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PSYC 3330- Entire Semester Notes

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PSYC 3330- Entire Semester Notes PSYC 3330

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These are the entire semester worth of notes for this course
Cognition Psychology
Dr. Tom Alley
Psychology, cognition, cognitive




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"I was sick all last week and these notes were exactly what I needed to get caught up. Cheers!"
Cordelia Grant

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This 62 page Bundle was uploaded by Megan Carter on Sunday January 10, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PSYC 3330 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Tom Alley in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Cognition Psychology in Behavioral Sciences at Clemson University.

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Date Created: 01/10/16
Cognition Psychology 09/10/2015 ▯ Thursday, August 20, 2015 ▯ ▯ Chapter 1 ▯ ▯ Cognition in your day  What cognitive processes did you use to select and get to this class today? o Timing o Remembering how to get around class/ around campus o The use of cell phones to combat memory problems  Understanding how to use the cell phone and processing the info on the screen to get to class  Take things- the simple things- for granted ▯ Your Cognitive Psychology Class  Syllabus  Blackboard- as little as possible  Outlines o Not a sub to not go to class and make it easier to comprehend in class o Spend more time thinking about what happened in class o Occasionally missing a key word o Grades and extra credit o Psych 334- cognitive lab- not required can take later ▯ Brief history of Cognitive Psychology  Origins o Philosophers have asked questions about cognition since ancient times o Many of the first known scientist studies in psych concern cognition  Look at outline  Rise of Behaviorism (early 1900s) o Studying of observable behavior o Behaviorism- attempt to restrict psych to the study of observable behavior and stimulus- response associations  Led to the decline of cognitive psych  Decline of Behaviorism (1945-1969) o Tolman (1948)- spatial behavior due to “cognitive maps” rather than learned sequences of behavior o Chomsky (1959)- language learning is not a matter of reinforcement and punishment, as claimed by in Skinner’s Verbal Behavior o Brelands Misbehavior of Organisms (1961)  Trained animals to perform specific task  Seen in animal acts  How does this happen?  Reinforcement of certain behaviors  Behavior affects evolution; not simply learning and reinforcement  Misbehaviors in Raccoons  Goal- train the raccoon to put money in the piggy bank  Method- Shaping ( reinforcement)  “ Raccoons condition readily, have good appetites and this one was quite tame and an eager subject”  1950’s…. o Development of “thinking machines” (i.e. computers) and the information processing approach  Beginning of a cognitive revolution?  Cognition comes back to dominate the psychology world  1967- First textbook of Cognitive Psychology (Neisser) o One umbrella of people learning about cognitive psychology  Since the 1980’s o A cognitive approach becomes dominate in most areas of psych o Development of connectionist (PDP) models and cognitive neuroscience o Gradual replacement of IP approach with the ideas of embodied cognition, PDP models and evolutionary psychology ▯ The Information Processing Approach  Generally use of a (serial) computer analogy & assume: o Serial processing o Limited capacity “CPU” o Output of one stage serves as the input for the next  Goal- id and analyze the sequence of distinct steps ( stages; processes) ▯ ▯ ▯ Tuesday, August 25, 2015/ Thursday, August 27, 2015 ▯ ▯ 5 Key Distinctions  Serial vs. Parallel processing o Serial- processing one thing at a time o Parallel- simultaneously processing 2 or more things at a time  Multi Tasking  Can be difficult to determine ( task-switching vs. simultaneously)  Intentional (fully conscious) vs. Autonomic processes o e.g., playing an oboe vs. reading  Data Driven (bottom up) vs. Conceptually Driven (top down) o Data- can come from all over our body  Bottom Up- determined by sensory processes  Reading? o Conceptually-  Top Down- understanding or perception is guided by stored knowledge (memory) expectations or concepts  Reading?  Hallucinations  Implicit (Hidden; tacit) vs. Explicit knowledge o Implicit- things we know about  We know more than we can describe or explain  Behavior often reflects unspoken or even misspoken knowledge  Ex. How do you turn a bike? Tie a shoe? Walk?  Much (but not all) procedural knowledge is tacit  Cognition vs. Metacognition o Cognition- the mental processes and activities use in perceiving, thinking, and remembering  Memories etc. o Metacognition- Knowledge and beliefs about cognition, including awareness, understanding, and/or monitoring of one’s own cognitive state and activities  Repeating things to them selves to keep them in memory ▯ Methods and Approach: Reaction Time  Reaction Time [= Response time= RT] o Why might a difference in RT be important? o A consistent difference in RT reflects a difference in cognitive processing o Commonly assumed to be f (difficulty or # of cognitive steps) o The time required for a particular process can be estimated by adding the process to a task and measuring the increase in RT. (Donners’ subtractive method)  i.e., the time to complete a mental task can be measured!  Simple RT vs. Choice RT  Choice RT- one must respond differently to 2 or more different things.  Donders (1868)- predicted choice RT would be longer that simple RT because….  Choice RT requires decision and takes about .18 sec longer  “Does a __vultures____ have wings?” o  how long did it take? o  confident? o  how do you arrive at the correct answer?  What about a robin? o Faster to make a judgment because of priming ▯ Themes in Cognition Psychology (see textbook pp. 24-26)  Cognition is active (e.g., we selectively seek out info)  Cognitive processes are remarkably efficient and accurate o But we make mistakes  Positive information is easier to deal with than negative information (“what is” vs. “what is not”)  Cognitive processes are interrelated and highly interdependent  Cognition typically uses both top-down and bottom-up processes  Cognition has been shaped by evolution ▯ ▯ Chapter 2 ▯ ▯ Object and Pattern Recognition ▯ ▯ Object Recognition- A fundamental vision problem: what do you see and where? Recognition is challenging largely due to the variations exhibited by objects in the real world, such as: partial occlusions, cluttered backgrounds, varying illumination, viewpoint changes, and variations in the appearance of objects within a category ▯ ▯ 2 Theories of Visual Object Recognition ▯  Template Matching o We match what every we see to what we have in our memory o Templates= copies o Theory says- compare a stimulus with a set of specific patterns (templates) in memory  i.e. check reading machines  But too inflexible for complex perception in animals o Problems  Size Matching  i.e., A= A  Orientation Matching (alignment)  Configuration Matching  E.g., different versions of the letter “A”  Ex: Captcha  Memory Load (huge # of templates required)  Incomplete figures  Feature Detection Theory (aka Feature Analysis) o Theory says:  Recognizing sensory input  Detect features  Lines, orientations, colors  Compare detected features to stored information  Decide on the best match o Evidence for Feature Detection  Letters have distinct features (see text p. 42)  Confusions Errors  We tend to confuse things that share features  “Feature Detectors” in visual cortex  Single neurons in the brain that primarily respond to a specific features  Predicts some results of visual search tasks  We can spot certain things that have a specific feature o Problems  Top-down processing is important  Holistic (Gestalt) effects  The whole pattern  Feature detection relies on one feature at a time  Complexity Effects:  Word Superiority Effect o Letters are identified more quickly and accurately when they appear as part of a word  It makes it easier to pick out one letter when there are more things for your brain to look at  Context Effects o Spatial Context  In the example the “B” and “13” are closely related o Perceptual set= a readiness to perceive things in a certain way, usually due to expectations  It leads people to see things in a certain way  The example showed two different set of pictures, a group of animals and the other was a group of people o Subjective (Illusory) contours o Ambiguous figures  It is possible to see two different things with the same features o Perceptual Organization  Being able to see what we expect to see in a picture  Facial inversion theory o Figure Ground Reversal  The place in the picture where you are looking at in a picture  Focusing on a certain feature  The grounded area  Problems with Context, Set and other Gestalt (configuration) effects o For all of the phenomena, markedly different percepts occur in response to the exact same features!  Holistic and top-down feature processing occurs ▯ ▯ Attention ▯ ▯ We can’t attend to more than one thing at once ▯ ▯ What is attention?  Conscience; selective; limited ▯ How many things can we attend to at once?  Without changing how, or how well, we perform? (serial or parallel?) ▯ What effect does attention have on perception?  Out of everything that we see, what are we really seeing?  On memory?  “The art of memory is the art of attention.”- (Samuel Johnson, 1759) ▯ How and why is our capacity for attention limited? ▯ Is attention like a spotlight? (spatial metaphor)  A zoom lens? (spatial metaphor) o You can either see the big picture or the small picture  A shopper? (object metaphor) o Our attention is going to go to certain based on what captures our attention ▯ ▯ ▯ Tuesday, September 1, 2015 ▯ ▯ Chapter 3 ▯ ▯ Attention ▯ ▯ Benefits of Attention  Accuracy o in perceptual judgments and action  Speed o (of perceptual judgments and actions)  Memory o Conscience retrieval of memories (some skills and info can be acquired without attention or awareness) ▯ Control of Attention  Goal Directed Selection- (top down; endogenous) o We intentionally deploy attention to specific objects or spatial regions o Voluntary and requires effort o Can have a relatively long duration. Required for vigilance (sustained attention in monitoring low-frequency events) o Feature distinctiveness  (E.g. a red object in a blue field or a triangle among a bunch of circles) helps  Stimulus-Driven Capture- (bottom up; “surprise attention”) o Involuntary, rapid response quickly dissipates o Important factors  Abrupt onsets ( but not offsets) of objects  Distinctiveness  Change (e.g. movement) ▯ Classic Research Methods and Findings  1.Failure of Divided Attention -Simultaneously your attention is spilt between two things o Seen in the “Cocktail Party phenomenon”  We have the ability to selectively attend to 1 conversation, but not several at once o Listening to one story while reading another  Do not comprehend both -Findings like these led to the development of the Dichotic Listening Technique o Shadowing of Dichotic Messages  Attend (shadowed) messages  Often easy to shadow one message  Could not follow 1 of 2 messages presented to the same ear if presented with the same voice and loudness  2. “Unattended” (unshadowed) messages o could report almost nothing about ‘rejected’ messages  ex- couldn’t report a word repeated up to 35x in the unattended message o Do not notice language changes like English to French o Noticed if the sex of the speaker changed or if the voice was replaced by a tone in the middle of the message o Often notice their name in unattended message ▯ Theories of Selective Attention  1. Filter, Bottleneck theories of attention o all assume limited capacity ‘CPU’ (bottleneck) o Early Selection Models  Sensory input are selected inputs on the basis of physical properties such as ear (location), loudness, or pitch  Problems  How do we switch “channels” in we’re unaware of the content (meaning) of the unattended inputs  Words in the unattended messages can intrude on shadowed if they fit.  2. Neisser’s 2-stage model of attention (1967) – like all contemporary models, proposed that attention/perception involves both o preattentive (rapid & parallel) processes  before attention  how are we able to shift our attention in a non random way o attentive (controlled & serial) processes  3. Feature Integration Theory (Triesman) – a current theory of attention and pattern recognition that involves 2 successive processes: o 1. Feature Detection (“Distributed Attention”; Preattentive processing)  does not require attention  it’s preattentive processing  an automatic and rapid parallel process of detecting features  certain features (color; orientation) are more salient than others  supports “global attention” whereby we can segregate scenes into discrete areas, select targets for later ID, and monitor for salient and unexpected events o 2. Focused Attention (Feature Integration)  Required to identify objects and correctly detect combinations of features  requires serial processing and (therefore) time (e.g., conjunctive searches are serial)  can be influenced by stored knowledge (e.g., bananas are yellow)  Supportive evidence includes: o A) “pop-out” research - targets that differ from surrounding distractors by a single dimension (e.g., color; orientation; direction of lighting; closure) are spotted effortlessly & detection time does not depend on # of distractors. (vs. conjunctive searches) o B) illusory conjunction (“binding problem”)  insufficient  A result of insufficient attention; focus attention required to ‘bind’ together an object’s features  People will make mistakes if people don’t spend enough time looking at something  Illusory conjunctions can reflect top-down processing (e.g., seeing what you expect to see) ▯ ▯ ▯ Thursday, September 3, 2015 ▯ ▯ Attention: Recent Research Methods & Findings ▯ ▯ I. Inattentional Blindness  A. Neisser & Becklen (1975) – showed simultaneous, superimposed videos. o - People could follow one but not both of them o - unattended events _________________________ (video). o People could follow one (due to structured flow of info) but not both of them  B. Change Blindness (see Matlin, p.76) o Example 1: when brief blanks are placed between alternating displays of an original and a changed scene, (uncued) ID of the change is very difficult even when a large change is repeatedly shown. [also found for changes that occur during a saccade] o Example 2: a gradual change in a scene is often missed o Example 3: Simons & Levin (1994) – (1) “lost” person asks passerby for directions; (2) interrupted by 2 workers carrying a door; (3) lost person switches places with 2 nd worker as they pass  ~50% ____________ that person is different despite changes in clothes, voice, etc.! ▯ -“visual perception of change in a scene occurs only when focused attention is given to the part being changed. … In the absence of focused attention, the contents of visual memory are simply overwritten (i.e., replaced) by subsequent stimuli and so cannot be used to make comparisons” (Rensink et al., 1997, PsychSci.).  People can be unaware of major changes that occur during a blink, an eye movement, or some distracting event.  This happens when people are not attending to the person but they are attending to what they are doing at that time  People are unaware that they have these limitations o This is seen in sports games when refs miss fouls when its right in front of their faces  blindness may be greatest at the center of gaze o this is seen in card tricks and magic o magicians avert your attention to something else so that you don’t notice the change  may  overconfidence in tasks monitored by humans. ▯ II. Attentional Blink  Whnd 2 rdrgetsthre presented in rapid sequence (ISI <.8 sec.), later st (2 , 3 or 4 ) target is often missed. Detecting and noting the 1 target can temporarily preempt awareness for other targets.  may  accidents in tasks involving rapid sequential monitoring (e.g., driving; flying; quality control) o like seeing your turn but missing the dog in the street ▯ III. Mindless Reading – ‘reading’ without attention. ▯ ▯ IV. Divided Attention & Dual-Task Performance ▯ We often seem able to do 2 things at once in everyday life (e.g., listen + take notes) or in certain occupations (e.g., simultaneous translators), but lab studies typically indicate performance problems. Difference?  1)Quickly switching your attention between two things pseudo- multitasking  2) are performance decrements noticed?  3) insufficient ________Practice__________ ▯ Spelke, Hirst & Neisser (1976)  had college students read + write down spoken words  Initially  lower reading speed & illegible handwriting, but  ... 6 wks later  usual reading speed (w/ good comprehension) & better handwriting, but still couldn't recall most dictated words.  ... more practice ( = 85 sessions)  better recall & even ability to categorize dictated words or write the category of a word rather than the word itself.  Most tasks are "controlled" – we must pay attention if we are to execute them properly.  Many well-practiced skills are "automatic" (highly autonomous) – they seem to require no effort or attention to be executed. o E.g., reading is an “automatic” response to words [ Stroop effect(s)?]  this is hard because the brain wants to automatically read the word and not say the color the word is in  Belief that a variety of perceptual and cognitive processes can occur “automatically” (ie without involving consciousness or effort). The ability to make some processes ‘automatic’ is vital, allowing us to delegate control of well learned operations to unconscious ‘routines’ freeing us to focus on new info ▯ Note: skills may not become completely automatic; thus, they will continue to be a burden in dual- (or multi-) task situations. ▯ DUAL-TASK PERFORMANCE  The study of divided attention has concentrated on dual-task performance, in which the ability to perform two tasks together is studied under various conditions. Such studies have found three main factors that affect dual-task performance: o Practice o Task similarity - dual-task performance is greatly improved when the two tasks are dissimilar (e.g., in different sensory modalities).  Its hard to listen to two different people at once  Its in the same system- auto  Its easier to process visual and auditory o Task difficulty ▯ ATTENTION: Some General Conclusions  A. Selective Attention o 1. we often have no memory for ignored stimuli when the selection criterion is an easily discriminable physical attribute (e.g., pitch or location). o 2. difficulty of selection depends on discriminability. o 3. unattended stimuli are not fully analyzed.  B. Divided Attention o 1. Parallel capacity seems possible in some circumstances, such as a visual search for targets that differ from non-targets on a simple featural dimension (e.g., color). o 2. Capacity limits are evident when a task requires complex or difficult discriminations. o 3. Detection of a target impairs one’s ability to detect other targets for a short time thereafter. ▯ ▯ Test Sample Questions  Broadbent’s early filter theory of attention claimed we select inputs for attention based on their physical characteristics. This theory.. o A. was supported by studies showing that people could report little or nothing about unattended messages o B. was invalidated by all subsequent lab studies using the dichotic listening technique o C. is supported by all research findings except for noticing one’s own name in unattended messages o D. is conflicted with findings that the sematic content (meaning) of unattended messages could influence listeners o E. Both A and D  “Pop out” as predicted by the feature integration model is most likely to occur when o a. doing a conjunctive search o b. searching memory for old info o c. searching memory for very recent info o d. searching a display for an item with a single unique feature o e. searching for any one item among 5-9 distractors ▯ ▯ ▯ Thursday, September 10, 2015 ▯ ▯ Can things outside of conscious awareness affect cognition? Anything with a high level of awareness ▯ The Cognitive Unconscious: some cognition occurs without conscious awareness.  Noticing someone because they smell like someone you know and you make a judgment on them  Interesting examples include: o Blindsight – vision without awareness. Damage to visual cortex  belief that one cannot see part or all of visual field, yet they are able to respond appropriately at above chance levels (e.g., when asked about the location or orientation of an “unseen” object).  Original case:  Daniel- partly blind in left visual field after surgery to remove a tumor in his visual cortex  Testing revealed that his “blind” field was not completely blind. He could:  Distinguish between an x and an o flashed in LVF  Tell whether a line flashed in the LVF was horizontal or vertical  Locate but not ID objects in “blind” field  He believed he was only guessing… “I couldn’t see anything, not a darn thing.”  There is visual processing going on in the brain because the visual nerves are going to a different place in the brain than to just the visual cortex o “Automatic” processes  the obliviousness that you have when you drive down a familiar high way and don’t remember driving back home o Implicit learning – implicit knowledge can be acquired without a conscious attempt to learn and largely without explicit knowledge about what was learned. o Subliminal Perception – Behavior and physiological responses can be influenced by stimuli below threshold of awareness.  E.g.:  responses in some dichotic listening tasks  hearing and shadowing an ambiguous sentence like “he went over to the bank”, we tend to interpret it differently depending on whether “river” or “money” is presented in the unattended ear.  very brief or low intensity stimuli, or masked stimuli can have effects.  Subliminal exposure to sexual images increased the motivation of volunteers to continue to work on a boring task  e.g., Priming can occur even if primes cannot be identified o Priming- warming up a participant to an upcoming question by asking a question on a similar subject  Crow has wings… Robin has wings  Your thresh hold of awareness  Effects seem limited to weak but significant changes in arousal, positive or negative affect and other non- specific responses  No evidence for subliminal perception of complex messages, especially in the form of backwards speech: e.g. “hidden” messages in vocal music  Evidence for subliminal perception of complex messages (e.g., hidden messages in rock music)?  Movies  Disney movies  Theaters splicing movies to try and make watchers buy merchandise Tuesday, September 15, 2015 MEMORY: Part I  Remembering requires 3 processes: o 1. Encoding (acquisition)  taking in information o 2. “Storage” (retention)  storing information and processing it o 3. Retrieval  Retention Interval- the time it takes to process the incoming information to retrieving the information ▯ Types of Memory Tasks  Explicit – (declarative) requires conscious recollection; concerns facts and experiences, can be recalled by conscious effort and reported verbally o 1. Recall  A. Free { clustering} vs. Serial  Free- remembering something in any order  Clustering- (subjectively reorganized) in free recall  Serial- remembering something in order  The ABC’s  Remembering phone numbers  B. Cued (probed) vs. uncued  Cued- when giving a hint to remember what was on a list  Uncued- no hints given o 2. Recognition  To remember something by remembering what it is by what it looks like o 3. Relearning - measure savings in time or trials for remastery  relearning something  Chemistry from High School  Implicit (implied) – seen when previous experience affects performance on tasks that do not require explicit memory. o Generally LTM  e.g., Sentence Completion tasks  increased use of specific words as a result of recent exposure. o Factors affecting explicit memory (e.g., some drugs [ Diazepam; midazolam]) may have little effect on implicit memory and vice versa st ▯ Ebbinghaus (1885: On Memory) - 1 scientific studies of memory  Method: o N=1 (H.E.) o invented CVC nonsense syllable; (i.e. JEK) o - tested retention using relearning following complete mastery o - had rigid control, but "ruthless simplification"  Results: o short list can be mastered in one trial. o Spacing effect: increased retention from distributed vs. massed studying  Studying over time will produce better memory  Don’t cram for test o Forgetting Curve: increased retention interval less retention but decreasing rate of forgetting. ▯ Traditional Theories of Memory  Stage Theory - persistence of memories depends on which memory "store" is used. An information-processing approach. Most models include 2 or 3 stages (stores): o 1) Sensory Memory – very brief fragile and easily disrupted  modality specific; ex. Iconic (visual) & Echoic memory o 2) Short-Term Memory (STM or STS)  consolidation is when the information encoded is from STM to LTM o 3) Long-Term Memory (LTM or LTS (Long-Term Store))  Sensory Memory o believed to be the initial repository of information from the senses o this info. is either transferred (processed) or erased (if unattended) o Allows us to hold unprocessed info for a moment until we have time to process it futher o Early research (using “whole report”) found a span of apprehension  4-5 letters … but  It has a very brief duration; so short that memories may not last as long as it takes to report what you’ve seen or heard o Partial report technique (Sperling)   we do take in more than we can report.  versus whole report- report everything that you saw  1) Iconic memory = visual sensory memory  Duration  200-400 msec  required for ‘matching’ of information received in different eye fixations?  2) Echoic memory = auditory sensory memory  Duration  2.5 sec.  Essential for speech perception? ▯ ▯ Thursday, September 17, 2015 ▯ ▯ Traditional Stage Theory: STM & LTM  A. Primary Distinctions between STM & LTM included: o 1) Duration: 18-25 seconds (STS) vs. years or permanent (LTM) o 2) Capacity: 7+2 "chunks" (Miller, 1956) vs. unlimited  {note: STM capacity is aka “memory span”} o 3) Maintenance: STM by rehearsal; LTM by use o 4) Retrieval:  STM rapid & fairly immune to retrieval failures  LTM slower & subject to retrieval failures  B. Other findings used as Evidence: o 1) Recall (STM) declines quickly without rehearsal (Peterson & Peterson, 1959)  A task of counting backward by three from a random 3 digit number was used to prevent rehearsal  Results  Percent Recall-  After 3 secs- 80% o 2) Serial Position Curve  Better memory for items at the beginning and ending of a list  A. Primacy effect – attributed to rehearsal  B. Recency effect – suggests a fragile & brief form of memory  Short delay causes a loss of info in STM so the last items in the list must be recalled from LTM Some Distinctions between ST and LT memory are NOT clear-cut o 1) Duration of memory seems to be continuously variable o 2) Capacity (Memory span): variable (vs. 7+2); can be increased by:  a. Chunking  semantic (e.g., 1492) or rhythmic  b. Practice (e.g.,  digit span > 60)  c. using material that can be pronounced quickly (see working memory) o 3) Rehearsal: role in consolidation of memories is unclear, but simple rehearsal (repetition) seems to be neither necessary nor sufficient for LTM ▯ Review Questions  In the Atkinson-Shiffrin (traditional) stage model, o A. how deeply you think about something determines how long you will remember it o B. material in STM is fragile and is likely to be lost unless it is rehearsed o C. STM and LTM are hard to distinguish o D. material can arrive to the LTM before the sensory memory o E. all of the above ▯ Working Memory (*Baddeley)  Working memory (WM) is a limited capacity, temporary memory system able to simultaneously store and manipulate information. o Activated memory. o Modernized version of STM o has high correlation with IQ o predicts ability to learn o impaired WM is correlated with dyslexia  Components of WM - 2 independent subsystems + executive controller (distinction supported by PET scans) o Phonological Loop - (subvocal) articulation as in rehearsal  Specialized system evolved for language acquisition (Baddeley)  Memory Span = amount one can pronounce, speaking quickly, in 1.5-2 sec.; not 7 + 2 items; holds across age, language & word length  predicts word-length effect: memory span tends to decrease as word length (*pronunciation time) increases. {side note: length affects both rehearsal & delay in recall}  predicts acoustic similarity effect: items that sound alike are more likely to be confused or forgotten  disrupted by concurrent verbal or vocal activity (e.g., saying “la-la-la…”).  This articulatory suppression also prevents conversion of visual to verbal material  eliminates & word length effect & acoustic similarity effect (for visually presented material).  predicts irrelevant speech effect: memory loss  _____________________  immediate recall of short list of items impaired by irrelevant speech (and some other sounds) during encoding or retrieving  Visuospatial Sketch Pad o can hold and manipulate visual and spatial images o disrupted by concurrent visual or spatial activity (e.g., tracking a moving spot with a stylus)  Central Executive o a “command-and-control” center o integrates info. from A & B links them to LTM o attentional controller ▯ ▯ Test on Thursday, September 24, 2015 ▯ ▯ Exam 1:  Worth 52 points  The exam will cover material present in class and textbook as indicated on the syllabus.  Bring a #2 pencil and a photo ID to the exam Tuesday, September 22, 2015  Contemporary views on Long Term Memory   Long term Memory  Semantic Memory o Decontextualized (independent of time or place) knowledge about the word  Episodic Memory o Memory of experiences in a particular space and time; permits a personal past. LTM of temporally unique events o Types:  Autobiographical Memory  “specific, personal, long-lasting” and usually significant to the self; forms your personal life history  Flashbulb Memory  Extremely vivid episodic memories, usually attached to a significant, surprising or emotional event  Procedural Memory  Knowing how (vs. knowing that)  What makes Memory Durable? (long term)  Repetition? o No: because when showed a penny most adults can’t recognize a real US penny  Levels of Processing Theory (Craik & Lockhart)  Level or depth of processing (encoding) is main factor governing storage & retrieval  LTM is not simply a “permanent” storage bin  Memory trace is a byproduct of perpetual/ cognitive processing o Superficial processing is short lived traces o Deep (semantic) processing is the most durable traces  Evidence o Maintenance vs. Elaborative rehearsal  Maintenance  Repeating things over and over at one point and time  Mere Repetition doesn’t = level of learning  Elaborative  When you make sense of a random memory o Repeated exposure may not lead to retention of information  Example 1: Memory of coins  Example 2: Memory of telephone key pads  One study, 0 (zero) of 50 Britons were able to reproduce the pattern of numbers and letters on a British telephone dial (Morton 1967) o Incidental learning  Results of surprise memory test for differently encoded material: deeper processing required = better memory  Examples:  Counting consents vs. categorizing words  Upper or lower case print? < rhyme?< fit sentence? (Craik and Tulving, 1975)  From superficial to deep processing people remember more o Just a matter of processing time  Structural Tasj  Pattern of letters e.g. “brain”= CCVVC vs  Semantic Task  Does the word fit into a sentence?  E.g. “the man threw the ball to the….” (Child) yes o   Tuesday, September 29, 2015   Contemporary Views of LTM   Three types of memory system (Tulving)  1. Semantic memory - stores knowledge about the world  2. Episodic memory - memory of experiences in subjective space and time; permits a personal past. Includes: o Autobiographical memory - "specific, personal, long- lasting", usually significant to self; forms your personal life history; late developing (“childhood amnesia”). o Flashbulb Memories -  3. Procedural memory - knowing how to... (vs. knowing that) o sometimes implicit (tacit) o can function without episodic memory  Levels of Processing Theory  level or depth of processing (encoding) is the main factor governing storage and retrieval; LTM is not simply a ~permanent storage bin.  “Trace persistence is a function of depth of analysis, with deeper levels of analysis associated with more elaborate, longer lasting, and stronger traces. … it is advantageous to store the products of such deep analyses, but there is usually no need to store the products of preliminary analyses.” (Craik & Lockhart, 1972, p. 675)  Memory trace is a byproduct of perceptual/cognitive processing: o superficial processing  short-lived traces o deep (semantic) processing  most durable traces  Evidence for Levels of Processing Theory:  1) Maintenance vs. Elaborative rehearsal o [mere repetition (maintenance)]  [level of learning] (Tulving, 1966)  2) Repeated exposure may not  retention of info. o ex.1 memory for c_____ o ex.2 memory for telephone keypad  0 of 50 Britons able to reproduce pattern of #'s and letters on a British phone dial. (Morton, 1967)  3) Incidental Learning – seen in results of ________________ memory tests for differently encoded material. o example: upper or lower case print? < rhyme? < fit sentence? (Craik & Tulving, 1975) o depth of processing is more important that processing time. 4) Self-Reference Effect - relate something to yourself & you’ll remember it better; *self-schema. o Why?  We have a rich internal semantic network for oursevles (self schema) = deep processing  Effects of Context on Memory   Encoding Specificity Principle  P(remembering) depends on similarity of encoding at time of learning and time of testing; aka context-dependent memory.  The probability of remembering depends on similarity of encoding at time of learning and time of test-taking  Our memory depends on the context of the information that we learned and how we learned it Context Effects o Physical Context - recall is better in same physical environment  ex. 1: learning under water or on shore (Godden & Baddeley, 1975)  learning contexts:  on the docs or underwater  ex. 2: learning with jazz vs. Mozart  memory for word list better if tested with __________ than if tested with different music or silence (Smith, AJP, 1986).  Affective context (Mood-Dependent memory) - recall is better when emotional state at time of learning and time of recall match. o i.e. something learned while in a particular mood is best retrieved when in the same mood  ex.: Happy or sad (hypnotically induced) students learned word lists then tested while happy or sad  Better recall when moods matched (70%) vs. mismatch (42%)  (Bower, Monteiro, & Gilligan, 1978)  vs. Mood Congruence Effect: better memory for material that ‘fits’ your mood; e.g., depressed people are more likely to remember depressing events. o NOT A CONTEXT EFFECT o if you are in a happy mood then more happy memories will come to mind and vice versa for sadness and anger  vs. Pollyanna Principle o we tend to have better memory for pleasant material  looking back things seem better than they were at the time  people on vacations  Examples o 1) travelers on a European tour and students on a Thanksgiving break remembered it as more enjoyable than they said it was at the time o 2) 61% of students on a 3 week CA bicycling tour said they were disappointed during the trip, but only 11% later remembered they’d been disappointed o looking through rose colored glass  State-Dependent Learning - better memory with same level/type of drug influence. G Learning Test Condition % r Condition Rec o all u p 1 smoke smoke 23 marijuana marijuana 2 smoke smoke reg. 12 marijuana cigarette 3 smoke reg. smoke 20 cigarette marijuana 4 smoke reg. smoke reg. 25 cigarette cigarette Comprehension Effects on Memory  poor comprehension generally  poor memory Reconstructive (vs. Reproductive) Memory “The first notion to get rid of is that memory is primarily … reproductive. In a world of constantly changing environment, literal recall is extraordinarily unimportant” (Bartlett, 1932) -evidence for the reconstructive nature of memory  I. Classic Studies by Bartlett (Remembering, 1932): repeatedly tested recall for (odd) stories. Lasting findings and concepts: o Omissions: especially info. that is illogical or violates expectations.  When the context doesn’t really makes sense to them o Additions: e.g., added info. that would help explain incongruous passages.  When the story jumps from one place to another and the transition is not good o Transformations: ex., “fishing” (familiar) replaces "seal hunting"  Altered information: Changing things to make them more familiar  Altered sequences  Information omitted in an earlier recall may reappear later = retrieval failure  Concluded that memories are shaped by an active organization based on past experience (general knowledge): schemas  examples: “restaurant schema” o “college __________________ schema” (Brewer & Treyens, 1981)  Bartlett: memories are shaped by an active organization based on past experiences (general knowledge) = schemas  Schema- an organized body of info we have about a concept, event or knowledge domain; this organized knowledge derived from experience guides the encoding of new information and retrival of stored information  Script- a type of schema consistent of the knowledge of the typical order  Causes of Forgetting  A. Decay / Lack of use - loss of inactive (un-refreshed) memories; loss due to mere passage of time without use. From deterioration of neuronal connections?  B. Interference - loss due to other material o 1. Proactive Interference - forward acting o 2. Retroactive Interference - backward acting  C. Amnesia - loss due to trauma or drugs o 1. Anterograde ("in forward direction") amnesia  learning deficit, but memory span usually normal (7+2)  a. Korsakoff syndrome  chronic alcohol abuse  b. H.M. (similar to Clive Wearing [video]) – has no recall for recent events, but memory span & older memories [> 3 yrs. Presurgery] intact  H.M.'s amygdala & almost all of hippocampus removed  almost total lost of recent memory; lives every moment in isolation from the past. o 2. Retrograde ("backward") amnesia - causes include ECT and head trauma; no lasting memory of events for limited period prior to incident, but info. is often retained shortly after incident onwards.   Tuesday, October 6, 2015   I. Classic Studies by Bartlett (Remembering, 1932): repeatedly tested recall for (odd) stories. Lasting findings and concepts:  Omissions: especially info. that is illogical or violates expectations.  Additions: e.g., added info. that would help explain incongruous passages.  Transformations: ex., “fishing” (familiar) replaces "seal hunting" o Information omitted in an earlier recall may reappear later. o Concluded that memories are shaped by an active organization based on past experience (general knowledge): schemas o examples: “restaurant schema”  “college__office__ schema” (Brewer & Treyens, 1981) II. Linguistic Memory (for sentences & passages): we retain the "gist" (deep structure) rather than verbatim (surface structure). Linguistic memory seems to be reconstructed from knowledge.  Semantic Integration (Bransford & Franks, 1971) [try demo. In Matlin, pp. 279-280] o We take in information from multiple sentences and ‘store’ it in abstract form o 1. ‘ the man who lives across the street stole the red lawn chair from my neighbor’  shorter and less complex sentences were presented that contained either 1,2, or 3 of the sentences propositions  III. Eyewitness Testimony & Face Recognition Studies  There is a problem: Faulty eyewitness testimony is the most frequent cause of wrongful convictions (> 50%)  Misleading Postevent Information (MPI) o such as (mis)leading questions can distort & transform memories. o a large, robust effect. o Are memories themselves changed, or just peoples’ reports?  Source-monitoring confusions: a memory derived from 1 source may be misattributed to another; includes info. from before or after a remembered event.  ID problems include use of best-match criterion (e.g., picking person in line-up who … o Most resembles your memory of the culprit; similarity, may try to pick the suspect  Confidence is a poor index of accuracy (low positive correlation) o If you are right then you are more likely to be more confident  The actual correlation to this is close to zero  Attention is limited: o E.g. Weapon-focus effect o Things that are going around are not taken into effect because you are not focus on them o i.e. you are getting robbed at knife point but they cant focus on specific facial features  detailed descriptions of the weapon but not of the facial features  IV “Recovered Memories” & False Memory Syndrome (FMS)  FMS involves: o 1. Belief that a behavioral problem is a reaction to a repressed traumatic past event; usually childhood sexual abuse (CSA). o 2. development of pseudomemories of childhood trauma  Epidemic of FMS beginning in 1990’s partially due to “therapists” beliefs and practices.  De Rivera (1998) examined 56 people who had recanted false accusations. All had FM supported by an authority figure (e.g., therapist). Most (54%) indicated the therapist was the main author of their abuse story.  (false) memories may be induced by suggestive therapists who may use hypnosis, sodium amytal, dream interpretation and/or guided imagery.  Widespread belief in the general public that traumatic events may be widespread for decades  Denial or lack of memory ma be taken as evidence of repression  People who expect to enter psychotherapy are prone to believing they have forgotten memories of childhood trauma and abuse  FM usually promoted by an authority figure: who leads the fabrication of an abuse story  False memories can be induced by: o 1. suggestion (Loftus)  false memories can be induced by suggestive therapist who may use hypnosis, sodium amytal, dream interpretation and or guided imagery  recovered (discontinuous) memories of childhood abuse are more likely to be valid if they occur outside of ‘therapy’ and are a surprise to the ‘victim’ o 2. Beliefs about one’s own past are readily influenced by clinicians’ dream interpretation (Mazzoni & Loftus, 1998)  dreams may be the “royal road to memory manipulation”. o 3. Dreams are being mistaken for actual events; merely imagining events: Imagination-inflation (Loftus; Mazzoni)  – people can develop both a belief in, & a memory of, an event that never happened to them by simply imagining its occurrence.  Nurse taking a skin sample from one’s finger  Imagination-inflation study  1. Listed 40 plausible events (e.g. found $10) that could have happened in childhood  2. Particioants rate how confident they are in that event occurrence  3. Told to imagine a random subset of the events happening  4. Later ratings show higher confidence for the imagined events  V. Memory shifts due to knowledge (e.g., of environmental invariants like momentum or gravity) or inference  A. Representational Displacement: observers tend to remember an event as extending past its actual ending point. o e.g., Representational Momentum (RM) - memories tend to be distorted in the directional of a perceived or implied motion with higher perceived velocity  more displacement.  Higher velocity= more displacement  B. Boundary Extension - a tendency to ‘remember’ more of a scene than was actually seen, as when ‘remembering’ parts of a static scene that were actually outside of the view. o  pictures drawn from memory may include elements that would logically fall just outside the boundaries of the original. (Intraub) o pictures drawn from memory may include elements that logically fall just outside of the boundaries of the original  Main Points of Reconstructive Memory  Memory is rarely an exact reproduction of what was experienced; we typically reconstruct memories using inference, beliefs, preexisting knowledge and post event information  Our memories can have distortions and additions as well as errors or omission  Other people may intentionally or unintentionally distort our memories or even implant false memories.  People can have false memories in a variety of situations.  We can have problems correctly identifying the source of the information we recall ( Source Monitoring Problem)  Confidence is not a reliable indicator or accuracy Improving Memory  I. Methods of improving encoding and consolidation  A. Mnemonics o 1. Method of Loci (Method of locations) - requires 3 steps:  identify sequence of familiar places  create images of to-be-recalled (TBR) items associated with places.  recall by "revisiting" places o 2. Peg Word System  pairs of rhyming words form “pegs” for to-be- remembered items. o 3. First Letter Technique (acrostics)  Examples:  The Great Lakes  ROYGBIV  Notes on the lines for treble clef  Planets (in the old solar system) o 4. Chunking  reduce amount you need to remember  149217762015 = 1492;1776;2015 o 5. Rhyming  remembering the presidents in order  B. Dual (multiple) encoding o Visual + Verbal or o Visual + Motor  Enactment Effect: Performing actions produces better recall than only learning the action phrases (e.g., “tear the paper”) o Varied study environments   C. Comprehension - make sure you understand the material o Bransford and Johnson (1972) – doing laundry  D. Minimize interference – e.g., study before going to sleep o Less interference  E. Distributed Practice o Don’t do all of your studying at one time o LTM is better when learning is spread out over time  F. Use Deep Processing (not rote rehearsal) o Elaborative rehearsal o Memorizing doesn’t work o Tie information to other things and to your self  G. Self-Tests – testing effect: testing helps LTM o Testing Effect: after being tested on the material then the information is more likely to stay in memory  II. Improving Retrieval  general goal: re-create type of processing that occurred when the event was originally encoded.  Context Reinstatement – Reliable technique Problem of False Recall: o ex. Ss tried over long period of time to recall names of school classmates. Found steady and significant increase in false names with increased time. (Read & Bruce, 1982) o A. Hypnosis?  This is used by law enforcement when they are desperate for information  They would report more stuff but with a false memory  Enhances confidence but not accuracy  Makes people more susceptible to more amplified effect on suggestions on memories o B. Reconstructing context o C. Bizarre/unusual hiding places?  Prospective Memory Remembering to do things in the future o (stop at store on way home; take pie out of oven; etc.); Memory for the future.  1. Time Based  2. Event –Based  when you go home get some milk or something  far less studied than retrospective memory, but many similarities (e.g., impact of retention interval) o memo


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