Anatomy and Physiology 113 Jan. 28-Feb 4 Notes Bundle
Anatomy and Physiology 113 Jan. 28-Feb 4 Notes Bundle BIOH 113 - 01
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BIOH 112 - 01
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This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by Meaghan Raw on Tuesday January 12, 2016. The Bundle belongs to BIOH 113 - 01 at University of Montana taught by Heather Dawn Labbe (P) in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see Human Form and Function II in Biological Sciences at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 01/12/16
BIOH 113 Notes: Chapter 1 January 28-February 4 - Human anatomy is the study of body structure - Physiology is the science of body function - Each body structure has a particular function - Structure mirrors Function Human Anatomy - Surface Anatomy: form and markings that are intact and have not been cut o Palpable landmarks o Used by dermatologists, physicians, etc. - Gross Anatomy: anatomical structures visible to the unaided eye without aid of microscope by “cutting” o Systemic (all at once in one area) o Regional (division into areas; head, trunk) - Developmental: fertilized egg to adult form o Embryology - Pathology: study of structural changes due to disease Physiology - Function of system, organ, etc. - Knowledge of physics which can explain occurrences like blood pressure, thyroid problems, etc. Structural Organization - An organ can be involved in more than one system o Example is the pancreas which is part of the digestion and endocrine systems - There are 6 levels 1. Chemical 2. Cellular 3. Tissue 4. Organ: bone, arteries, stomach, etc. 5. System 6. Organismal Organ Systems of the Body - Integumentary: what shows, includes the dermis o Skin, sweat glands, oil glands, hair, and nails o Epithelial tissue o Protects, controls temperature (thermos regulate), synthesizes vitamin D - Skeletal: includes the bone, cartilage, and ligaments o Protects and supports o Framework for muscles o Site of blood cell formation - Muscular: voluntary; cardiac; smooth o Allows for manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression o Maintains body posture o Produces heat to help maintain thermo-regulation - Nervous: Brain, nerves, sensory receptors, spinal column o Uses action potentials and neuro potentials o Fast acting control system - Endocrine: another control system that uses chemicals (hormones) o Slow acting control system o Target specific using chemical messengers Hormones have a specific effect on a cellular receptor Almost every organ produces a hormone - Cardiovascular: heart; vessels; o How the heart functions - Lymphatic: disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream o Another tube in tissues that sucks off interstitial fluid o White blood cells involved with immunity - Respiratory: lungs and airways o Removes carbon dioxide o Keeps the blood supplied with oxygen - Digestive: GI (gastrointestinal) tract o Breaks down food into absorbable units that then enter the blood stream - Urinary: urethra; ureters o Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body o Regulates water, electrolyte, and pH balance of the blood - Reproductive: o Male: testes Sperm and sex hormones How organisms are reproduced Y chromosome o Female: ovaries; vagina Eggs and sex hormones Where organisms are reproduced and carried X chromosome Organ Systems Interrelationships - Shows how systems interplay with one another o Inside goes inside; outside goes outside o Mucus membranes line tubes that enter to the outside They help to give a degree of protection from outside elements o Cells exchange with other areas across a boundary o Open and closed systems An example of a closed system is the vascular system An example of an open system is the GI tract Necessary Life Functions I - Need to maintain boundaries: skin, mucus membranes, plasma membranes of cells. o selective boundary in cells - Movement as a system o movement internally is important, smooth muscle contraction (GI tract, vessels, respiratory passages) - Responsiveness: reaction to infection, body temp. sense a change and do something about it. o Homeostasis (seesaw) external and internal changes to maintain a dynamic (normal range) - Digestion: refers to breaking down of food stuff o Mechanical: chewing, stomach o chemical: bile, enzymes Necessary Life Functions II - Metabolism: net/total of all reactions in the body o Metabolic reactions - Excretion: removal of wastes o Defecation and urination and sweat - Reproduction: cellular and organismal levels o Mitosis of cells which is necessary for life. o Most cells need to be replaced often, some will last the majority of your lifespan. o Red blood cells live 100-120 days. - Growth: increase in size of organism as a whole or part o We undergo dramatic growth huge structural change, least of which is size, the internal organs grow a great deal. - Differentiation: cell starts out unspecialized and becomes more specialized. Survival Needs - Conditions that we have to have in order to survive o Oxygen to produce ATP (money inside cells to get things done) o Water: medium within which chemical reactions occur, thermo-regulate Homeostasis - Conditions in the body change but stay within a normal range when the person is healthy o receptor to control center to effector - Body fluids o Dilute watery solutions containing dissolved chemicals inside or outside of the cells Maintain the volume and composition of these fluids is important o Intracellular Fluid (ICF) The fluid within the cells o Extracellular Fluid (ECF) The fluid outside of the cells o Interstitial Fluid ECF between the cells and tissues of the body - Some important fluids in the body are o Blood Plasma ECF within blood vessels o Lymph ECF within lymphatic vessels o Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) ECF in the brain and spinal cord o Synovial Fluid ECF in joints o Aqueous Humor ECF in the eyes - Cells depend upon their environment. - Mild disruptions equal quick restoration. Homeostatic Control Mechanisms - The variable produces a change in the body - The three interdependent components of control mechanisms are: o Receptor – monitors the environments and responds to changes (stimuli) o Control center – determines the set point at which the variable is maintained o Effector – provides the means to respond to the stimulus - Negative Feedback Systems: o In negative feedback systems, the output shuts off the original stimulus Example: Regulation of blood glucose levels - Positive Feedback Systems: o In positive feedback systems, the output enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus Example: Regulation of blood clotting Homeostatic Imbalance - Disturbance of homeostasis or the body’s normal equilibrium o Overwhelming of negative feedback mechanisms allowing destructive positive feedback mechanisms to take over Major Body Regions - Axial vs. Appendicular o Axial – Head, neck and trunk (vertebral column and ribs) o Appendicular – limbs and their attachments to the axis (both girdles) Anatomical Terminology Regional Names: Pay attention to all terms on the body!!! - Cranial - Cervical - Cubital - Carpal - Patellar - Orbital - Thoracic - Inguinal - Manus - Plantar - Buccal - Axillary - Femoral - Gluteal - Tarsal - Digital or Phalangeal Anatomical Terminology Directional Terms - Superior (Cranial) - Above, top, toward head - Inferior (Caudal) - Below, bottom, away from head - Anterior (Ventral) – Towards the front - Posterior (Dorsal) – Towards the back - Medial - Toward the midline - Lateral - Away from midline - Intermediate – Between medial and lateral - Proximal - Nearest to the origination - Distal - Farther from origination - Ipsilateral - Same side of the body - Contralateral - Opposite side of the body - Superficial - Towards the surface - Deep - Towards the core of the body Planes and Sections - A section is a flat surface of a three dimensional structure cut along a plane. - A plane is an imaginary flat surface that passes through a body part. Body Planes - Sagittal (Mid sagittal vs. parasagittal) - Frontal (Coronal) - Transverse - Oblique Body Cavities - Embryologically, the human organs develop within two major body cavities: o The brain and spinal cord develop in a dorsal cavity o The remaining body organs are found in the ventral body cavity - Both dorsal and ventral cavities have subdivision - Body Cavities Examples o Oral (mouth) cavity contains the tongue and teeth o Nasal cavity is part of the upper airways (Chapter 23) o Orbital cavities contain the eyeballs and various nerves and blood vessels o Middle ear cavities contain the small bones of the middle ear o Synovial cavities are found in freely moveable joints like the large joints of the shoulder and hip Membranes and Body Cavities - Membranes line the major body cavities - Dorsal cavity is lined with the meninges - Meninges consist of three layers: o Dura mater (most superficial) o Arachnoid mater o Pia mater (deepest) - Meninges help circulate cerebrospinal fluid - The Ventral body cavity is lined with serous membranes Serous Membranes - Covers viscera within ventral cavities and lines walls of thorax and abdomen - Two layers o Parietal layer lines the walls of cavities Parietal - Pertaining to a covering against a cavity wall o Visceral layer covers organs Pertaining to a covering over an organ - Contains serous fluid secreted into space between layers - Reduces friction - Allows viscera to “slide” past one another during movements - pleural cavities = pleura - pericardial cavity = pericardium - abdominal cavity = peritoneum - visceral peritoneum covers abdominal visceral - parietal peritoneum lines cavity walls - retroperitoneal organs are behind the peritoneum - kidneys, adrenal glands, pancreas, duodenum, colon, some aorta and inferior vena cava Abdominopelvic Quadrants & Regions - Dividing the abdomen and pelvis into regions is done using a Tic-Tac-Toe grid - It is a little more complex than using quadrants, but is also more specific - There are nine abdominopelvic regions 1. Right Hypochondriac Region 2. Left Hypochondriac Region 3. Epigastric Region 4. Right Lumbar Region 5. Left Lumbar Region 6. Umbilical Region 7. Right Inguinal Region 8. Left Inguinal Region 9. Hypogastric Region
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