Module One Comm. Notes
Module One Comm. Notes comm 101-012
Popular in Communications 101
Popular in Communication Studies
This 0 page Bundle was uploaded by Amie Fortman on Tuesday January 12, 2016. The Bundle belongs to comm 101-012 at Indiana State University taught by Dr. Brian Johnston in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Communications 101 in Communication Studies at Indiana State University.
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Date Created: 01/12/16
Module One Old School Important developments in communications came not just from the Western world Ancient Indian literature shows evidence of rhetorical philosophy that predates Aristotle Vach an Indian goddess worshipped as the personi cation of speech Classical Period 500 BCE 4OO CE The recognized founders of rhetoric and the eld of communication Aspasia of Miletus Socrates Plato and Aristotle Scholars who expanded on their ideas Corax Tisias Cicero Quintilian and Pan Chao Aspasia of Miletus female scholar born into privilege and regarded as an intellectual equal to many men of her day taught rhetoric and home economics to Socrates and in uenced Plato39s beliefs Socrates greatly in uenced the direction of the Classical Period passed on his beliefs to his student Plato eventually executed on charges of atheism and corrupting the Athenian youth Dialectic de ned by Plato as a process of questions and answers that would lead to ultimate truth and understanding Both Plato and Socrates were critical of rhetorical theory because it does not always represent the pure truth or require a speci c body of knowledge making it a false art Sophists early speech teachers who specialized in persuasion in court to regain land ownership Aristotle believed that rhetoric could be used to create community created his own school where students learned politics and science in addition to communication and philosophy Rhetoric de ned by Aristotle as the faculty of discovering the possible means of persuasion in reference to any subject Logos the presentation of logical or seemingly logical reasons that support a speaker39s position Ethos the presentation of ethical or seemingly ethical reasons that support a speaker39s position Pathos the use of emotional appeal to support a speaker39s position Five Canons of Rhetoric Invention the formulation of arguments based on rational appeal or logic Arrangement ordering a speech in the most effective manner for a particular audience ExpressionStyle fitting the proper language to the invented matter to enhance the enjoyment and thus acceptability of the argument by an audience Memory the preparation of the argument before its presentation not prized as much today for fear of the argument sounding rote or arti cial Delivery the use of nonverbal behaviors such as eye contact gestures and tone of voice during a presentation Pan Chao first female historian in China strong believer in and early pioneer for education for girls and women The Medieval Period 400 CE 1400 CE The church felt threatened by secular rhetoric works they considered to be full of paganism Although it condemned communication study as corrupt and sacrilegious it embraced certain features of the Classical Age They focused on communication skills that would promote better preaching and letter writing skills emphasis was placed on persuasion and developing public presentations Augustine Christian clergyman and renowned rhetorician who argued for the ideas promoted by the Classical Era a teacher by trade who used his skills to move people toward the quottruth of Godquot Communication survived as one of the seven branches of liberal communication other than that little progress was made The Renaissance 14001600 CE Secular institutions and governments started to compete with the Church Christine de Pisan praised as Europe39s rst professional woman writer provided instruction to women on how to realize their potential and enrich their lives Laura Cereta initiated intellectual debates with her male counterparts through letter writing questioned women39s traditional roles in society Petrus Ramus paid great attention to the idea of style by actually grouping style and delivery of the ve canons together argued that invention and arrangement did not t the canon and should be the focus of logic not rhetoric Francis Bacon believed that the journey to truth was paramount to the study and performance of communication argued that reason and morality required speakers to have a high degree of accountability The Enliohtenment 1600 1800 CE Neoclassicism revived the classical approach to rhetoric byadapting and applying it to contemporary situations Eclectic method of belletristic scholars offered standards of style for presenting and critiquing oration drama and poetry Hugh Blair advocated the notion of good taste and character in communication encounters published a book that almost half the Englishspeaking world referred to Psychologicalepistemological school of rhetoric applied communication study to basic human nature knowledge and thought George Campbell tried to create convincing arguments using scienti c and moral reasoning by seeking to understand how people used speech to persuade others Elocutionary approach concentrated on delivery and style by providing strict rules for a speaker39s bodily actions such as gestures facial expressions tone and pronunciation The Emergence of a Contemporary Academic Field From 1890 to 1920 quotthe various aspects of oral communication were drawn together and integrated under the common rubric of speechquot and integrated into English departments Public Speaking Conference of the New England and North Atlantic States the rst to demand the creation of separate departments of English Hamilton College an early pioneer of Speech instruction in the US and had a recognized department of Elocution and Rhetoric as early as 1841 By quot1944 the United States Of ce of Education used its own survey of speech departments to assure the educational world that 39the expressive arts have gained In full recognition in college programs of study National Association of Elocutionists rst organization of Communication professionals established in 1892 This was followed by The Eastern Public Speaking Conference formed in 1910 National Association of Academic Teachers of Public Speaking the current National Communication Association founded in 1914 became the Speech Communication Association in 1970 It wasn39t until 1997 that members voted to change it to its current name 19001940 Communication study focused on ve primary areas that experienced rapid changes and advances quot1 work on communication and political institutions 2 research concerned with the role of communication in social life 3 social psychological analyses of communication 4 studies of communication and education and 5 commercially motivated researchquot There became focus on propaganda analysis political themes in public communication magazines textbooks etc and public opinion research that explored the opinions of society at large on major political and social issues Lippman and Lasswell scholars that pushed analysis of public opinion polls and propaganda in order to provide incredible insight into the impacts of such communication Herbert Blumer Charles H Cooley John Dewey George Herbert Mead and Robert E Park committed themselves to quotscientific sociology that focused on the quotsensitivity to the interrelation of persons experiences and the social contexts of their livesquot focused on how people interacted examined the effects of urbanization on peoples social lives studied lm and media institutions and their effects on culture explored culture con ict and consensus highlighted the effects of marketing and advertising and researched interpersonal communication Scholars promoted the advancement of Social Psychology which explored individual social behavior in communication contexts Where do we get ideas of quotnormalquot communication behaviors and how does our communication impact social situations Another area of focus was the effects of media on communication outcomes particularly movies There was greater interest in commercialism and human communication with an increase in national brands marketing and advertising 0 people began to understand mass media39s ability to persuade Paul Lazarsfeld studied mass communication to understand its commercial implications an early pioneer in understanding persuasion and advertising 1940 1970 Lazarsfeld and Stanton argued that quotthe whole eld of communications research should be covered simultaneouslyquot in 1949 began forming Communication into its own academic eld by creating and adopting a vocabulary speci c to the eld writing core subject matter into textbooks and agreeing to a set of communication processes to be taught in college and university classrooms Wilbur Schramm credited as the rst person to create university classes with quotcommunicationquot in the title author textbooks for Communicationspeci c courses be awarded a PhD in Communication and have the title quotProfessor of Communicationquot Two major subjects of study in the 19505 0 research on voting and mass media 0 experimental studies on persuasion PostWWII focuses in Communication public speaking instructional communication communication anxiety persuasion group dynamics and business communication 196039s and 197039s saw renewed emphasis on the works of those from the Classical Period and worked to bridge together the old and new school of Communication study 19705 to the Present Day The emergence of the women39s civilrights and antiwar movements reintroduced od social questions and concerns Two pioneering organizations devoted to women39s scholarship in Communication the Organization for the Study of Communication Language and Gender 1972 and the Organization for Research on Women and Communication 1977 Current strong teaching and research interests rhetoric mass communication instructional communication interpersonal communication group communication organizational communication intercultural communication gender communication health communication visual communication communication and sport LatinoLatina Communication Studies 0 family communication
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