884 o Took the capital Changan 881-883 o Rising didn’t set up a good government system which led to their downfall Literary Developments Poetic compositions o Included in the metropolitan examinations o Hope to impress influential patrons o Occasional writings as personal exchanges or expressions Change at the center stage Images of female players o Women are no longer restricted to the marginal role o Romance in the metropolitan culture o The shared belief in romantic possibilities CP 104 o Ineffaceable works on love, Tang legends Talent of poetic excellence Li Bai 701-762 Douist in nature – conventional o Native of Sichuan o Traveled extensively o Appointed to a post in the imperial academy 742 but exiled soon later o Unrestrained to the traditional themes and modes o Sunny outlook expressed in his poetry in spite of vicissitudes in his life Poem on Wine o Doesn’t seem stressed by lack of company o Who takes the lead? “While im still conscious lets rejoice with one anouther, after im drunk let each one go his way let us roam beyond human cares and plan to meet far in the river of stars. Bring in the Wine o Why do men mourn their white hairs Mortality All going to expire one day. Not embittered Enjoy life while you can He describes sages of old” didn’t think of them highly” They were not impressive Short of money, send the boy and would sell his stuff o He’s carefree, doesn’t seem to care about money just about enjoying life. The work hours are only a small portion of the day Fights against the misfortune Du Fu 712-770 Confucian Sage of Poetry – innovative –people weren’t used to it o Born I a literary family o Unsuccessful in exams o Obtained offical post at 42 but left in 4 years o Intensified expressions of miseries depicted in his poetry Ruins of the state o A family letter is worth a thousand gold o The aging self as the embodiment of the ruins of the nation? The hair could not hold a hair pin Getting older Relate to the ruined empire Doesn’t have any young mentality or energy o He wanted to serve his country but court politics aren’t allowing him o Creates a dark picture of the social reality Tang Legend Yuan Zhen o Born in a poor family o Passed the exam at only 24 with flying colors o Banished from the capital o Wrote “the story of Ts’ui Ying ying the story of Ts’ui Ying ying o The initial encounter Attitude in beginning Not very interested, aversion No makeup, reluctant and resenting Chang in infatuated with her o He tries to draw her attention The interaction o He tells the maid he longs for the girl o Scarcely contain himself Maid tells him to write to the girl o Response She knew he was going to pursue her View her lecture- tricked him to come in and told him to go away. Confucian tradition- give a tough lesson b/c she was brought up that way Meeting the fair one- She wants to get married after they are together a month She anticipates that he won’t be faithful When Chang wasn’t around she didn’t care o Become indoctrinated like the men of letters Significance of the work o Complex gender-relationship in a patriarchal society o She does change throughout the story o She does have an independent mindset, she dares to follow her hearts desires o She has become dependent of the one Chang, she lost her independence Recap: Different individuality as observed in the poetry by Li Bai and Du Fu Is it justifiable for Mr. Chang to disclaim any responsibility in is rationalization o Mr. Chang was the one who initiated the relationship and the affection Took the initiative to start the affair o Ying ying probably wouldn’t of been with Chang o Compare Ying ying with the playful girl in The Classic of Poetry? Ying ying didn’t have as many options The canonization of Confucian thought was in Ying ying’s time, The playful girl is independent- while Ying ying doesn’t have that choice or that mode of thinking Chang’s refernernce to the evil in women – need to look up Unit 4: Japan Construction of indigenous culture, Early Japan Stereotypical Assumptions: Japan as a feudal nation: why treat them different different than UK? Japan is a Copycat: language related issues Explanation? Key problems The exotic other: Japan is beyond comprehension A second class imitator o Method: Outgrow the totalistic perception View Japan as an equal player o Content Learn from the Japanese Turn their knowledge into our strength Cultural context of Early Japan Tensions: Unified Neighbors Internal Contentions o Every house is fighting for power Buddhism o Japanese indigenous religion: Shinto Emulate established nations o Incorporation of the Chinese thought without losing originality Prince Shotoku Major Characteristics Interested in religion o Well-read in Confucian classics Establish the central authority CP 345 “Seventeen Article Constitution” (604) Sounds like a cluster of guidelines Principles for Japan to emerge o A statement to construct a powerful nation 1. Set up a hierarchical order Harmony is valued… When those above are harmonious and those below are conciliatory CP 350 “The lord is Heaven, the vessel is Earth, Therefore is it that when the lord speaks, the vassal listens, the superior acts, the inferior yields compliance Missing part of Confucian thought is that the ruler can be taken out of the throne Wouldn’t want to give people the excuse to overthrow the throne. 2. The Inclusive approach: “The Budda, the Law… It is the law honored by all… Few men are utterly bad; with instruction they can follow it” Reasons to incorporate Buddhist Thought o Used Buddhist thought to include the demographic o All individuals have the potential to become enlightened o Include everyone in the state building 3. A social contract a. Decorum: “The ministers and the functionaries should make ritual decorum their leading principle… If the superiors do not behave with decorum, the inferior are disorderly” b. Individual responsibility “Let every man have his own charge, and let not the spheres of duty be confused. When wise men are entrusted with office, the sound of praise arises… Few are born with knowledge: wisdom is the product of earnest meditation” Personal responsibility o Let men of ability to take the office c. Trustworthiness “Trustworthiness is the foundation of right. In everything let there be trustworthiness. For in this there surely consist the good and the bad, success and failure. If the lord and the vassal trust each other, what is there which cannot be accomplished?” Trust plays a key role Significance “In all things whether great or small, find the right man, and they will surely be well managed… In this way will the state be lasting and the temples of the Earth and the grain will be free of danger.” Acceptance and assimilation Kojiki Records of ancient matters.things It is the courts statement about the origins of the imperial clan and the leading families at the beginning of Japan as a nation. The political emphasis: it is the courts attempt to justify the imperial rule (of Yamato) with mythical origins so as to reconcile subordinate groups Claim imperial legitimacy What does Kojiki tell us? The legitimacy of the imperial house Establishes life values Significance Legitimacy of the emperor Impact on the mind The goals: Japan will become unified Establish a legitimate authority Synthesize both the Confucian and the Buddhist thought in nation building Win rival clans in power politics Buddhist Variations Saicho, Kukai, and Dogen Historical Context Removal of the capital Restore sovereign power Need the Buddhist support Why Saicho was chosen? o The shared dislike of the Buddhist sects. o Saicho Established a small temple o Dissatisfied with the clergy at Nara temple CP 366 o Believed in Lotus Sutra and accessibility if salvation for all o Chosen to be the site of the capital in Enjoyed the imperial patronage Preached an inclusive enlightenment Everyone could realize Buddha nature CP 369 His argument against Nara schools o Authority should not be derived from secondary sources The true strength of Lotus teachings is based on Buddha’s own words (as he claimed) Lotus quote CP 368 o there is limitless potential in everyone, we are not limited by the for-fathers o Interpretation The necessary condition: Lotus blooms after grow above the water: The relation between the water and the stalk Need adversity to grow The deeper the water the taller the lotus stalk grows There is no limit for the lotus to grow Significance of the passage o Everyone has the potential to grow, the key is whether we want to succeed Symbolic meanings 1. Everyone can gain enlightenment if there is the desire 2. Everyone can rise above the problem, because there is unlimited potential for individuals to grow. 3. Constructive outlook o Kukai His belief Buddha preach can be expressed in words and in objects CP 366 Everyone can gain intimacy with the world of Buddha The appeal of his optimistic affirmation Human individuals are capable of understanding and experiencing a good part of what it means to be enlightened Strength comes from within o “The Buddha Dharma is nowhere remote. It is in our mind; it is close to us. Suchness is nowhere external. If not within our body where can it be found?” o “Seek in your own mind enlightenment and all-embracing wisdom” Underlying Meaning The power within the individual reach: each person can access the truth about the way things are, b/c it is accessible to everyone” The key is whether one wants to take the initiative The sacred moment is here and now. The magical spirit [kami] compels me to make it manifest in the concrete term. Significance Everything is possible. The key is whether we allow magic to appear no matter it is in terms of a poem, a table, etc. The emphasis is on us and now . (What we choose to do in the present) Frequently people confide themselves to social aspects like language Difference between Saicho and Kukai Saicho believes in harmony of Esoteric Buddhism and The lotus, whereas Kukai asserts superiority of the former over the latter Dogen Zen buddism Structure of the mind and body Mind and body work together o Held down by the mind and what you tell yourself o Achieve it through thought Neo-Confucian Thought- Song Lyrics Painting Spring on Festival River (17.5 ft long) Historical Context of Song Dynasty The Civilian rule: Excessive supply of successful candidates Urbanization: o The historical crisis: The Northern power destrothe Northern Song in 1126 o Fractions in power politics: o What had gone wrong? Neo-Confucian School Zhu Xi (1130- 1200) The True Way School: o Scholars insist on “strict adherence to the classical Confucian principles along with their new elucidations and interpretations” o The Goal: Redefine and revitalize Confucian heritage Complexity How to revitalize the Confucian tradition? o Clean the mainstream by throwing out what they believed to be non-Confucian elements Didn’t have a concrete idea or guideline to go off of o The potential problems They did not agree among themselves on what was non-Confucian Not very organized or structured organization They were not free from non-Confucian influence The emphases Stress the correct interpretation of the classics for state craft applications Inward-looking to examine himself and outward-looking to investigate the universe The man is the decisive link between his personal word and the cosmos Its claim to legitimacy It claims it is the lineage of legitimate transmission of the Confucian orthodoxy The disciplined self-cultivation would firm up individual commitment to the moral well-being Only this school can give man and his society an integrated way of life with meaning in everyday activities Tension with the State The True Way school is “independent for the state” and its literati “claims their interpretations” as “What the orthodoxy should be” The insecurity of power brokers leads them to regard this school as political threat The Song state proscribes this school as the “False Leaning” Official Repression The court denied Zhu Xi his expected appointment Ordered candidates to declare they had no connection with this school The court issued a list of 59 leaders o Zhu Xi was stripped of his official position o He passed away in 1200 The Reversal The court granted honors to Zhu Xi in 1208 Zhu’s commentaries on the Analects and Mencius were adopted by the court The military threats from the North o The Neo-Confucian School became the state orthodoxy in 1241 under a different name: The School of Principle: Song Lyric The primary features: o The verses of uneven length with certain rhythm o Rooted in the popular culture Two Major Styles o “Heroic Mode”: bold and extravagant o “Subtle mode”: delicate sensibility Su Shi The man: o Ranked second place out of hundreds of candidates o Recommended in a special exam in 1061 o Wrote series to citizen the reformer o Demoted to minor positions and exile to Hainan Island The Red Cliff “Charming Nien-nu” Introduction of the historical site leads the poet to think of legendary figures The sight, sound, and color, o Eastward goes the Yangtze River o Waves scour all gallant worthies of the past Thrown-out rocks pierce through the clouds (sight) Starting surges tear at banks,(sound) Roll up a thousand heaps of snow (color) “One historical moment with how many heroes! Thought about master Chou o “Think of Master Chou in those years and Young Qiao newly married gait in new swing” “Between talks and laughs and of the men with feathered fan and silk scarf, massive enemies turned to ashes and gone into the smoke.” “Spirital tour of the kingdom.. You(reader) laugh at this sentimental me… Let me offer a toast to the moon of the River He is comparing Master Chou with the reputation, poet has 47 years old and was demoted and exiled, felt sorry for himself and he didn’t fulfill his duty as a loyal minster. Couldn’t be the person who wanted to serve the government like he wanted to . Bamboo is flexible- why they are fold of bamboo Xin Qiji Born in Northern China Join the trop against the invaders at age of 21 Went to the southern song as a military officer Proposals “Moon of the Western River” How did the poet seek merriment? Wine He felt that ancient books are useless He got drunk next to a pine tree How do I look? He asked the tree? He thought the pine tree was going to hold him up Don’t think he is drunk while writing the poem o Used humor to talk about the sad things o He is not innocent in this playful mode He knows what he is trying to say He could say things that he wouldn’t say normally Li Qingzhao Born into a scholar-offical family Married with ascholar official Left the town after Northern Literature Poetic subtlety through a female perspective Sheng-sheng-man 7 pairs of repeated words o Searching, searching, seeking, seeking, listless, listless How to resist the powerful wind? o Drinking can only distract her not solve the problem that she is alone o How to bear the darkness lone? o How to sum up this condition with a word of sorrow? Talks about inadequacy of language to talk about her feelings of her heart Indescribable listless mood Recap: Didactic principle of Confucian thought “Literary writings convey the Way” o Mainly historical philosophical, moralistic, works and essays View classical poetics in historicity Drinking is used as a metaphorical means The listless mode in “Sheng-Sheng- man” o Every image points to her listless mood The Yuan and Ming Literature The Maritime expeditions and Vernacular Literature Yuan Dynasty (1234-1368) Capital is today’s Beijing (Da du) Mongol rulers distrust Han elites Vernacular literature: Diverse voices Voices quote on CP 127 Ming Dynasty Zhu Yuanzhang conquered southern song capital The yuan emperor abandoned the capital Population doubled: o Story-telling Paper money issued in Ming Dynasty Cultural Context of Ming Intensified intimidations in court: o Ministers had to kneel in front of emperor o Tang – ministers could sit o Song- could stand Political censorship of Mencius o Only 1/3 of collection used cause emperor didn’t like 85 sections The sanctioned curriculum: o “Four Books” o The “eight-legged essay” Required a highly formalized argument over Confucian themes Tested the writing skill than the intellectual substance Maritime expeditions Zheng He o Led 7 Large expeditions o 28,000 in 60 large ships and 255 small ships o 30 countries Vernacular literature Fictions written in the Ming dynasty The spoken language of everyday life as compared with the literary language Elite Involvement: o Concerns with economic terms: The Journey to the West (1592) The reason for the whole group to get wet o Everyone was busy they forgot to ask the question in terms of the turtle o Explained the storm o They have the creative power o What does their success mean according to the Monkey? The Demons and the Gods became jealous of them God and Demons wanted the people’s attention They think they are better than all them, the demons and Gods are on the same level Monkey is beyond the appearance of the Demons and Gods Monkey understands the actual problem Only one who ca penetrate the surface While Monk couldn’t understand Monkey has outgrown the Arrogant and egocentric personality o They layed the scripture on the rock to dry it out o Some was stuck on the rock Monk (master said that we have been very careless we should have been more vigilant) Monkey’s reply – people and everyone is imperfect “After all… even Heaven and Earth are not perfect. This sutra may have been perfect, but a part of it has been torn off, which is a condition in coorespondence with the profound mystery of non-perfection” People don’t require things to be perfect There is always room for improvement o It is relevant to us The Courtesan’s Jewel Box Mutual attraction between Mr. Li and Decima o He has no money left to pay so the mistress wanted to drive him out o She falls more in love with him she fell more in love o Money isn’t the element that would affect her decision on Li though it was the basis of the mistress o Mistress asked for 300 in three days, Decima negotiated for 10 days o Fellow Student o LI went to friend Liu Lui thought it was a trick from the mistress Liu wanted Li to sever their relations He was an honest friend and a good friend Mr. Liu was touched by Decima’s devotion to Li so he sought out help for Li Understand Decima’s action and appreciates her devotion to LI Recognize the true value of Decima Mr. Sun wanted Decima for himself o She couldn’t stand on her own anymore because she devoted herself to Li and once he betrayed her then she lost her independence o The betrayal is very damaging Very difficult for her to give up the idea that she can move on and give up Li Compare Decimas plan with Mr. Suns plan in terms of how Mr. Li could repair his relationship with his father? o Mr. Sun Unfit to inherit the property of his father Because of marrying a courteaon his family would not approve o Decima A father cannot help loving a son so he cannot be mad at you forever Important to talk to the father That’s how you can repair relations with the father The loyalty of the lord is more important The Qing Dynasty th Historical Context 17 Century Peasant uprising (1629-1645) o Li Zicheng (1606-1645) Overthrew the Ming Dynasty in 1644 Military conquest of the Manchu: o Establish the authority with intimidation o Manchu hair style, would lose head if you don’t wear it in a pony tail/ braid Cultural Resistance Institutional adoption of Confucian norms The challenge: o Create a political institution New social structure that is loyal to ethnic group o Gain the support from the Han elite o Retain the control of the Manchu rule “Blood was, however a less powerful force than the culture” CP 164 Taking over Confucian thought 1. The right to rule 2. Support the examination system a. Imperial patronage i. Complete dictionary of four categories b. The counter argument i. When court organized scholar officials to edit the publications to get rid of the unorthodox material ii. If the work isn’t in the system it will be destroyed Literary Suppression Official repression “ A prison of( those who harbor unorthodox) words” (Gong Zizhen) a. b. Execution of those who didn’t agree with the principals c. Large scale and would effect families too Wu Jingzi (1701-1754) Of an impoverished family of the scholar official He did not value fame and wealth Led a life of recluse The Scholars (1803) The Scholars A satirical fiction Citizen social hypocrisy and failure of the moral values in the examination system Episodic Everyday characters Chapter 3 Examiner Zhou’s impression of the poor candidate essay after his first reading o He was disappointed what was the fellow getting at in the essay? o Lousy Second time o Understood more of what he was trying to get at o Thought there was something there Zhou’s view of the poetic composition o Emperor attaches the importance to the essays o Neglected his real job of making essays o He is a scholar official trained to read essays Essay writing is the most important thing Third reading o Most wonderful essay in the world o Every word a pearl o Real genius Many examiners just look at the face value of the essays and didn’t look at the actual content of the essay o For 20 years he returned and took the essay again o Personal experience of the examiner and that he had bad luck for so long Butcher HU The key for his son-in-law to pass the examination o The Butcher must have done something right and he must have contributed to his success o Also that the examiner was so old and had sympathy for Fan Jin Proper style for his son-in-law conduct himself o You must do things in a proper style o Do not grade lower people that would make me lose face Self-centered and wants to have power over the son-in-law Butcher is not high ranking but he looks down on the everyday folks Butcher’s response the request of the loan o Look like a monkey and you want to take the exam? o He was only lucky the first time Reason the Butcher Hu doesn’t want to hit his son-in-law o Saw Jin as one of the stars in the sky o Changed his view because he could provide for the family o Human relation and social ranks Critical position within the Confucian system Pu Song-ling (1640-1715) Failed provincial examinations repeatedly Completed Strange Tales of Liao Zhai in 1679 o 491 stories o Added more stories in 1707 Circulation of the work o Ghosts and demons o They do not follow the rules of the society and independent “Painted Skin” Is seeing believing? The strange and the ordinary o Everyday issue and supernatural are blended together Things are not always what they seem to appear on the surface o Girl was demon and beggar had the magical powers The strange becomes comprehensible o Loyalty of the wife is deeply rooted within the Confucian tradition The recorder of Marvels Bring forth the hidden message between the lines Significance of the novel: o Transformed ghost stories of the popular culture into respectable art.
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