Human Anatomy - All Lab Notes
Human Anatomy - All Lab Notes ZOOL 270
Popular in Human Anatomy
Popular in Animal Science and Zoology
This 62 page Bundle was uploaded by Jessica Schneider on Sunday January 10, 2016. The Bundle belongs to ZOOL 270 at Humboldt State University taught by Michael King in Winter 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy in Animal Science and Zoology at Humboldt State University.
Reviews for Human Anatomy - All Lab Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 01/10/16
Human Anatomy Lab Notes – August 25 th Lab unavailable MW 11-2, but it is locked when not in use so you’ll need to find a building monitor (11-4 is when they’re on duty), otherwise get a keycard from the main office (?) Axial Region Cranial – skull/brain case Frontal – forehead region Cervical – neck region Thoracic – chest region, that portion that is surround by the rib cage Abdominal – stomach/intestinal area Pubic – waist/hips region Appendicular Region Axillary – armpit area Brachial – upper arm region Antebrachial – forearm region, term not used often Carpal – wrist area Inguinal – groin region, where leg meets trunk Femoral – thigh area Leg- specifically the lower leg/tibia region Tarsal – Anklebones Body Cavities Cranial cavity – where the brain is Spinal cavity – where the spinal cord is Ventral Cavity – upper body Thoracic cavity – area encased in rib cage Pleural cavity – area where the lungs are Mediastinum – area formed by the mediastinal septum (membrane), area where the esophagus, trachea and heat/pericardial cavity Pericardial cavity – heart is contained in its own sac within the mediastinum Peritoneal cavity – area below ribs in the axial region Planes of Section *These planes can be placed in many different orientations along the body and through specific organs, but follow these basic rules Sagittal plane – longitudinal, running front to back Midsagittal plane – runs directly through the middle of the body, gives us a mirror image of both sides of the body (think Gamzee) Transverse – cross-section (think Eridan) Frontal (Coronal) – longitudinal, goes side to side, like most common human anatomy diagrams/mannequins Directional Couplets – relative terms that are opposites of each other, help us describe where things are within the body Superior/Inferior – higher in the body/lower in the body Anterior/Posterior – towards the front/towards the back *These couplets are applied to all organisms, not just humans, and is regardless of posture/walking orientation Dorsal/Ventral – the back side/the belly side Cranial/Caudal – head end/tail end Medial/Lateral – towards the middle of the body/towards the sides of the body Proximal/Distal – towards the trunk/away from the trunk (ex. the elbow is distal to the shoulder but proximal to the wrist; *these terms are used in relation to a specific point on the body) Superficial/Deep – closer to the surface of the body/farther away and in among the internal tissues of the body Tissues 4 Different Types Epithelial Cover organs (ex. skin) and form linings (digestive tract, mouth, etc.) Connective Most common, function as binding and support for organs and other structures (mostly) Muscle Nervous th Human Anatomy Lab Notes – August 27 Epithelial Tissues – Coverings and Linings Functions Protective Absorptive Secretory Sensory Characteristics Mostly cellular Free surface Unattached on one side, faces the center of a hollow organ (that side is called the “lumen”) Avascular No blood vessels present in these tissues Basement membrane What “glues” the epithelial tissues to the deeper connective tissues underneath them Naming of Epithelial Tissues Number of Cell Layers First word in the tissue’s name Simple – single cell layer in the tissue Stratified – multiple layers of cells Shape of Surface Cells Squamous – Flat shape, squashed/thin appearance from above Cuboidal – Cube shape, square appearance from above *Lining of a tubule has a different cuboidal shape when sliced Columnar – Column shape, long rectangle appearance from above *Nuclei tend to be lined up along the bottom of these cells *Basal cells are the ones that are actively dividing near the basement membrane, and push the new cells up towards the surface where they get their appearance/name Special Types of ET cells Pseudo-stratified cells “False stratified” Cells are all squished together in a disorganized way that makes it look they are stratified These cells are not organized together in even layers like stratified cells These cells are only found in the airways, like the trachea, and they have goblet cells included in the layers that produce mucus Pseudo-stratified cell layers have a cilia border that carries away dust and small particles that are trapped in the mucus, keeps the trachea/lungs clean Transitional cells Cell type that is only found in the urinary bladder and ureters Very stretchy, the cells look very “fluffy” and rounded, lots of space between cells Within the ureter, the lumen is arranged in folds extending into the tubule Location of Cells Simple squamous Found in the lungs, for gas exchange and diffusion to occur very rapidly Stratified squamous Located in skin, mouth, esophagus, and vagina Stratified layers are necessary for more protection Transitional Found in urinary bladders and ureters Very stretchy so the organ can expand and hold an increased volume Simple Columnar Large cells to hold a lot of organelles necessary for doing the work involved in digesting foods and absorbing nutrients Cuboidal Found in the kidneys Transporting nutrients into the bloodstream and transporting toxins out, needs a thicker cell for a lot of activity happening within the cell Anatomy Lab – September 8 th Form follows Function Selective Advantage to the form or the form may have worked well for our ancestors! Axial Skeleton Vertebrae Vertebral Body Area that is weight bearing Intervertebral Disc In between two vertebrae, constructed of fibrocartilage with hyaline cartilage in the center Vertebral Arch Together the arch and the body form the vertebral foramen, which is what the spinal cord runs through Spinous Process Single process that extends posterior Transverse Processes Two processes that extend laterally to the body Articular process Superior and Inferior articular extend between the transverse and spinous, articulate with the articulars on the vertebrae above and below them to allow for flexibility and movement Vertebral Notch Formed by the transverse processes on two vertebrae to construct the intervertebral foramen where the spinal nerves extend out towards the body Vertebral Column Cervical Vertebrae 7, form the neck Smallest with small transverse processes and body, large vertebral foramen and two extra transverse foramen (for the vertebral arteries) C1 – Atlas, supports the skull, has no vertebral body! C2 – Axis, articulates with the axis on its large spinous process, allows for rotation/movement of the skull Thoracic 12, form the upper back Changes in size down the vertebral column, spinous process extends downwards Rib facets on the transverse processes and in between the vertebrae Lumbar 5, form the lower back Largest w/ broad body, support most of the upper body’s weight Very broad, short and flat spinous processes for muscle attachment Very small vertebral foramen Sacrum 5 fused vertebrae at the caudal-most portion of the spine Holes that would be the intervertebral foramen (if it were unfused) Large facet on the side that is the auricular surface, articulates with the pelvic girdle Ox coxa (Coccyx) The “tailbone” is three tiny vertebrae that are fused *S-shape of the spine makes it flexible and act as a shock absorber, also allows for a wide range of movement Very helpful for our ancestors when running and leaping while hunting Sternum & Ribs *The sternum and abdominal muscles help to support the curved S- shape of the spine Sternum Manubrium Upper portion of the sternum Sternal (“jugular”) notch on the superior middle of the sternum Clavicular notches are lateral to the sternal notch, articulate with the clavicle Body Main portion of the sternum Xiphoid Process Lower, small portion of the sternum Ribs True Ribs (1-7), attached to the sternum via costal cartilage (made of hyaline cartilage) Floating ribs (8-12) don’t directly articulate with the sternum; more costal cartilage connects them to the sternum (protect the kidneys) Head of the rib attaches at the vertebral body and at the transverse process by a tubercle Doesn’t move much, but can roll a little bit for expansion during inhalation Anatomy Lab Notes – September 15 th Appendicular Skeleton * - on lab notes sheet, means “know left or right” of specific bone Pectoral Girdle Connects with the axial skeleton at one place - the clavicular notches on the sternum Everything else is attached and held together by muscles! Scapula* Relatively flat, thin bone that is concave (matches the curve of the ribcage) Subscapular fossa – “under the scapula” anterior depression, fits together with ribcage Glenoid fossa – Shoulder joint, articulates with the head of the humerus Axillary border- refers to the armpit region that it is closest too Medial (vertebral) border Superior border Scapular spine – posterior ridge that ends in the acromion (which articulates with the clavicle anteriorly) Supraspinous fossa – depression above the scapular spine Infraspinous fossa – large depression below the scapular spine Coracoid process – smaller, anterior process that attaches to the brachii muscles Clavicles Acromial end – articulates with the acromion on the scapula, vey flat end Sternal end – articulates with the sternum, Arm Humerus* Anterior View Head of the humerus – most superior portion of the humerus Greater tubercle – larger and more lateral to the humeral head Lesser tubercle – smaller ridge of bone and more medial Intertubercular groove – groove in between the tubercles, muscles run along it Deltoid tuberosity – rough patch of bone about halfway down the shaft of the humerus, the deltoid muscle attaches here Capitulum – lateral condyle on the inferior portion of the humerus Trochlea – medial condyle of the humerus, looks like a “spool” of thread Epicondyles – two of them on either side and above the condyles Coronoid fossa – articulates with the coronoid process of the ulna, more medial Radial fossa – articulates with the head of the radius, more lateral Posterior View Olecranon fossa – very large depression behind the trochlea Radial groove Ulna* Olecranon process – large, superior projection of the ulna Semilunar (trochlear) notch – articulates with the trochlea of the humerus Coronoid process – smaller, inferior projection of the ulna Radial notch – lateral-facing depression, articulates with the radial head Radius* Head – very flat Ulnar notch – distal to the radial head, medially facing and articulates with the ulna Styloid process – inferior-most projection of bone on the lateral side of the radius Hand Carpals (Wrist) - “Some Lovers Try Positions That They Can’t Handle” Pisiform - Very small, round “pea”-shaped carpal bone Scaphoid - Hamate – looks like Darth Vader’s head (??) Metacarpals Long bones in palm of hand Thumb = MC 1 Pinky = MC 5 Phalanges Proximal Medial Distal Pelvic Girdle Os coxae The two “hip” bones – each one is 3 bones completely fused together. Inlet of the pelvis – the “birth canal”, narrow in males and very wide in females This is a result of sexual dimorphism – evolution has selected for the size differences of the hips in males and females Ilium – superior bone, flares out like a wing Iliac Crest – superior ridge of the ilium Anterior-Superior iliac spine with an inferior iliac spine below it Acetabulum – hip socket, this is the point where the 3 separate bones fuse to form the os coxa Pubis – anterior bone of the os coxa Pubic ramus – superior and inferior ramus, join together at the pubic symphysis Pubic arch – narrow in males, wider angle in females Ischium – posterior/inferior bone Ischial tuberosity – posterior patch of rough bone, when the hamstrings attach Obturator foramen – large hole formed by the pubis and ischium, most likely used to reduce the weight of the pelvis Leg Femur* Longest bone in the body, often has a high amount of variation between individuals Femoral Head Fovea capitis – small pit on the femoral head Femoral Neck – the offset neck creates the angle of the femur, aids in walking/running Anterior View Greater trochanter – more superior and larger Lesser trochanter – more inferior/posterior and smaller Epicondyles – lateral and medial, superior to the two condyles Condyles – smooth articulation surface for the tibia Tibia* Condyles - articulate with the condyles of the femur, tibial condyles make up the tibial head Tibial tuberosity – large, anterior knob of bone on the tibia, muscle attaches here Medial malleolus – distal portion of the tibia, creates a small bump of bone as the “ankle” Fibula Small, very thin long bone that is mostly for muscle attachment and stability (not very weight bearing) Lateral malleolus – on the distal end of the fibula, creates the other bump of the “ankle” Distal end of fibula is very flat and is shaped a bit like an arrowhead Foot Tarsal (Ankle) Talus – articulates with the tibia Calcaneus – posterior-most projection of the tarsals, creates the “heel” Metatarsals Make up the arch of the foot – like the metacarpals Use the same Roman numbering system as in the hand (thumb = big toe) Phalanges Big toe has only two phalanges; proximal phalanx is called the “hallux” Anatomy Lab Notes – September 17 th Articulations Synovial Joints Types Gliding (“Plane”) Joint Can move in any direction but they don’t move very far – allows for increased flexibility Hinge Joint Axis through the joint like a door hinge– only a single axis of movement (ex. elbow, knee, etc.) Pivot Joint axis running straight down through the bone – another single axis of movement (ex. radius and ulna) Condyloid Joint bone fits together into the fossa of another bone – allows for two axis of movement (up/down, left/right) – ex. finger(phalanx and metacarpal) Saddle Joint two U-shapes rotating around each other – only saddle joint is found at the metacarpals and carpals Ball-and-Socket Joint multiaxial – moving in all directions, can circumduct and rotate the arm Shoulder Joint Special Features Subacromial bursa – fluid-filled “pillow”, above the actual synovial joint helps to distribute the weight and cushion the joint Tendon sheath – another bursa-like structure, helps to reduce friction during movement for the tendon as it passes through the small area of the shoulder joint Hip Joint Special Features Greater trochanter Has it’s own separate epiphyseal line Fovea capitis Small divot on head of femur, a small ligament attaches here Helps to protect the blood vessels passing through which provide nutrients to the head of the femur Head of the femur needs a large blood supply because it is dynamic and probably being remodeled often Knee Joint Special Features Meniscus o Cartilaginous pads under each condyle of the femur (two of them – lateral and medial) o Conforms to the shape of the femoral condyles and helps distribute the weight away from a central spot Femur slides around in the fossa created by the meniscus Collateral Ligaments oTwo ligaments – fibular and tibial collateral ligament Large ligaments to provide stability to sides of the knee Cruciate ligaments o Ligaments within the knee joint that cross over each other o Anterior cruciate Crosses over from the medial side of the tibia to the lateral/posterior side of the femur Prevents hyperextension of the leg and the knee being displaced posteriorly (moving too far back) o Posterior cruciate Prevents the knee from being displaced anteriorly (moving too far forward) and prevents hyperflexsion o Tendon of the quadriceps femoris muscle Goes over the patella and inserts on the tibial tuberosity (below the patella, this tendon is called the patellar ligament) o Lots of fat pads around the knee for shock absorbency Muscle Tissues Skeletal Sometimes called “voluntary” muscle Unique look Long skinny cells (aka muscle fibers) that can be as long as the entire muscle Multinucleate – they have more than one nucleus per cell because they’re so long, that it would be difficult for one nucleus to control everything happening in the cell Well organized – skeletal muscle are composed of dense packs of myofibrils, this organization of myofibrils results in distinctive striations of the muscle Nucleus (in circle) Striations of myofibrils (dark pink lines) Individual muscle cell (wrapped in endomysium) Cardiac Has some characteristics of skeletal muscle (hard and fast contractions) and smooth muscle (is involuntary – most humans can’t control their heart rate, etc.) Single nucleus per cell and very well-organized Has light striations due to their myofibril organization Has an intercalated disc in between each cell (cells are interdigitated with each other) – very distinctive!! Cardiac muscle cells are sometimes branched between the muscle fibers (but on our slides, we may not always see them so don’t count on recognizing cardiac muscle because of it) Intercalated Disc (tiny horizontal lines in black circles) Smooth Sometimes called “involuntary” muscle – because it’s associated with the digestive tract and blood vessels so it’s working all the time Use waves of contraction to move food along, or to constrict/dilate blood muscles Not very distinctive – long, skinny cells that pointed at both ends to form a large sheet of muscle One nucleus per cell – not multinucleated! Smooth muscle lining the digestive tract is divided up into two groups: circular muscle and longitudinal muscle (we’ll mostly focus on the circular) Parts of a Muscle Structure Thickest part of a muscle is called the “belly” or the “head” All the connective tissue that wraps around individual parts of the muscle joins together at the end into a tendon! Tendons connect bone to muscle Most tendons are round, but some are broad flat tendons called an aponeurosis Ligaments connect bone to bone Collagen of the tendon and muscle is heavily integrated with the collagen of the periosteum (and all of the collagen connected to the bone) Muscle cells are wrapped together into small bundles called fascicles by the perimysium Endomysium is the collagenous connective tissue that wraps around the individual muscle cell Perimyseum is the collagenous CT sheath that wraps around the fascicle Epimysium is the collagenous CT wrapping around all of the fascicles/around the entire muscle Action All a muscle can do is contract, so muscle pull on a bone or another muscle when contracting and shortening their length (resulting in flexion); and when the muscle relaxes this results in extension Most extensors (muscles that are primarily involved in extension) are on the dorsal surface Most flexors (muscles that are primarily involved in flexion) are on the ventral surface This results in the body having opposing groups of muscles that pull on the same bone to result in opposite actions The same muscle can’t extend and flex a particular joint – they can only do one thing or the other Origin Insertion Naming Some muscles are named for their shape (Ex: deltoid – looks like an upside triangle (triangle is symbol for Greek letter “delta”; trapezoid – looks like a trapezoid) Some muscles are named for their action (Ex: adductor magnus – large muscle in the thigh for adducting the leg to the medial line) Some are named for their size (Ex: brevis muscles = small muscles; magnus = large muscles) Some muscles are named for their location (Ex: biceps brachii – muscle found in the brachial or arm region; biceps femoris = muscle found in the thigh) Named for the number of head/bellies (Ex: “biceps” = two heads; “triceps” = three heads) Named for their attachments (Ex: sternocleidomastoid – origin is the sternum and clavicle; insertion is the mastoid process) Muscular System Mammals have fewer bones but have a large amount of different muscles to allow for a wide range of delicate to brute movements Groups of muscles are very common for performing a specific activity (ex: 3 muscles are involved in the action of flexing the elbow – each muscle plays a part depending on where the arm is and what you’re trying to do) Muscles that work together as a group to perform a specific task are called synergists As a result, the groups of muscles that oppose (do the opposite action of) the synergists are called the antagonists Masseter muscle One of the main muscles involved in chewing Origin is the zygomatic arch Insertion is the angle & ramus of the mandible Temporalis and masseter muscles are synergists (they work together for chewing (masseter moves mandible side to side for grinding herbivores/cows/sheep have large masseter muscles for chewing grasses) Temporalis muscle Temporalis moves mandible up and down to open your mouth as far as possible predators/carnivores have a large temporalis muscle for clamping down) Digastric muscle “Di- = two heads”; one head is posterior, other is anterior Pulls the mandible down posteriorly to open your mouth Platysma Flat, thin sheet of muscle that runs over the front of the neck; holds the trachea, esophagus, blood vessels etc. in the front of the neck together Buccinator Horizontal muscle runs diagonally from the corner of the jaw to the corner of the mouth (moves the lips posteriorly – used in smiling and manipulating food around in our mouth! Orbicularis oris Surrounds the entire mouth (“oris” = oral cavity = mouth) Allows for puckering the lips This muscle and the buccinators are antagonistic to each other! Orbicularis oculi Surrounds the entire eye (“oculi” = eye) Allows for squinting Anatomy Lab Notes – September 29 th Shoulder & Trunk Muscles *Learn origin and insertion of muscles with an asterisk next to them on lab sheet!! Shoulder Muscles Trapezius Broad flat sheath of muscle Origin - all along the thoracic and cervical Insertion - at the clavicle and scapular spine Basic Action - Draws the scapula medially towards the spine (**You can also contract different areas of the muscle to draw the scapula in different direction – but we only care about the most basic actions of the muscle) Latissimus Dorsii Broad flat muscle, tucks underneath the armpit and tapers to a point anteriorly for insertion Origin - at lower thoracic and lumbar vertebra Insertion - at Intertubercular groove of humerus Basic Action - retracts and adducts the arm at the shoulder Deltoid Covers the shoulder joint and goes over the head of the humerus (like football shoulder pads) Origin – at scapular spine and clavicle Insertion – at deltoid tuberosity Basic Action– abduction at the shoulder (lifts the arm upwards) Rhomboid Deep to the trapezius, technically two muscles (r. major and r. minor) but we’ll consider them as a single group Origin – at the spines of the thoracic vertebrae Insertion - at vertebral border of the scapula Basic Action – causes the scapula to rotate; adducts the scapula Supraspinatus Origin – Supraspinous fossa Insertion – Greater tubercle of the humerus Travels anteriorly over and down the top of the humeral head Basic Action – abducts the humerus; synergist with the deltoid muscle Infraspinatus Origin – Infraspinous fossa Insertion – greater tubercle of humerus, at a different angle than the supraspinatus does Basic Action – adducts and laterally rotates the humerus; antagonistic towards the supraspinatus Teres Major Comes under the armpit anteriorly to the front of the humerus; deep to the trapezius and latissimus dorsii Origin – Inferior angle of the scapula Insertion - Lesser tubercle of the humerus Basic Action – retracts, adducts and medially rotates the arm (rotates thumb towards the midline) Teres Minor Smaller and superior to teres major Origin – axillary border of scapula Insertion – grater tubercle of humerus Under the armpit and comes around to the back of the humerus; adductors; causes lateral rotation of the humerus Erector Spinae Group of muscles Originate in the pelvic girdle and come all the way up to the back of the head; run along a notch formed by the transverse and spinous processes of the vertebrae Serratus anterior Origin on ribs 1-8 (have a “serrated” appearance) Wraps around the armpit and under the scapula to insert on the medial border to the scapula Action = abducts the scapula antagonistic with the rhomboid muscles Subscapularis – (not able to be seen in our cadavers because it’s underneath the scapula and above ribs); origin at the subscapular fossa of the scapula to insert on e lesser tubercle of humerus Medial rotation of the humerus Levator scapulae Origin on cervical vertebrae C1-C4 Trunk Muscles Pectoralis major – flat, broad sheath of muscle Origin in multiple places along the clavicle, sternum and ribs 2-6; inserts at the greater tubercle of the humerus Action adducts and protracts and medially rotates the arm Pectoralis minor – deep to pectoralis major; origin at ribs 3-5 and inserts at the coracoid process of the scapula; pulls the scapula down (“depresses the scapula”) Intercostals “in-between the ribs” muscles; thin sheets of muscle External intercostals – angle upwards and diagonally left; action = pull ribs out to expand during inhalation Internal intercostals – angle downwards and diagonally right (opposite the external i.c.) Action = pull ribs in to collapse the rib cage during exhalation 3 layers of muscles that are angled in different directions along the lateral sides of the trunk to allow for movement and strength (like plywood) Obliques Anterior trunk muscles; pretty similar to the intercostals (intercostal muscles could be viewed as an extension of the obliques) External obliques are lateral and angle down towards the pubis; thin sheet of muscle; insert along the linea alba (“white line” along the midline of the body) Internal obliques are deep to the external obliques and angle upwards to form a “chevron” pointing towards the sternum Transverse abdominus Rectus abdominus Rectus = “straight” Maintains the spinal curvature in humans Cells don’t go all the way up from origin to insertion, its divided into sections (“the six-pack”) to increase the muscles strength Anatomy Lab Notes – October 1 st Arm Muscles Brachial (Upper Arm) Muscles Biceps brachii* Two-headed muscle, upper arm muscle Origin on the scapula Long head of tendon runs through the intertubercular groove and originates on supraglenoid tubercle; Tendon of short head on the coracoid process Insertion is on the radial tuberosity – crosses over the elbow! Action at both the shoulder and elbow – flexion at the elbow and supinate the forearm by pivoting the radius Brachialis Origin - halfway down the shaft of the humerus Inserts at the coronoid process of the ulna Action - produces speed by contracting very close to the elbow joint and flexing the forearm Brachioradialis* Muscle runs from the humerus to the end of the radius Origin on the supracondylar ridge of the humerus – higher up than the other forearm muscles Inserts on the styloid process of the radius Action = flexes the forearm Triceps brachii* Posterior – long head that crosses the shoulder joint (origin on the infragelnoid tubercle) Other two heads originate on the humerus All insert on the olecranon process of the ulna Action – 3 flexor muscles combined into one – flexes the arm and forearm Antebrachial (Forearm) muscles (**Muscles are named for their location and action!) Posterior – extensor muscles are on the dorsal side Extensor carpi radialis Medial – on the thumb side Origin – lateral epicondyle of humerus Insert at the metacarpals Extensor carpi ulnaris Lateral – on the pinky side Origin – lateral epicondyle of humerus Insert – on 5h metacarpal Extensor digitorum Muscle in the middle of the forearm – inserts on the phalanges Origin – lateral epicondyle of humerus Extensor pollicis (longus and brevis) “Pollux” = thumb Adductor – move thumb dorsally Abductor pollicis longus Lateral = abductor Anterior – Flexors on the ventral side (**All muscles origin on the medial epicondyle of the humerus – more power in the flexors than the extensors!) Palmaris longus Short belly with a long tendon; very superficial muscle and is above the CT wrapping around the wrist! In between the two flexors – not a “necessary muscle” though Flexor carpi radialis Radial/thumb side - lateral Flexor carpi ulnaris Ulnar/pinky finger side - medial Flexor digitorum superficialis Large forearm muscle – long tendons go all the way to the digits and insert at the medial bone of the phalanges Flexor digitorum profundus Very large muscle – tendon insert all the way at the terminal bone of the phalanges Supinator Runs in the opposite direction of the pronator muscles – supinates the radius and is deep to the other forearm muscles Antagonistic to the pronator teres and quadratus Synergist with biceps brachii for supinating the forearm Pronator teres Cuts across the forearm at an angle Inserts on the lateral side of the radius -brings the radius over the ulna into pronation position Pronator quadratus Flat muscle cuts across the forearm perpendicular to the bone Synergist with pronator teres – also brings radius over ulna Anatomy Lab Notes – October 6 th Muscles of the Leg and Hip Upper Leg Sartorius Longest muscle in the body Crosses at a diagonal angle from lateral to medial Tensor fascia latae “Tensing the fascia associated with the thigh” - Pulling on the ilial-tibial tract Wrapped in a thick sheet of CT and is very lateral Quadriceps femoris group “Four heads” = four separate muscles with the same insertion – through patella to the tibial tuberosity Rectus femoris – “straight”, crosses over the hip joint to originate on the anterior inferior iliac spine Vastus lateralis Vastus medialis Vastus intermedius – in between the vastus medialis and lateralis Gracilis The most medial muscle on the thigh, and is very slender! Crosses over the knee joint to insert on the medial tibia and originates on the pubis Hamstrings Group – all originate from the ischial tuberosity Medial Semitendinosus – rounded tendon shape Semimembranosus – very flat tendon shape Lateral Biceps femoris = “two headed muscle on the back of the femur” Only muscle in hamstrings group to originate on the femur as well Gluteal muscles – stabilize the hip joint Gluteus maximus – lateral rotator of the femur Gluteus medius – medial rotator and abductor of the femur Gluteus minimus – medial rotator and abductor of the femur Iliacus and Psoas major Often named as one muscle group – “iliopsoas”, but we will learn them separately These are the main “sitting up” muscles – very large! Lower Leg Tibialis anterior Fibularis group Tendons of the muscle wrap around the fibula anteriorly and insert onto the metatarsals Gastrocnemius Origin on the femoral condyles crossing the knee and ankle joints Soleus Deep to the gastrocnemius – same insertion on the calcaneus as the gastrocnemius Origin on the tibia and fibular head – so it doesn’t cross over the knee joint! Heart and Great Vessels - see the Oct 7 thLecture Notes Semilunar Valves don’t have chordae tendinae associated with them, they are held closed by blood filling up their little “cups” and weighing them down to form a seal Some heart characteristics are left over from fetal development A small shunt is present between the pulmonary trunk and the aorta – allowing fetal blood to bypass the developing lungs since there’s no air in the womb – called the ligamentum arteriosum In-between the two atria – Interatrial septum has a small depression that’s the remnants of the fossa ovalis A “Trap door” in the fetus allowing blood to pass through from the right side to the left side of the heart Helped to “exercise” the left side of the heart – was sealed closed by the pressure of blood entering from the pulmonary vein into the left side of the heart Coronary arteries Leaving the base of the aorta and going to both sides of the exterior heart Supplies blood to the myocardium itself Cardiac veins Carry deoxy. Blood away from the myocardium and to the coronary sinus (basically a large vein for draining old blood back into the right atrium for re-circulation) Anatomy Lab – October 13 th Arteries and Veins Arteries – carrying high pressure blood away from the heart Small lumen, thick wall (very muscular – holds its shape when empty) Wall has a wavy, elastic line on the interior – this is because of the elastic ET Veins – carrying low pressure blood in towards the heart Large lumen, thin “leaky” wall (doesn’t hold its shape) Major Arteries of the Body Coronary arteries Branching off immediately from the base of the aorta – freshest, most oxygenated blood is supplied to the heart itself Aortic arch 3 arteries branch off form the arch Brachiocephalic artery – supplies blood to the head and arm regions This artery bifurcates into two arteries Carotid artery – goes up to supply blood to neck and head Internal carotid artery – supplies blood to the brain External carotid artery – blood to the neck and face Subclavian artery – supplies blood to the shoulder and arm This artery changes names depending on its location (right axillary artery from head of humerus to underneath the acromion process of scapula/ armpit region; right brachial artery from beneath the humeral head to the elbow) Vertebral artery – go through the transverse foramina of the cervical vertebrae Below the heart Thoracic aorta Intercostal arteries – serve the intercostal muscles, tiny vessels between each rib Abdominal aorta Left and right renal arteries - paired branches to the kidneys Testicular/Ovarian arteries – paired branches of arteries to the reproductive organs (name changes depending on sex of cadaver) Celiac artery Short, unpaired artery that trifurcates (“three branches”); we’ll follow only one branch – hepatic artery (supplies blood to the liver) Superior mesenteric artery Supplies blood to the upper intestines (artery is superior to the renal arteries) Inferior mesenteric artery Supplies blood to lower intestines and rectum Abdominal aorta bifurcates into the R & L common iliac arteries Each common iliac artery immediately bifurcates into an internal and external artery Right external iliac artery Right femoral artery (* We’ll only learn the arteries above the knee) Major veins of the body More veins than arteries in body! Below the heart Femoral vein – directly beneath the artery (arteries and veins always run close together) Great saphenous vein – medial to the femoral artery and very superficial/just under the skin (used for blood vessel grafts in surgery!) Femoral and Great saphenous veins come together to form the common iliac veins again Common iliac veins come together to form the Inferior Vena Cava Ovarian/testicular veins come together into the renal veins before joining up with the inferior vena cava again Hepatic veins are inside of the liver (the liver grows around the inferior vena cava) Blood from the digestive tract takes a different route – goes through the liver to drop off collected food nutrients for processing before going back to the heart this nutrient-rich blood is carried to the liver by the hepatic portal vein from capillary bed to capillary bed (no heart involved so the blood here is very low pressure!!) Liver has two blood supplies coming in (hepatic portal vein and hepatic artery) and only one blood supply coming out of it (hepatic vein) Inferior Vena Cava passes through the diaphragm so it can bring blood to the right atrium Above the heart Median cubital vein – small vein at elbow where a lot of IVs go Leads into the basilic vein then into the brachial veins Brachial vein also changes names based upon its location axillary vein subclavian vein Internal jugular vein – larger vessel, brings blood out of the brain External jugular vein – smaller vessel, brings blood out from the head and face Jugular veins join up with the subclavian vein to then reform the superior vena cava Azygos vein – brings blood out from the intercostal and back to the superior vena cava Anatomy Lab Notes – October 20 th Blood and Lymph Blood is composed of: 55% - Plasma (liquid portion) 45% - formed elements/cells Mostly erythrocytes (RBCs) and a small proportion of leukocytes (WBCs) on the slide Erythrocytes – very thin w/ no nucleus in the middle so they stain white with a pink/light red ring Leukocytes – stain dark blue because they have a nucleus in the center Neutrophil – common, ~60% of all leukocytes observed Nucleus has a pinched, curled appearance Cell is much larger than an erythrocyte and is very transparent Lymphocyte – common Nucleus is very large in the cell with very little or small ”halo” of cytoplasm surrounding it Only slightly bigger than an erythrocyte Monocyte – rare Clear cytoplasm and is the biggest of the leukocytes Nucleus is often “kidney bean” shaped or bisected, but not always! Eosinophil – very rare Large red/orange granules in the cytoplasm Nucleus has two lobes – sometimes looks like the cell has two small nuclei Basophils – very rare/rarest Many large, dark blue granules in cytoplasm *Platelets – aka “thrombocytes” small, fragmented appearance Become “sticky” when they come into contact with collagenous fibers, help to plug holes and aid in clotting at an injury Lymphatic System An entirely separate vessel system from the circulatory system This system carries lymph – the fluid’s name changes depending on its location In blood = plasma Outside of cells – interstitial fluid In lymphatic system = tissue fluid/lymph Lymphatic system carries this fluid back into general circulation by dumping it into the subclavian veins However, the lymph is filtered by the lymph nodes before it goes back into general circulation – gets rid of cell fragments and foreign invaders Lymph Nodes Composed of a meshwork of reticular fibers These fibers carry many leukocytes that are available to fight pathogens and other invaders (aka why you get swollen lymph nodes when you’re sick) Lymph is typically filtered two or three times by different lymph nodes to make sure there are as little pathogens in the lymph as possible Spleen – similar to a very large lymph node, filters out the blood for pathogens Thoracic duct Largest lymphatic vessel in the body, location where all of the lymphatic vessels from the lower half of the body come together Thymus gland and bone marrow are also grouped into the lymphatic system The thymus gland is very large in juveniles, but shrinks over time Only found in juveniles, it’s nonexistent in adults Thymus gland is the location where T-cells are produced from lymphocytes and “sensitized” or educated to protect against a specific disease or pathogen Blood Slide Lymph Node Slide (Labeled reticular tissue) Cadavers Lymph Nodes Spleen Body Cavities Ventral Cavity Thoracic cavity – bounded by rib cage Pleural cavity – contains the lungs Mediastinum – in between the pleural cavities Pericardial Cavity – contains the heart Peritoneal Cavity – below the thoracic Diaphragm – thick membrane dividing the thoracic and peritoneal cavities Membrane Terminology Visceral – membranes that line the organs themselves Parietal – means “sides”, membranes that are lining the sides of the cavities Pleura Serous membranes that are within the pleural cavity Ex: serous membrane covering the lungs themselves – “visceral pleura” Serous membrane lining the pleural cavity – “parietal pleura” Pericardium Serous membranes that are within the pericardial cavity Membrane covering the heart (aka the epicardium) = “visceral pericardium” Membrane lining the pericardial cavity – “parietal pericardium” Peritoneum Serous membranes found within the peritoneal cavity Membranes covering the organs in the peritoneal cavity – “visceral peritoneum” Membranes lining the peritoneal cavity – “parietal peritoneum” These serous membranes have a small amount of serous fluid in- between them – allowing the organs to slide smoothly along the cavity’s walls Head Nasal Cavity Nasal concha – small trabeculae of bone that are covered in nasal epithelium and mucus membranes; initial filter of air particles and warms the air as you inhale Olfactory epithelium is composed of the superior portion of the nasal epithelium that is right beneath the cribiform plate of the Ethmoid bone - Opening of he auditory tube – allows for equalization of pressure in your inner ear and at the tympanic membrane, hole is found at the very back of the nasal cavity Oral Cavity Separation between these two cavities is the palate – “hard” palate is made of bone, “soft” palate is made of cartilage Pharynx – receives both air and food from the nasal and oral cavities Nasopharynx – portion directly behind the nasal cavity Oropharynx – portion directly behind the oral cavity Laryngopharynx – portion directly behind the larynx Glottis is an opening in the pharynx through which air travels through to get to the trachea Glottis is protected by the epiglottis – flap of cartilage that folds over when swallowing food, protects against getting food/water into your airways Pharyngeal tonsils Palatine tonsils – tonsils found right behind the oral cavity and below the soft palate Lingual tonsils – tonsils found at the back of the tongue Larynx Thyroid cartilage – hard cartilage found at the front of the larynx Thyroid gland sits right below it Cricoid cartilage – small in the front and large in the back of the larynx Vocal fold – line of cartilage attached to the arytenoid cartilage, air is forced through the vocal folds and the vocal folds are tightened or loosened to create sounds Laryngeal prominence (“Adam’s apple”) – cartilaginous prominence found on the thyroid cartilage that extends forwards during puberty, extends the vocal folds and causes a deepening of the voice in males Below the larynx is the trachea – cartilaginous C-shaped “rings” with a small membranous portion in between the trachea and esophagus, allows for expansion of the esophagus into the trachea when swallowing large portions of food Lower respiratory tract Trachea bifurcates into two primary bronchi, one to each lung Primary bronchi brnch out multiple times – collectively called th “bronchial tree” Smallest section of the bronchial tree that still has cartilage associated with are the bronchioles Bronchioles have small alveoli that are covered in alveolar sacs (“Air sacs”) at the end of them, this means that there is a large amount of surface area available for gas exchange (gas exchange primarily happens at the alveoli Elastic fibers and capillaries are found on the surface of every single alveoli Elastic fibers squeeze air out of the sacs w/o much energy required Capillaries have deoxygenated Alveolus (“air sac”) is basically just one squamous cell thick, so they are extremely thin, and there is a very small amount of space inbetween the capillary wall and the alveolar epithelium that is filled with extracellular fluid – space is called the respiratory membrane Ventilation of the lungs Inspiration – drawing air into the lungs Intercostal muscles are relaxed – sternum is lying flat Diaphragm is stretched upwards Inspiration needs to have the volume of the thoracic cavity increased Contraction of the intercostal muscles pulls the ribs up and outwards, and also causes the sternum to move up and out Diaphragm is contracted and is drawn downwards (now it’s held taut like a drum membrane) Causes negative pressure which means the lungs expand to fill up the space and automatically draws air into the lungs Ribs do all the work – the lungs don’t do shit Passive expiration – sitting, not consciously focusing on respiration Relaxing the external intercostals – collapses the rib cage and sternum, makes the guts push upwards against the diaphragm Decreases the amount of volume in the thoracic cavity and air is forced outwards Active exspiration – running/physical activity, consciously focusing on respiration Contraction of the internal intercostals – squeezes the ribs together and brings the sternum down and in vey quickly Abdominal muscles (rectus abdominus, transverse abdominus and obliques) are also contracted pulling the sternum down further and the pushing the guts upwards Quickly decreases the volume of the thoracic cavity and rapidly forces air out rd Anatomy Lab Notes – November 3 Three primary brain vesicles form during embryonic development Forebrain Midbrain Hindbrain As development continues – forebrain and hindbrain each divide into two vesicles These 5 vesicles are called “secondary brain vesicles” Telencephalon – forms the adult cerebrum Diencephalon - thalamus and hypothalamus Mesencephalon – forms the adult midbrain Metencephalon – pons and cerebellum Myelencephalon – medulla oblongata Brain - External Structures Brain Stem Cerebrum Very large “mushroom cap” over the brain stem Mammals typically have much larger cerebrums compared to other animal species Humans and marine mammals have the largest cerebrums of mammals though Medulla First “swelling” off of the brain stem Controls basic survival functions - respiration, heart rate, hunger, thirst, sex drives Pons Anterior bulge above the medulla – composed of a series of tracts that lead to the cerebellum *Tracts = groups of neuronal fibers in the CNS Carries info out of the brain stem and into the cerebellum via the cerebella peduncles and vice versa Arbor vitae – branching of the white matter within the cerebellum Midbrain This section hasn’t changed much evolutionarily or developmentally Dorsally are four small lumps that are the corpora quadrigemina Thalamus Superior to the midbrain/top of the brain stem Directs information to various functional centers in the cerebrum and then retrieves info from those sections to send it to various body regions Pineal gland Protrudes off the thalamus dorsally Measures the amount of light and darkness in the environment Produces melatonin when it’s dark out (like an internal body clock for determining day/night and seasons) Hypothalamus Very important region! Involved in the maintenance of homeostasis in the body Two ways of achieving this Rapid method - sends signals down the brain stem and into the spinal cord Slow method – causes the pituitary gland to secrete and the various hormones it creates Pituitary gland Aka “hypophysis” “Master gland” and produces hormones that result in long-term changes to the body over time Brain - Internal Structures Surface of the cerebrum is composed of gray matter on the surface and white matter on the inside (This is opposite of the spinal cord!) Gray matter – cell bodies and “naked” nerve fibers Decision-making is occurring in the gray matter White matter - myelinated neuronal fibers to speed up signals Has the “wires” that connect the various parts of the brain and allow signals to travel around the entire brain Gray matter – aka “cerebral cortex” Large amount of gray matter in our brain is well condensed into the small package of the skull because it has many convolutions/wrinkles on its surface! This is very important for newborns so that their heads can fit through the birth canal during labor – even though newborn humans are fairly underdeveloped compared to the newborns of other animal species Gyrus – ridge of a wrinkle Sulcus – groove of the wrinkle Fissure - a particularly deep sulcus, these usually separate the portions of the brain into different lobes These lobes have the same names as the skull bones that they are nearest to! Lobes of the brain are divided into many different functional centers!! There’s no structural indication of these centers, and we can’t see them in cadavers The functional centers are slightly different in everyone and there is a large amount of plasticity (flexibility) to the centers If something happens to one functional center in the brain, another functional center of the brain can be “trained” to start doing the ruined center’s job **A lot of our cerebral cortex is devoted to motor control in the feet, hands and the face!! Cranial nerves Optic nerves enter the brain and cross at the optic chiasma! Corpus callosum Transverse series of tracts that carries signals back and forth between the right and left hemispheres of the cerebrum Pretty much makes up the entirety of the white matter in the cerebrum Septum pellucidum Thin sheet between corpus callosum and the fornix Underneath this sheet is a hollow inside of the cerebrum This hollow extends all the way down the central canal of the spinal cord and is usually filled with cerebral spinal fluid! There are 4 ventricles in the brain Two lateral ventricles A third ventricle Found at the top of the brain stem between the two thalami The two thalami are large groupings of neuronal cell bodies Each thalamus has a medial projection that meet up with each other – called the intermediate mass A fourth ventricle Found underneath the cerebellum Cerebral aqueduct – small canal connecting the third and fourth ventricles In all of these ventricles are a network of capillaries called the choroid plexus and are covered in neuroglia The choroid plexus is constantly making new cerebral spinal fluid that is fresh and ultra-filtered by the neuroglia! At the very top of the skull is the sagittal sinus This is a venous sinus made of dura mater that collects old CSF that is within the subarachnoid space The CSF travels through projection called arachnoid villi into the sinus Sagittal sinus meets up with the transverse sinus at the back of the skull before draining the venous blood and old CSF into the jugular veins for entry into
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'