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BIOL 119 Plant Bundle 1

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by: Ashley Notetaker

BIOL 119 Plant Bundle 1 BIOL 119

Ashley Notetaker
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These notes cover the unit one exam on plant structure and function taught by Dr.Marshall.
Principle Structure and Function
Dr. Marshall/ Dr.Nachappa
75 ?




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"Same time next week teach? Can't wait for next weeks notes!"
Fiona Sipes

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This 13 page Bundle was uploaded by Ashley Notetaker on Wednesday January 13, 2016. The Bundle belongs to BIOL 119 at Indiana University Purdue University - Fort Wayne taught by Dr. Marshall/ Dr.Nachappa in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Principle Structure and Function in Biology at Indiana University Purdue University - Fort Wayne.


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Date Created: 01/13/16
Lectures 1-8* Bio 119 1/14/15 The outside of the DNA strand is a sugar phosphate and the nucleotide is what begins to build the rungs. RNA is a single chain. DNA unzips and codes for the RNA. RNA can form protective layers. RNA is built to match DNA- Uracil replaces Thymine in RNA. Work could be many things such as reproduction, to maintain, or photosynthesis. Biology is an application of physics. A plant going through photosynthesis where it stores sugars is an example of potential energy. Thermodynamics is the transference of energy between a system and its surroundings. A cell could be a system. Laws of thermodynamics: Energy can ONLY be transferred from one form to another or may be transferred from one place to another. It CAN NOT be created or destroyed. The total entropy/disorder of a system and its surroundings is always increasing. Degradation of energy causes the increase in entropy. Reactions of respiration and photosynthesis at the cellular level. Processes may be reversible- such as taking external energy to create a sugar molecule and taking a sugar molecule breaking it down to create energy in order to do work. Sometimes it is more beneficial to produce more sugars/energy than is needed to perspire. Exergonic- produces a waste product such as heat or light. Seen more often. Endergonic- brings in more energy than it originally had. Every reactions has a pathway, it has a starting point, and steps along the way where it moves into a final product. Catabolic. Anabolic- using simple molecules to build more complex ones. ATP- adenosine triphosphate, the cells uses this to actually do work within the cell. Ribose sugar, adenine, and three phosphate groups. Same make up as RNA and DNA. The typical reaction is to remove one phosphate group to make it ADP, and then moving the ADP to add the phosphate group back on to put more energy back into the molecule. ATP- three phosphates. ADP- two phosphate. AMP- one phosphate group. Enzymes are proteins that start reactions such as starting the transfer of energy. Without enzymes, the reaction cannot happen. Enzymes are proteins that catalyze the reactions. Energy is moving because of the enzymes, showing the reactions how to move forward. Many enzymes requires a cofactor in order to get to a functional product. The cofactors do something to the non-active enzyme so that the enzyme for it to become functional. Coenzymes are derived from vitamins; coenzymes and cofactors are involved to shape the original enzyme into an active enzyme. Concentrations alter efficiency and effectiveness of an enzyme. There are redundant systems, safety systems, etc. as control mechanisms. More acidic systems have more abundant hydrogen ions. PH has an important factor on how active the system and the enzymes are. Same as temperature and environmental factors. Noncompetitive inhibitors do not bind to the active site, they bind to another part of the enzyme that causes a change in the 3d shape in which the substrate cannot bind to the active site. When there are competitors for an active site, the site is blocked and could lead to cell death. PH and temperature are also inhibitors. All chemical reactions are reversible. When there are multiple water molecules, there are multiple hydrogen bonds. Water makes up the bulk of an organism. Water molecules are held together by hydrogen bonds. Water molecules have charged ends, which creates cohesion and adhesion. Cohesion example is when hydrogen bonds link with water molecules. Adhesion is linking to something other than water. 1/16/15 Water can easily absorb heat from the world around and as well as exert heat to other substances. Water is able to absorb large amounts of heat without changing the temperature of the water, such as a large body of water is able to absorb heat without really losing the heat overnight. Water is transferred from a liquid state to a gas state to cool a plant or animals body such as sweat. Helps stabilize temperatures in organisms and bodies of water. Cells may die from heat damage therefore cool down is essential. Water is what makes life on earth possible. Solutions, solvent, and solutes. Aqueous solution- a solutions where water is the solvent. Such as sucrose. Water is a universal solvent because it has polar ends on either side of the molecule. Ionic compounds can be separated out and water can build a bubble of molecules around the ion. This creates a hydration shell, where the physical properties change. Just about any molecule is able to form a hydration shell. Without this, cells cannot move around and transport the way they should. Cell Theory- cells come from other cells, everything is made out of cells; the smallest structure is the basic structural and functional component of an organism. Cells arise only from the division of preexisting cells. Some single celled organisms mimic multi-cell organisms, where they build chains and colonies that function more as a multi-cellular organism. Prokaryotes & Eukaryotes Prokaryotes do not have a true nucleus, membrane-bound organelles, the DNA is not bound within a structure. DNA is in the nucleoid. Cytoplasm is bound by the plasma membrane. Eukaryotes have the DNA in the nucleus and has a nuclear envelope. The cytoplasm is between the plasma membrane and the nucleus. Function of the cells are separated into compartments, where the organelles each have a specific job. Contents in the nucleus technically is not a part of the cytoplasm. Plasma membrane- has a hydrophilic head (attracting water) and a hydrophobic tail (repels water) all is the phospholipid. Plants have a cell wall, the plasma membrane is the defining edge of the cell. The plasma membrane is a semipermeable layer around the cell. Allows water and most gasses to move through without any issue, anything dissolved in water is also able to pass through the membrane. The membrane is typically a phospholipid bilayer- double layer. Transporter molecules, usually proteins, are embedded in the membrane that are able to move molecules that are not water based to move in and out of the cell. DNA stores genes in either nucleoids or the nucleus. Cytoplasm is made of cytosol, which is an aquesous solution and the cytoskeleton, provides shape and organization and allows the organelles to move and division of the cells. Cytoskeleton is essential for mitosis and meiosis. Interconnected system of protein fibers and tubes. Tubules and Filaments Microtubules- hollow filaments of tubulin subunits, involved mainly in cell movement. Microfilaments- involved in movement and cell division, fibers of actin subunits. Intermediate- holds things together within cells, lock cells and tissues together to keep them in place. The Nucleus- the nuclear envelope is the same type of structure as the plasma membrane. Inside the nucleus is nucleoplasm. Chromatin acts as a structure for the DNA to wrap around and to keep it organized so that it is easy to copy the DNA. DNA molecules are linear. Nuclear pores are in the envelope and allows proteins and RNA is pass in and out of the nucleus. Ribosomes are the machinery that builds the proteins. The small and large ribosomes come together to build proteins from amino acids and peptide bonds. Free ribosomes are free floating that are there for general function of the cell, and are found in the cytoplasm. Bound ribosomes are on the ER and have specific jobs within the cell. The rough ER surrounds the nucleus and is directly connected to the nucleus. Endomembrane system- divides organelles into functional and structural compartments. Vesicles are a piece of membrane that can be removed and transported to another membrane. Small membrane bound sacs transfer substances and expel waste. Golgi apparatus takes what was made in the ER and transfers it elsewhere; packaging center. They take in vesicles from the ER where they fuse to the membrane and builds the contents into more complex molecules. Similar in plant cells. Cisternae is there to contain enzymes, fattened membranous sac and modifies products from the ER. Endoplasmic reticulum- continuous folding system of sacs and tubes accounts for more than ½ total membranes. Rough ER has ribosomes bound the exterior whereas the smooth ER does. Depending of the cell, there may be more of one ER than the other. Vacuoles are large in the plant cells and take up most of the space within the cell and contains mainly water. Plant cells are not able to expel waste from the cell. The vacuole contains the waste and stores components that may be able to use later. Stores many different kinds of molecules for the cell. Vesicles work as storage as well. Peroxisome (microbody) more complex vesicles and can be used to break down amino acids, fatty acids, and toxic substances, very useful to break apart things that may be able to be used elsewhere in the cell. Lysosomes are vesicles with enzymes, helps lyse molecules for digestion. Mitochondria and Chloroplasts Mitochondria converts energy and sugars to make the cell available to do work. Chloroplasts do the exact opposite. There is DNA within the mitochondria to build proteins. Mitochondria can move through the cell to produce ATP where it is needed. Chloroplasts move towards the light for photosynthesis and produces sugars from light, water, CO2. Took advantage of bacterial cells to build mutualist symbiotic relationship to dive the process. 1/21/15 Phosolipid bilayer has a hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail. Membranes are the boundary of the cells, are permeability barrier regulation of cell contents, have electrical properties and conduct signals, and facilitate cell adhesion and cell to cell communication. Transport proteins-involved in transporting molecules into and out of the cell, if tpro are missing then those molecules cannot move Recognition proteins identify a cell as part of the same individual or not Receptor proteins recognize and bind molecules from other cells that act as chemical signals Cell adhesion proteins binds cells together by recognizing and binding receptors Enzymes-speeds up chemical reactions in cell Membrane Functions Whenever there is just ions; passive transport takes place through a channel with a concentration gradient. Passive movement is when no energy is being expended. High to low concentration. Active transport is when energy is being expended, and the concentration gradient does not matter. The cell will use energy to push an ion against the gradient to move it from a low concentration to a high concentration. This is a common process in cells. By using active transport it can build up electrical potential energy and allows for the transport of that energy down the line. Essential for uptake of nutrients from extracellular fluid, removal of water materials, maintains intracellular concentrations of H, Na, … Diffusion- net movement of ions and molecules along a gradient. The concentrations move from the concentrations to reach equilibrium. Gases, water, and small nonpolar molecules can diffuse across a lipid bilayer. Diffusion is going down their concentration gradient, no energy is being used. Osmosis- specifically the movement of water through diffusion. High water concentration (few solutes) to low water concentration (many solutes). Due to osmosis, volume (cytoplasm/cytosol) of cell will change depending on extracellular fluid. Tonicity- the level of concentration of solutes between two solutions, relative term. Example- something could be hypotonic in one solution and then isotonic in a different on. There has to be a comparison. Hypotonic- Lower solute concentration. Cells in a hypotonic solution, water will rush into the cell and the cell will expand and possibly rupture. Hypertonic- Higher solute concentration. Cells in a hypertonic solution, water will rush outside of the cell and the cell will shrink. Isotonic- Same solute concentrations. The goal is to reach an isotonic solution to reach a balance, in theory there is no concentration gradient, equilibrium. Osmosis will continue until it reaches an isotonic solution. Cells will change due to the movement of water into or out of the cell, this is an essential function in removing waste in animals. Exocytosis and endocytosis Both of these processes require energy in the form of ATP. Exocytosis is the fusion of a vesicle with the plasma membrane and releasing contents out of the cell. Expels the contents outside of the cell. Endocytosis is importation of substances from outside the cell. Fuses through the plasma membrane. When it fuses with the membrane, it BECOMES part of the plasma membrane. Phagocytosis- cell eating; a larger cell consumes a smaller cell. It builds a vesicle around the smaller cell and pinches off of the membrane and what was inside the cell now is expelled outside of the cell. Amoebas and white blood cells are phagocytic cells. Cell communication and signaling Cells can communicate via direct contact, when cells touch and directly communicate without an external signal. Local signaling, usually in animals. Long distance signal, when a signal travels from one part of the body/plant to a different part to signal what it should do. Target cells must be able to receive the signals; reception, transduction, and response are the three steps in signaling. The cells must be adjacent to one another during direct contact with linking channels in their cytoplasm. Examples are gap junctions in animals and plasmodesmata in plants. Shared cytoplasm allows for rapid communication. Local vs. Long Distance Local- usually in the same tissue always in the same organ. External to the cell. Cell releases signal molecules and then diffuses through aqueous extracellular fluid. There may be a limit rate on the signal. Target cell must respond. Long Distance- cell secretes signaling molecules; hormones. Typically moved by a transport system, it must enter some other fluid or tissue such as the bloodstream of animals and the xylem flow in plants. Target cell must respond, could lyse or produce a new hormone to carry out the signal. Reception is the binding of a signal molecule with a specific receptor on a target cell. Transduction- changes a signal into a form that causes response, signal cascade. Sometimes there must be a large amount of response or sometimes a signal receptor can carry out the response. Response- Various responses can occur in both animal cells and plant cells. 1/23/15 Bio 119 1/23/15 End of Signal-a signal transduction is completed, receptors and their bound signal molecules are removed from the surface of the cell by endocytosis (folds over and brings the protein back in), both the receptor and bound signal molecule may be degraded after entering the cell. The Plant cell-basic and structural components of an organism Cell theory-all living organisms are composed of 1 or more cells, cells are basic structural and functional components of an organism Organism theory- entire organism, rather than the individual cells, are of prime importance, not merely a group of independent units Plant vs Animal Cells-plasma membrane, nucleus, ribosomes, mitochondria, cytoskeleton, rough ER, smooth ER, dictyosomes=Golgi apparatus What do mitochondria do? Cellular respiration, convert sugars, fats, proteins into ATP, move to where ATP is needed in the cell Cell wall-extracellular structure (plasma membrane is still the defining edge of the wall) provides support, contains internal pressure, protect cell from pathogens Made up of several different polymers, cellulous (polymer of glucose), cellulous micro fibrils woven through a matrix of hemicellulose, pectin Primary cell wall-relatively soft, flexible, allows a small amount of expansion, permeable to water, cell wall has to regulatory part to it, anything can get in. all plant cells, plant cells separated by middle lamella, adhesive layer made mostly of pectin (mainly it is glue) Secondary cell wall-has a water proofing structure that makes it impermeable to water, located inside primary cell wall, usually much thicker than primary cell wall, provides rigidity of wall, depending of the plant and cell location may or may not exist Cellulose-polysaccharide, parallel molecules crystallize into micro fibril Cellulose micro fibrils-wrap around entire cell, covering plasma membrane Hemicellulose-polysaccharide, binding cellulose micro fibril together Pectin-complex polysaccharide assists in binding cellulose Lignin-complex biopolymer fills spaces between cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin in secondary cell wall (very difficult to break down and digest, not many animals can digest it but Termites can) Cellulose orientation determines cell expansion direction, expansions and hormones loosen wall structure for cell expansion, cellulose synthase complexes span the plasma membrane, extrude cellulose micro fibrils outside Other organisms that have cell wall (not animals)-plants: major structure=cellulose (polysaccharide); fungi: major structure=chitin (similar to cellulose but with nitrogen); algae: varies (polysaccharide and glycoproteins); cyanobacteria: major structure=peptopolyglycins) Plasmodesmata-perforations in cell wall connecting 2 plant cells, similar to gap junction in animal cells, allows plasma membrane from 1 cell to pass through cell wall, connect to a 2ndcell, cytosol streaming, ER, rough and smooth ER can grow Animals will have small vacuole but plants have 1 large central vacuole, vacuoles do exist in animal cells, but they are minor, bound by a single membrane, tonoplast, filled mostly with water, some salts, can act as storage for proteins, starch, etc., cell expansion occurs through water pressure in central pushing out, roots use this to expand and find water Central vacuole-animals cells must synthesize protoplasm to grow, waste products excreted from cell; Plant cells: increase amount of water in central vacuole to grow, rapid, powerful cell expansion, waste put in vacuole 1/26/15 Plastids Have a double membrane. They have stroma which are fluid filled inner portions of the plastids. They also carry DNA and ribosomes. Plastids produce amino acids, fatty acids, and secondary metabolites. These waste products can used for other processes. Chloroplasts are green plastids and are the site of photosynthesis. Grana are stacks of discs within the chloroplasts. The individual discs are membranes called thylakoids. Grana thylakoids are the discs themselves and the stroma thylakoids are the discs that connect them together. Chlorophyll is embedded in thylakoid membranes. Chlorophylls are green pigments and absorb the photons that come in from the sunlight while carotenoids (orange/yellow pigments) are reflectors and take the photon to do work within the cell. Semiautonomous- can move wherever light is available. The nucleus drives the organelles and they can function on their own. Chromoplast heavy in carotenoid pigments and lack chlorophyll. They are able to be converted to chloroplasts. Continually being renewed. By pulling out the chlorophyll the plant is recycling it to use later on. Most common in fruits and flowers. Color patterns in flowers and fruits are strictly to attract animals. Leucoplast is a white/clear structure that lack pigments. There is no light interaction which results in the lacking of pigments. Involved in producing large amounts of fats, lipids, proteins, and starches for either storage or movement. Proplastids are the beginning of all plastids; they are the first plastids that are produced and can differentiate into any form as needed. Meristem Apical- at the tip of a structure, produces primary growth which means it is growing in length and all plants go through this. Lateral- produces secondary growth which not all plants go through and this growth increases girth. Primary cell wall is permeable while the secondary cell wall is not. Lignin fills in the gaps in the cell wall and creates a water proof barrier around the cell. Vascular plant body consists of three organ types which are the stems, leaves, and roots. Everything else is just a modification of a stem, leaf, or roots. Root systems and shoot systems are different categories. Flowers are sets of modified leaves with different pigments to drive different responses from animals and fruits consist of modified stems. Plants are separated into two major groups, not taxonomic groups just systematic. Monocots have single cotyledons which are seed leaves in plant embryos. First to emerge. Examples are grasses, daylilies, cattails, palms. Etc. Eudicots have two cotyledons which are all the trees and most plants such as roses, poppies, sunflowers, etc. Plants are diverse in their life span: annuals have one growing season and are herbaceous (does not produce wood). Biennials have two growing seasons where the first season produces roots and stems and leaves. The second season produces flowers, fruits, and seeds. Perennials take many years to grow, these may produce wood. Animals have determinate growth where in the DNA there is a defined shape of the animal. Plants have indeterminate growth where changes in the environment may determine the growth and shape and are able to continue growing and change its shape. Meristems give rise to plant bodies and creates new tissues. This provides plasticity of growth gives some flexibility since plants are not able to move around. Plants can grow by either increasing the number of cells or increasing the size of cells. Lateral meristem is typically in roots and shoots to increase the vertical structure of the plant. The three plant tissue systems: Dermal tissues protect plant surfaces; located on the outside of the plant and is usually only one layer of cells thick. The epidermis is located around the outside of the plant and covers the primary plant body. Sometimes there is a cuticle layer which resists water loss. Guard cells create stomata for gas exchanges. Epidermal specializations; trichomes, root hairs- these are extensions of the epidermal cells. Ground tissues either structurally or functionally doing work within in the plant. Parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma. Parenchyma cells- found throughout the plant, have thinner cell walls which are singular primary cell walls, and most of the plant tissue is parenchyma cells. They store things, make things via photosynthesis. Parenchyma cells have jobs. There is space between the parenchyma cells. Collenchyma- smaller in size and closely packed together without air spaces between the cells. Thickening of the cell wall between collenchyma, providing flexible support. Elongated cells in strands or sheath like cylinders. Are still able to grow when plant needs to. Sclerenchyma- dead at maturity, have a lignified secondary cell wall, provides rigid support within the cell. Sclereids are protective casings and fibers provide support. Vascular tissue are specialized for conducting fluids. Organized into vascular bundles. Depending on the plant, vascular bundles are either surrounded by parenchyma cells or sclerenchyma cells. Phloem is the outside makeup and xylem is on the inside. Xylem and Phloem. Xylem- transports water and anything that is dissolved in the water. The way plants get nutrients is by absorbing it through xylem. Xylem has secondary cell walls and is dead at maturity, all water movement is passive through osmosis, adhesion, and cohesion. Tracheids are elongated, tapered, overlapping ends with lateral connections through pits. Pits allow for water to move across the secondary cell wall. Vessel members are open cylinders that form continuous tubes; both vessel members and tracheids do the same job. Phloem- everything that is produced from photosynthesis such as sugars and other solutes. Transports for storage to use later. Typically only transports sugars; phloem is alive when it is active, therefore it is living when functional. Active transport. Sieve tube members are joined end to end in sieve tubes; sieve elements SE. Sieve tube members have lost their nucleus and cannot synthesis proteins to stay alive, they are assisted by companion cells to stay alive and function. Primary Shoot systems: Stems are adapted to provide support, routes for vascular tissues, storage, and new growth. Organized into modular segments; nodes: where leaves and buds are attached. Internodes: between nodes. Apical meristem in buds are often dormant and include terminal buds and lateral buds. Terminal buds are dominant and are located at the apex of the main shoot. Lateral buds become the tip of a plant later on. Primary growth produces primary plant body. Secondary growth Vascular cambium- produces secondary xylem and phloem. Cork cambium- (woody plants) produces a cork, which is the protective part of bark on a woody plant. Phloem is usually very thin on woody plants and the wood is made up of mostly the xylem. Leaves primary structures of photosynthesis. Blades of leaves are where photosynthesis and gas exchanges take place. Blades have large surface areas. Petioles are found in eudicots. Petioles attach leaves to the stems. Leaf structure: Upper epidermis, palisade mesophyll, spongy mesophyll, lower epidermis. The upper epidermis lacks pigments for it to provide no shade to the lower layers. Root System Roots absorb water and anything that is dissolved in the water, conducts water and minerals to aerial plant parts, and anchors and acts as a base to provide support to the vertical plant structure. Roots store complex sugars that could be sent through the phloem to be used in other parts of the plant. Specialized for underground growth, but usually only act as roots. Root caps protect the meristem. Endodermis- provides a layer of protection for the vascular tissues within the central stele. Xylem and phloem arranged as the central stele in eudicot and monocot root tissues. Pericycle- between the phloem and the endodermis, can function as meristem. Gives rises to new branching within the root system. Root primordia in pericycle form lateral roots. Al branching from the roots begins for the inside out. Photosynthesis Photosynthesis is the process of taking carbon dioxide and light and converting it into a sugar molecule. This occurs in the chloroplasts of eukaryotes. Energy from the sun is converted into a storable energy molecule, such as sugar. Sugars are made because they are the easiest to transport and later convert to ATP. 6CO2+ 12H2O  C6H12O6 +6O6+6H2O Light Dependent Reaction- requires light; where light is coming in and photons are transferring energy where the outputs are energy molecules of ATP and NADPH. CO2 is not present in this reaction. Light Independent Reaction- this is where carbon dioxide comes into play. Fixation- converting biologically unavailable molecules into a biologically available molecule. Photosynthesis is a carbon dioxide fixation. Chloroplast pigments are found embedded in the thylakoid membrane. Pigments used for photosynthesis. Pigments absorb photons of light in order to do a job. When you see a certain pigment such as green, the pigment green is being reflected while the other pigments in the spectrum are being absorbed. Plants don’t use pigments that are not visual pigments. Wavelengths have their own amount of energy that they can carry. Absorption spectrum and Action spectrum. Photolysis- Light splits water and forms oxygen gas. Waste product. The missing electrons from the hydrogen atom (split from the water) is carried to chlorophyll pigments and is absorbing light from photons. The energy potential in the electron pair is increasing in energy availability. The electron transport chain- Pheophytin, Plastoquinone, Cytochrome Complex, Plastocyanin. The energy that is takes to transport the electrons down the line, it also creates a gradient. Then there is a smaller electron transport chain that focuses from on iron and sulfur; membrane bound iron sulfur proteins and ferredoxin. 2NADP+2H  2NADPH Photosystem II is the first step in photosynthesis and Photosystem I is the second step. They were discovered backwards, the second step was discovered before the first. ***** 2/4/15 The Calvin Cycle Phase 1: Carbon Fixation- this can only except one CO2 molecule at on time. Phase 2: Reduction Phase 3: Regeneration of RuBP The purpose of this Calvin cycle is to input 3 CO2 molecules to output a 6 carbon sugars. It takes multiple turns of the Calvin cycle to get the sugar output and numerous reactions are happening at the same time. The first product of the cycle is a 3C molecule and it is labeled the C3 pathway; all plants used this pathway. Some plants have another pathway as well. Glycolate is toxic to plant cells. To deal with a possible oxygen build up, plants use a C4 pathway that has been added on. 4 carbon molecule. The c4 pathway is in the mesophyll cells and the Calvin cycle takes place in the bundle sheath cells. (Cells around the vascular bundle). CAM plants use the C4 pathway, however they use temporal separation. The stomata is closed during the day to run the C3 pathway and the stomata opens at night to run the C4 pathway for efficiency. The C4 pathway is used to minimize photorespiration using spatial separation. The C4 pathway is more expensive, it takes more ATP input to produce the reaction even though it is more efficient. CAM plants use temporal separation to reduce water loss. Respiration What is the purpose of the mitochondria? It produces ATP and converts food molecules to energy. They produce ATP by converting food molecules into energy. Respiration is basically the reverse of photosynthesis. Cellular respiration is a chemical process that converts any sugar storing molecule into ATP. The reaction starts in the cytosol, the majority of the reaction occurs in the mitochondria. What cells in a plant respire? Leaf cells, stem cells, root cells, and meristem cells. If it is alive it has to respire. Sugar respiration- glucose is first split into two pyruvate molecules. Glycolysis is the process of splitting the glucose molecules. Preparatory Phase invests 2 ATPs. Produces 2 G3P which is the same molecule produced in the Calvin Cycle. Payoff Phase yields 4 ATP and 2 NADH. This produces two pyruvates and is transported to the mitochondria. The citric acid cycle occurs in the mitochondrial matrix and is also known as the Krebs cycle. O2 is an input for the oxidative phosphorylation cycle. Electron transport chain is photosynthesis, mitochondrial electron transport chain is respiration. Which food molecule will likely produce the most ATP in respiration? Carbohydrates. Simple carbohydrates. Anaerobic respiration- Uses a modification of the electron transport chain to get another acceptor other than O2. There is an output of water and without oxygen oxidative phosphorylation electron transport chain cannot function. Fermentation uses a different substrate instead of electron transport. Test review Define and compare ionic covalent and hydrogen bonds. Ionic bonds are when one atom gives up an electron and another one gains it. Covalent bonds share electrons in the outer shell; strongest bond. Hydrogen bonds are temporary bonds between hydrogen molecules in an atom; weakest bond. Describe the key features of a plant cell. Include organelles, wall order, and other structures specific to plant cells. Chloroplasts; chlorophyll for photosynthesis. Plastids; leucoplasts which can synthesize fats, can be used for storage. Chromoplasts; the orange keratin plastids. Central vacuole; takes up 75-90% of the cell and it stores water to keep the cell rigid. Stores waste. Plants that go through the CAM process in c4 plants the malate produced is stored in the vacuole. Dictyosomes- similar to the Golgi apparatus. Used for packaging. Cell walls- primary and secondary cell walls. Plasma membrane is the defining edge of the cell. The cell walls are extracellular. Primary cell wall-Secondary cell wall-Plasma membrane. Middle lamella; keeps two primary cell walls together. Three ground tissue cell types: Parenchyma- alive to do work. Specific jobs. Loosely packed with space between cells. They produce a product. Specific example: mesophyll. Collenchyma- Structure. Tightly packed with no air between cells. Flexible support. Unevenly thickened. Sclerenchyma- dead at maturity. Lignified secondary cell wall. Structure and support. Identify the inputs and outputs of photosynthesis and describe the pathway of each input to the associated output. The inputs of photosynthesis is CO2 and H2O. Outputs are glucose oxygen and H2O. Water is released as a waste product. The hydrogen atom moves with the gradient, ATP is produced when the atom is being moved through. Light-Independent: Carbon Dioxide; the carbon and oxygen goes into the sugar. Light-Dependent: No carbon dioxide. Calvin Cycle: occurs in the stroma of the chloroplasts. Define absorption and action spectrums and describe their relationship. Absorption spectrum- wavelengths of lights that a pigment can actually take in. Action spectrum- effectiveness of wavelengths to carry out photosynthesis. If it is not absorbed it cannot be acted upon.


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