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KAAP309 Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 4,5,6,7

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by: Jada Burbage

KAAP309 Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 4,5,6,7 KAAP309011

Marketplace > University of Delaware > Culture > KAAP309011 > KAAP309 Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 4 5 6 7
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Tissues, Integumentary System, Bone and Skeletal Tissue, Skeletal System
Human Anatomy and Physiology I
Rose,William Cudebec
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"The content was detailed, clear, and very well organized. Will definitely be coming back to Jada for help in class!"
Mr. Halie Nolan

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This 10 page Bundle was uploaded by Jada Burbage on Tuesday January 12, 2016. The Bundle belongs to KAAP309011 at University of Delaware taught by Rose,William Cudebec in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 80 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Culture at University of Delaware.


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The content was detailed, clear, and very well organized. Will definitely be coming back to Jada for help in class!

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Date Created: 01/12/16
KAAP309 September 10 , 2015 September 15 , 2015 Chapter 4 –Tissues Epithelial Tissue (separates inside and outside) Special Characteristics:  Polarity, sidedness: apical (microvilli, outside) & basal (inside)  Specialized contacts on the sides: tight junctions, desmosomes  Supported by connective tissue: basal lamina (noncellular) and reticular connective tissue below  Avascular, innervated  High retention rate Classification: o Two-part names o Part 1: Cell layers  Simple (1), stratified (more than 1) o Part 2: Shape (of apical layer in stratified)  Squamous, cuboidal, columnar o Look at pictures of different tissue types, and functions* Glandular: o Endocrine glands  Make & release hormones into blood; ductless; most are small organs: ch.16 o Exocrine glands  Make & secrete product to “outside”  Unicellular: goblet cell to make mucin, forms mucus; respiratory and GI tracts  Multicellular: duct and secretory unit (acinus); sweat, various in GI tract, mammary, salivary Connective Tissue Common Characteristics:  Origin: embryonic mesenchyme  Large amount of extracellular matrix o Gel like ground substance, all three fiber types  Acts as a binding tissue, resists mechanical stress, particularly tension Structural Elements: Ground substance – between the cells Fibers o Collagen o Elastic o Reticular Cells o –blasts, -cytes Types Connective Tissue Proper o Loose connective tissue  Areolar: support, hold fluid, defense v. infection  Adipose – cushion, store energy, insulate, often subcutaneous  Reticular – like areolar, but only retic fibers; many lymphocytes, lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow o Dense connective tissue (fibrous: fibers are main component)  Regular – unidirectional collagen fibers; ligaments, tendons  Irregular – multidirectional collagen fibers; akes sheets; dermis, joint capsules  Elastic – elastic (large arteries) Cartilage o ***Collagen – most abundant protein in the body  Has 3 subunits (strands) that wrap around each other with a right handed twist, each strand has a LH helix  Combination of RH and LH helices makes collagen hard to stretch o Hyaline: covers the ends of long bones, embryonic skeleton o Elastic: extreme flexibility, found in ears, epiglottis o Fibrocartilage: absorbs compressive shock, intervertebral discs Bone o Osseous tissue: supports and protects, stores calcium, minerals, and fat, spongy and compact types Blood o Noncellular matrix (plasma), transport of respiratory gases, nutrients, wastes Nervous Tissue Excitable (electro-chemically) Brain, spinal cord, nerves Cell body = soma Dendrites receive input, Axon carries output Neuroglia = glial cells o Support, insulate (electrically) protect o Not excitable Tissue: long processes that extend from the nucleus-containing cell body, transmit electrical signals Muscle Tissue Types of Muscle By looks: o Striated  Skeletal: long, cylindrical cells, striations, voluntary movement, attached to bones, occasionally to skin  Cardiac: branching, striated, generally uninucleate cells, pumps blood, found in heart o Smooth  Spindle shaped, arranged to form sheets, propels substances (food, urine, baby) found in walls of hollow organs By control: o Voluntary: skeletal o Involuntary: cardiac, smooth Covering and Lining Membranes  Cutaneous (skin) o Largest organ  Mucous o Line body cavities that connect to outside; wet o Adapted for absorption and secretion o Some but not ALL secret mucus  Serous o In ventral body cavities; thorax, abdominopelvic o Have inner (visceral) & outer (parietal) layers KAAP309 September 15 , 2015 September 17 , 2015 Chapter 5 - Integumentary System Functions of Integumentary System  Protection  Temperate regulation  Cutaneous sensation  Metabolism  Blood reservoir Regions  Epidermis – outermost o Provides protection, composed of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium o Keratinocytes – produce the fibrous protein keratin o Melanocytes – produce the brown pigment melanin o Langerhans’ cells – epidermal macrophages that help activate the immune system o Merkel cells – function as touch receptors in association with sensory nerve endings o Layers:  Basal Layer (Stratum Basale) – Deepest  Firmly attached to dermis  Consists of a single row of the youngest keratinocytes  Cells undergo rapid division, hence its alternate name  Prickly Layer (Stratum Spinosum)  Contain weblike system of intermediate filaments attached to desmosomes  Melanin granules and Langerhans’ cells are abundant  Granular Layer (Stratum Granulosum)  Thin, three to five cell layers in which drastic changes in keratinocyte appearance occurs  Keratohyaline and lamellated granules accumulate in the cells of this later  Clear Layer (Stratum Lucidum)  Thin, transparent band superficial to the stratum granulosum  Consist of a few rows of flat, dead keratinocytes  Present only in thick skin  Horny Layer (Stratum Corneum) – Superficial  Outermost later of keratinized cells  Accounts for three quarters of the epidermal thickness  Functions: o Waterproofing o Protecting from abrasion and penetration o Rendering the body relatively insensitive to biological, chemical and physical assaults  Dermis – middle o Second skin region o Contains strong flexible connective tissue o Cell types – fibroblasts, macrophages, and occasionally mast cells and white blood cells o Composed of two layers  Papillary Layer  Areolar connective tissues with collagen and elastic fibers  Superior surface contains peglike projections called dermal papillae  Dermal papillae contain capillary loops, Meissner’s corpuscles, and free nerve endings  Reticular Layer  Accounts for approximately 80% of the thickness of the skin  Collagen fibers add strength and resiliency to the skin  Elastin fibers provide stretch-recoli properties  Hypodermis – loose connective tissue below the dermis o Subcutaneous layer o Composed of adipose and areolar connective tissue o Functions: energy storage, cushion underlying tissues from external forces Skin Color  Melanin – yellow to reddish brown to black pigment, responsible for dark skin colors o Freckles and pigmented moles – location accumulations of melanin  Carotene – yellow to orange pigment, most obvious in palms and soles of feet  Hemoglobin – reddish pigment responsible for pinkish hue of skin Sweat Glands  Prevent overheating and secrete cerumen and milk o Eccrine sweat glands – found in palms, soles of the feet, forehead o Apocrine sweat glands – found in axillary and anogenital areas o Ceruminous glands – modified apocrine glands in external ear canal that secrete cerumen o Mammary glands – specialized sweat glands that secrete milk Sebaceous Glands  Simple alveolar glands found all over body  Soften skin when stimulated by hormones  Secrete an oily secretion called sebum Hair  Filamentous strands of dead keratinized cells produced by hair follicles  Contains hard keratin which is tougher and more durable than soft keratin of the skin  Made up of the shaft projecting from the skin, and the root embedded in the skin  Consists of a core called the medulla, a cortex, and an outermost cuticle  Pigmented by melanocytes at the base of the hair Functions of Hair  Maintain warmth  Sensory; alert body to presence of insects  Guard scalp against physical trauma, heat loss, sunlight Distribution: over entire skin surface except;  Palms, soles, lips  Nipples and portion of external genitalia Hair Follicle  Root sheath extending from the epidermal surface into the dermis  Deep end is expanded forming a hair bulb  A knot of sensory nerve endings (a root hair plexus) wraps around each hair bulb  Bending a hair stimulates these endings, hence our hairs act as sensitive touch receptors Hair types  Vellus – pale, fine body hair in children, adult females  Terminal – coarse, long hair eyebrows, scalp, axillary, and pubic regions Hair thinning, baldness  Alopecia – hair thinning in both sexes  True baldness o Genetically determined and sex-influenced condition o Male pattern baldness – due to effect of DHT on follicles Structure of a Nail  Scalelike modification of the epidermis on the distal, dorsal side of fingers and toes Burns  First degree – only epidermis is damaged o Localized redness, swelling and pain  Second degree – epidermis and upper regions of dermis are damaged o Like first degree burns, but blisters also appear  Third degree – entire thickness of skin is damaged o Burned area appear gray-white, cherry red or pain o No initial edema or pain (nerve endings are destroyed)  Fourth degree – entire thickness of skin is damaged o Underlying tissue such as muscle, tendon, ligament also damaged Rule of Nines  Estimates the severity of burns  Burns considered critical if: o Over 25% of the body has second degree burns o Over 10% of the body has third-degree burns o Third degree burns are on face, hands, or feet KAAP309 September 24 , 2015 September 29 , 2015 Chapter 6: Bone and Skeletal Tissue Bone Structure Gross Anatomy  Bone Markings  Texture o Compact (lamellar): dense outer layter, naked eye smooth o Spongy (cancellous): trabeculae, red or yellow marrow  Typical long bone structure o Diaphysis: compact bone collar over marrow – filled medullary cavity o Epiphyses: bone ends, compact over spongy, hyaline cartilage; epiphyseal line o Membranes: periosteum, endosteum, osteoblasts/clasts  Short, irregular, flat bone structure o Compact over spongy, no marrow cavity  Hematopoetic tissue (red marrow): o Trabecular parts of long bones (esp. heads of femur, humerus in adult, and flat bones) Development - Ossification (=osteogenesis)  Forming the bony skeleton o Intramembranous ossif o Endochondral ossify  Postnatal bone growth o Length of long bones; ephiphyseal plate o Hormonal regulation  GH. Sex hormones: growth spurt, epi plate closure Homeostatic Imbalances of Bone  Osteomalachia o Failure to mineralize, weak bones o Rickets in children o Due to Ca deficiency, maybe secondary to vit D deficiency  Osteoporosis  Paget’s disease o Disorganized bone, spongy/compact too high o Elderly susceptible; affected bone weak KAAP309 September 22 , 2015 September 24 , 2015 Chapter 7 – Axial & Appendicular Skeleton Axial Skeleton  Skull  Vertebral Column  Bony thorax Skull  Bodys most complex bony structure  Formed by cranium and facial bones  Cranium – protects brain, site of attachment for head and neck muscles  Facial bones o Framework for the face, sense organs, teeth o Provide openings for air and food o Anchor facial muscles of expression Cranium Anatomy  Eight cranial bones – two parietal, two temporal, frontal, occipital, sphenoid, ethmoid  Thin and strong bones Frontal Bone  Anterior portion of the cranium  Articulates posteriorly with the parietal bones via the coronal suture  Major markings include: supraorbital margins, anterior cranial fossa, frontal sinuses Temporal Bone Sphenoid Bone Ethmoid Bone Facial Bones  Fourteen bones  Only mandible and vomer are unpaired  Paired bones: maxillae, zygomatics, nasals, lacrimals, palatines, inferior conchae Mandible  Lower jawbone, largest, strongest bone of face  Markings include: coronoid process, mandibular condyle, alveolar margin, mandibular angle, mandibular and mental foramina Maxillary bones  Medially fused bones, make up upper jaw and central portion of facial skeleton Zygomatic Bones – Irregularly shaped bones (cheekbones), form prominences of cheeks and inferolateral margins of orbits Nasal bones – thin medially fused bones, form bridge of nose Lacrimal bones – contribute to medial walls or orbits; contain lacrimal fossae which house lacrimal sacs Palatine bones – two bones plates, form portions of hard palate, posterolateral walls of nasal cavity, and small parts of orbits Vomer – plow shaped bone, forms part of nasal spectrum Inferior nasal conchae – paired, curved bones in the nasal cavity, form part of lateral walls of nasal cavity Orbits  Bony cavities in which the eyes are firmly encased and cushioned by fatty tissue  Formed by parts of seven bones, frontal sphenoid, zygomatic, maxilla, palatine, lacrimal and ethmoid Axial Selection – Vertebral Column  26 irregular bones (vertebrae) connected to form a flexible curved structure o Cervical vertebrae – 7 bones o Thoracic vertebrae – 12 bones o Lumbar vertebrae – 5 bones o Sacrum – bone inferior to the lumbar vertebrae that articulates with the hip bones (fusion of 5, starts puberty, ends mid 20s) 


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