Popular in History, Science, and Technology
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Popular in History
This 11 page Bundle was uploaded by Sarah Notetaker on Wednesday January 13, 2016. The Bundle belongs to History 1220 at Clemson University taught by Pamela Mack in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see History, Science, and Technology in History at Clemson University.
Reviews for Book Reviews
Please tell me you're going to be posting these awesome notes every week..
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 01/13/16
Chapters 14 Nye’s definition of technology: the tools used by human beings Humans started using tools from the beginning of the species, around 400,000 years ago or even earlier Technological determinism: the idea that the development and spread of technology is inevitable and determines what society will be like was popular with thinkers of many different political views, from conservative to Marxist, but not historians of technology Role of consumers in determining the direction of technological progress: products are only successful if consumers want them, and consumers sometimes use a technology in unexpected ways Public Relations: predict the future, because predictions are often selffulfilling if the public believes the predication of the future importance of a new technology they will buy it and it is more likely to become important The best technology does not always win; it might lose because of business and marketing mistakes Technological momentum: once a technology is successful and the system it is a part of grows, it becomes hard to change to an alternate technology The bicycle achieved technological momentum in countries such as Denmark and the Netherlands because it came into use before the automobile Karl Marx’s view of technology: Technology was misused by capitalism, but used correctly would provide a better world Chapters 57 People in the middle of the 20 century thought that technology would make us more the same because mass production required standardization th The strategy for selling telephones changed over the 20 century: pg. 73 differentiation began replacing standardization Virtually all Americans owned black desktop telephones – engineers had designed them to be long lasting and functional they began to be offered in different colors and styles in the 1960s Ethnicity and culture: chapter 5 pg. 8386 History of immigration at Ellis Island: shows that variety can be only on the surface: there are foods from different countries but they are all cooked and served the same way. Technological pessimism: began in the industrial revolution Technology does not assure abundance (pg. 104) we are running out of resources and Nye believes there is no alternative but an environmental crash Nye sees attitudes about technological optimism changing over time in the U.S.: technological optimism reached its peak in the mid 20 century with predictions that machines would do our work, and has declined since then Nye says that polls show that Americans are not happier in the 1990’s than they were in the 1950’s People were most scared about loosing their jobs to machines in 19301980 (pg. 120) Chapters 810 Office of Technology Assessment (pg. 138) Nye thinks it played a very valuable role in evaluating technological choices but it was closed in 1995 The Patent system had been designed to encourage innovation but corporations discovered they could use it to dominate markets (pg. 137) Nye believes that “ideally, every society should give citizens… an opportunity to influence the construction of technological systems” because citizens, not corporations, should decide whether we want technologies that will change our lives the general public needs to be informed on technologies (pg. 148) Each new form of communication…has been heralded as the guarantor of free speech and the unfettered movement of ideas. They do not automatically function this way, however. democracy thrives when the press functions as a watchdog against government corruption, yet the media also legitimizes authority and sets limits of acceptable public discussion (pg. 151152) governments use technology to demonstrate legitimacy because big technological projects that benefit citizens are a way to get citizens to believe the power of the government is a good thing (pg. 162) Nye thinks the decision for the government to fund the development of nuclear power was a mistake because because the public opposes nuclear power (pg. 153) Does technology make us safer? not necessarily; as the system gets more complex, there is more that can go wrong (pg. 167) Are technological disasters usually a result of a major, avoidable mistake? they are often unintentional (pg. 166, 167) War –pg. 170184 Mutually assured destruction: the cold war strategy that if the other side launched an attach, we would be able to inflict unacceptable damage on them in retaliation Do advances in technology always lead to a quick victory in war? no, in some cases such as the early years of WWI they lead to stalemate and a long destructive war (pg. 171) British era of Industrialization: 1750 to present Spark that started IR: expanding export market due to colonization in America Advances in science did not cause IR. Rather, the key technologies of the new cotton textile factories were fairly simple and mostly based on science from years earlier Willingness of businessmen to invest in new technologies for mass production was the key to the industrial revolution the availability of large markets for the resulting goods (both at home and in the colonies) and government support Debate on Population increase: pg. 20 Domestic market in Great Britain “provided the broad foundation for a generalized industrial economy” (pg. 26) people who had money to buy things and small manufacturing were widely spread through the country, not just concentrated in one large, crowded city. 1830s1840s: extremely tense working conditions for factory workers – low wages, too much work, no time for personal lives, dangerous working conditions most of the workers were women or children: in 1838, only 23% of textile factory workers were men (pg. 46) Wealthy families were assimilated into the upper class by buying estates and by marriage and taking roles in government (pg. 6061) Welfare in Early Industrial Revolution: (pg. 6667) the people who were unable to work were not protected Historians should approach the question of whether the industrial revolution made workers better off before 1850 by looking at how it changed the lives and social system of working people Enclosure: key change in the organization of farming; divided up large fields that had been farmed communally as well as uncultivated lands into separate farms leased or owned but that was less common, by individual families. farms growing larger caused the growth in the number of rural poor with no rights to land during the industrial revolution nd th 2 half of 19 century: the british economy became more dependent on colonies and protectorates and Britain increased its imperialist ambitions railroads: were built so quickly and in such large numbers in England because there were many people who had made money in the early IR that wanted to invest their money investors were willing to invest in the earliest public railroads such as the Darlington and Stockton and the Liverpool and Manchester because they met local needs such as coal transportation and competition with canal Civilization embraces disorder rather than forcing others to conform, civilization embraces disorder and various ideas and beliefs Mill’s Life: fought for women’s rights people should be able to use birth control was homeschooled most things we do are a means to an end critical thinking is different starts off as a means, but once you live life as a critical thinker, you begin to value critical thinking as itself Chapter 2 on Liberty: Louis Agassiz came to American in 1846, and science was far behind the industrialization happening in Europe The steamboat: first key technological innovation that allowed easier access to the central and western parts of the U.S. Chicago Columbian Exposition Exposition demonstrated many innovative technologies that had not been used yet John Roebling: built the Brooklyn Bridge had to invent necessary technologies along the way. the Tripartite Bridge in Pittsburgh was not built because of political reasons and because it was too much of a technological challenge. th Second Half of 19 Century in America: many new technologies were introduced the survival of a new technology depends on the time it is introduced and whether it satisfies the wants and needs of the people; it must be sustainable, not only in infrastructure or the lack of any better replacement, but by expectations that already exist or can be easily created. the cable car is an example of this because it was the right technology to meet the needs of people in San Francisco. In other places, however, it was quickly and easily replaced by electric streetcars. The Pony Express extrapolation of an old approach; it didn’t turn out to be the direction of the future because a new technology came along that completed the task more efficiently and easier. the telegraph replaced it Xray: using xrays for hair removal was an example of people believing that science could safely solve all their problems. Max Planck: published a paper in 1901 introducing the idea that energy comes in packets, called quanta, meaning that light is both a wave and a particle, which went against common sense. this was turning point in science “The great blind spot at the end of the 19 century has been a lingering and general denial of mystery” quantum mechanics and relativity showed that the world wasn’t as easy to understand as people in the late 19 century believed What connection did Einstein have with technology? Einstein grew up with machinery due to his parents, and he was interested in it. His science moved away from mechanistic thinking, however. Lienhard wrote about Edison, Tesla, and Einstein to show that: Americans saw their world was changing and became interested in geniuses Tesla solved the problem of building an electric motor that would run on alternating current, which was much more efficient than the existing electric motors Art. Alexander Calder’s art: his training in engineering showed how he balanced that knowledge with art Frederic Remington: his art developed from idealized paintings of life in the wild west to it’s pain and loneliness Impact of photography on art: captured reality so art was no longer needed to do that forced artists to paint/draw/sculpt art that couldn’t be captured by photography Advertising: pg. 137 Architecture The Eiffel Tower an example of what can be done with a steel frame this became the basis for steel framed skyscrapers Escalators were invented mid19 century but didn’t catch on until the end of the century buildings often stopped at 7 stories so there was no need for escalators the first was built in 1896 when Jesse Reno made a sixfoot stairway that lifted people onto the Coney Island boardwalk. At the Paris Exhibition, four different kinds of escalators were presented but people still saw them as a “fairground ride” rather than a functional necessity. The most important invention that made passenger elevators possible were electric elevators (pg. 91) Wooden balloon frame construction allowed strong, light buildings to be built cheaply without needing highlyskilled craftsmen in the 1920s, around the time the Chrysler and Empire State buildings, people expected the city of the future to look like huge buildings with multilevel roads with walkways between them The Automobile: Walter Chrysler was the moving force behind the Chrysler building, and a ‘car of the future’ called the Airflow. What happened to the Airflow? it broke ground in many ways. It was wellengineered machine with a fine new suspension system. I did not find it especially pretty when I was a child, and I still think it was a visually unbalanced design. The rest of the American public felt the same way. They wouldn’t buy it. (pg. 110111; pg. 149). Henry Ford’s key contribution to the history of the automobile was: a sturdy car that could be made at very low cost by the use of mass production methods The automobile was a symbol of not only freedom but complex messages of elitism, populism, luxury, economy, speed, and general excess. allowed freedom of movement Carl Benz as an example, Lienhard says that credit for first inventing a new kind of machine usually goes to the person who first built a commercially successful version of the technology The interstate highway system was built: Starting in the 1950’s, with the support of President Eisenhower. 40,000 thousand mile interstate highway system Eisenhower administration finally backed the system in 1956. (pg. 145). Lienhard argues that the consequences of the automobile (its impact on other technologies and on society) were: unintended What was the impact of the automobile on roadside advertising? advertising had to be obvious or quick to read so people could take it in while driving (ch. 9). Flying What kind of flying did most early women and AfricanAmerican pilots do?: Barnstorming and air shows – entertaining an audience What key problem did the Wright brothers solve?: stabilization and control, particularly how to turn an airplane without slipping sideways Women and AfricanAmericans were interested in flying airplanes in the early days of the sport because flying was a symbol of freedom and escape and in a new field discrimination is not yet institutionalized How did wrongway Corrigan get his nickname?: he filed plans to fly nonstop to California and ended up in Ireland instead What was the problem of early long distance passenger travel on airplanes? airplanes couldn’t travel very far nonstop because they needed so much, so a cross country trip took 2 days Flying airplanes was represented as something that required advanced education, and people assumed they would have to fly their own airplane (ch. 9) A Boys Life in the New Century Closing of the frontier in the late 19 century and urbanization led to fears that Americans were becoming soft and losing their independence and selfreliance Boy Scouts solved this problem Homer Hickam’s autobiographical story The Rocket Boys (which became the movie October Sky) what comes of the boys’ attempt to build a rocket, the boys successfully build a rocket that flies to a height of 6 miles Late 19 and 20 century boys books presented technology how? as exciting and something that boys could build and master for themselves Lienhard thinks he was allowed to do risky things as a child like casting melted lead because they were old fashioned and didn’t have any interest in new technologies Patents We can learn about inventions from looking at patents for mousetraps because people kept inventing more and more mousetraps, even though an effective one (which is still most common today) had already been invented a patent gives an inventor a temporary monopoly over his/her invention (for 17 years) then allows other people to copy it World War I How were airplanes and dirigibles used in WWI?: For bombing, although the damage done was small, and for scouting At the beginning of WWI, as a result of new technology, “once entrenched, armies were practically immoveable”. (pg. 230) because rapid fire guns such as the Maxim gun made it almost impossible to advance against an entrenched army Modern now meant that the machinery of war would increasingly be found in the skies, even if death remained earthbound. (pg. 240) Relationship between war and technological progress: the necessities of war, now and then, provide creative minds with the outlet they seek (pg. 241) 1950’s ch. 15 1950’s standard of living: “we would now have to develop a wholly new metaphorical language in which to think about change” (pg. 254) this means that the only simple belief in American progress didn’t work anymore Modern breathed her last during the 1950’s, and we witnessed her passing without any real sense that she was ailing. we were done with WWI and back to life where we had left off. (pg. 244) Atomic Bomb ch ( the new fear of technology was stronger than the hopes of scientists that atomic power (nuclear energy) would make our lives better Beat Movement Rebelled against the boring conformity of suburbian normalcy and anticommunism Computers People did not realize that computers could be more than a specialized machine for doing calculations In 1943, Thomas Watson said “I think there’s a world market for maybe five computers” (pg. 255)
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'