Psychology 1: Introductory Psychology
Psychology 1: Introductory Psychology 1
Popular in Psychology
Popular in Department
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
This 106 page Bundle was uploaded by Anthony Law on Thursday January 14, 2016. The Bundle belongs to 1 at Dartmouth College taught by Professor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 52 views.
Reviews for Psychology 1: Introductory Psychology
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 01/14/16
Psychology Chapter 1 Notes: Psychology is the study of mental activity and behavior Psychological science is the study, through research, of mind, brain and behavior Mind refers to mental activity (sights, smells etc.) Behavior the totality of observable human actions PSychologists focused on behavior rather on mental states until technology allowed observation of working brain to study mental states Psychologists seek to understand mental activity amiable skepticism remains open to new ideas but wary of findings and needs good evidence to support them critical thinking to systematically question information using well supported evidence People’s intuitions are often wrong Human thought is often biased in ways that make critical thinking very difficult reasoning using evidence to draw conclusion psychological reasoning using psychological research to examine how people typically think, to understand when and why they are likely to draw mistaken conclusions Example of bias getting in the way o children get hyperactive when eating sugar o proven its wrong o look at context, was the child with a lot of kids in a party when he ate the sweets? Most of these biases occur because people are motivated to use their intelligence People want to make sense of environment around them by finding patterns and making connections Often we see what we want to see and fail to notice thing that do not fit with our expectations Major Biases: o Ignoring evidence: Don’t believe everything you think place great importance on evidence that supports their beliefs Downplay opposing evidence o Failing to accurately judge credibility: wary of appeals to authority faced with issue to whom to believe o Misunderstanding or not using statistics: fail to understand or interpret statistics Just cuz something was heads 5 times, doesn’t mean it will be tails next o Seeing relationships that do not exist: misperception that two events that happen at the same time must be related o Using relative comparisons: Information that comes first has a strong influence on how people make relative comparisons How a question is presented also changed how people answer the question o Accepting afterthefact explanations making explanations as to why events happen after they happen with incomplete informationlecutre notessss Hindsight Bias Tend to distort evidence o Taking mental shortcuts heuristics simple rules people make mental shortcuts because they often produce good decisions without too much effort Heuristics can also lead to bad judgements E.g recently a lot of shootings in the news, so parents become overly concerned with shootings, when in fact there aren't many. o FAiling to see our own inadequacies: everyone is better than average Many people believe they are better than average people use various strategies to support their views, such as crediting personal strengths for their successes Nature/Nurture is a person’s psychological attributes more to nature or to nurture Mind/body problem are the mind and body separate and distinct, or is the mind simply the subjective experience of ongoing brain activity Throughout history, mind has been viewed as residing in many organs Egyptians saw heart as biggest organ Greeks and Romans recognized brain was essential for mental functioning, since they noticed head injuries produced disturbances in brain activity da Vinci theorized that all sensory messages arrived at one location in the brain He called it sensus communis, home of thought and judgment Not accurate, but represented an early link Rene Descartes promoted dualism Dualism Mind and the body are separate yet intertwined He argued the body was an organic machine governed by “reflex” Body was responsible for memory and imagination Deliberate action was controlled by rational mind and believed was divine and separate from the body mid 1800s in Europe, psychology arose as a field of study built on experimental method “A System of Logic” John Stuart Mill said that psychology should become a science of observation and of experiment rather than philosophy and speculation 1879 Wilhelm Wundt established the first psychology lab and institute, trained many people Wundt realized that physiological action in the brain took time to occur Wundt developed reaction time to asses how quickly people can respond to events Wundt developed introspection systematic examination of subjective mental experiences that requires people to inspect on the content of their thoughts Edward Titchener used introspection to pioneer structuralism STRUCTURALISM idea that conscious experience can be broken down into its basic components Problem with introspection is that experience is subjective William James was more interested in philosophical than physiological He was captivated by the nature of conscious experience James criticised structuralism’s failure to capture the most important aspects of mental experience James said that the mind is much more complex than its elements and can't be broken down The stream of consciousness cannot be frozen in time, so the structuralists’ techniques were sterile and artificial James made functionalism where people examine the functions served by the mind Darwin evolutionary theory Changes over time adaptations FUNCTIONALISM HOW EVOLUTION OF MIND FUNCTIONS ARE ADVANTAGEOUS TO HUMANS DARWIN YOOO Natural selection process by which changes that are adaptive are passed along and those that are not adapter are not passed along Gestalt school also opposed structuralism founded by wolfgang kohler, max wertheimer Gestalt theory the whole of personal experience is not simply the sum of its elements whole is different from the sum of its parts e.g when people see a triangle, they dont just see 3 lines Sigmund Freud speculated that few medical reasons were caused by psychological factors Freud theorized the existence of the unconscious believed that many unconscious conflicts arise from troubling childhood experiences that the person is blocking from memory Psychoanalysis therapeutic method, the therapist and the patient work together to bring the contents of the patient’s unconscious into his or her conscious awareness. once unconscious conflicts are revealed, the therapist helps the patient deal with them constructively Freud used free association where patient would talk about whatever he or she wanted to for as long as they wanted John B Watson developed behaviorism approach emphasizes environmental effects on observable behavior for Watson, nurture was all Ivan PAvlov influenced Watson into believing that animals and human, acquire or learn all behaviors through environmental experiences Therefore we need to study the environmental stimuli and predict responses B. F. Skinner became most famous behaviorist Like Watson denied importance of mental states Skinner argued that concepts about mental processes were no scientific value on behaviour Behaviorism dominated research into the early 1960s Perceptions of situations can influence behavior Learning theorists were showing that animals could learn by observation. Conflicts with behaviorists because animals werent being rewarded The connections were being made in their minds Studies conducted on memory, language and child development showed that culture influenced how people remember a story, why grammar develops systematically and why children interpret the world in different ways Findings showed that mental functions are important for understanding behavior they demonstrated the limitations of a purely behavioral approach to psychology George A Miller began as a behaviorist Miller changed his mind when data did not support his theories Miller launched the cognitive revolution in psychology Ulric Neisser integrated a wide range of cognitive phenomena in “Cognitive Psychology” Fully embraced the mind Cognitive psychology concerned with mental functions such as intelligence, thinking, language, memory, and decision making Cognitive research has shown that the way people think about things influences their behavior Lot of early cognitive psychologists studied the thought processes but had little interest in the specific brain mechanism involved later cognitive psychologists recognized that the brain is important for cognition cognitive neuroscience emerged WW2 caused psychologists to figure out why people participated in the murders of innocents focused on topics like authority, obedience and group behavior concluded that certain types of people, especially those raised by strict parents, displayed a greater willingness to follow orders everyone is influenced by social situations Flloyd Allport, Solomon Asch and the Gestalttrained Kurt Lewin rejected Freudian theorizing. Emphasized scientific experimental approach to understand how people are influenced by others Social psychology focuses on the power of the situation and on the way people are shaped through their interactions with others Personality psychology the study of people’s characteristic thoughts, emotions and behaviors and how they vary across social situations 1950s, Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow pioneered a humanistic approach to psychological disorders This approach allowed people to come to know and accept themselves in order to reach their potentials\ Rogers questioning and listening during therapy are staples of modern treatment methods developed to treat psychological disorders mirrored advances in psychological science Psychologists now believe that many psychological disorders result as much from brain’s “wiring” (nature” as from how people are reared and treated (nurture) Somie psychological disorders are more likely to occur in certain environments, this fact suggests that disorders can be affected by context Genetic psychological disorders some cases their environment activates their genes Three major advances that help understand psychological phenomena o Brain Chemistry hundreds of substance play critical roles in mental activity and behavior brain chemistry is different when we are aroused than when we are calm and those same chemicals influence the neural mechanisms involved in memory o Neuroscience MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) when consistent patterns of brain activation are linked with mental tasks, the activation appears to be connected with tasks There is some localization of function. Some areas are important for specific feelings and thoughts brain regions have too work together to produce behavior and mental activity Human Connectome Project in 2010 was launched to understand brain connectivity and how brain circuitry changes in psychological disorders o The Human Genome maps foundational knowledge for studying how specific genes affect actions feelings and disorders Some of our behaviors have the basis in the behaviors of early ancestors. Some behaviors are unique Many human behaviors are universal Functions such as memory, perception and language are seen as adaptations Mind, the experience of the brain, also adapts some of the contents of the mind adapt to cultural influences Through evolution, specialized mechanisms and adaptive behavior have been built into our bodies and brains Scientists try to understand how the brain works within the context of the environmental pressures in Pleistocene era e.g people like fatty food cuz had great survival value Many of a culture’s rules reflect adaptive solutions worked out by previous generations Human cultural evolution has occurred faster than biological evolution globalization has increased in velocity and scale over the past century people with different cultures possess different minds culture shapes beliefs and values like to the extent to which people should emphasize their own interests vs the group interests Culture rules norms Analysis of behavior o Biological level of analysis How the physical body contributed to mind and behavior o Individual level of analysis focuses on individual differences in personality and in the mental processes that affect how people perceive and know the world o Social level of analysis how group contexts affect the ways in which people interact and influence each other o Cultural level of analysis how people’s thoughts, feelings and actions are similar or different across cultures Subfields of psychology o Neuroscience o Cognitive psychologists o Developmental psycholigsts o Personality psycholigsts o Social pscyoligsts o Cultural psycholoigsts o Clinical psycholigsts interested in the factors that cause psychological disorders and the methods best used to treat then o Counseling psycholists o School psycholits o Industrial and organizational Chapter 2 notes: 4 goals of science: o description o prediction o control o explanation describe what it is, when it happens, what causes it to occur and why it occurs critical thinking is an ability skill, gotta practice Another aspect of questions is to ask for definitions of each part of the claim Does evidence at the source of the claim take the form of scientific evidence well support evidence usually means research reports based on empirical data that are published in peer reviewed journals peer review ensures studies are well designed and ethical research careful collection of data scientific method observation of phenomenon and the question of why it occurred Theory explanation or model of how something works hypothesis testable prediction good theories should be falsifiable and produces testable hypotheses Simpler theory is better Occam’s razor, the simpler of the two is preferred after hypothesis conduct lit review lit review review of scientific literature related to theory Step 3: design a study to test hypothesis Like survey, naturalistic observation over time, experiment Step 4: conduct study Step 5: analyze data Step 6: report results, including methodology, complete results and relationships After study, researchers return to original theory to evaluate implications of data Replication repeating a study and getting the same results Scientific method is cyclical many significant findings are from serendipity unexpectedly finding valuable things independent variable is the variable that gets changed dependent variable is the one that gets measured operational definition qualify(describe) and quantify(measure) variables so they can be understood Descriptive research involves observing behavior to describe that behavior objectively and systematically Descriptive methods are used to asses types of behavior Rosenthal effect: the expectation of the experimenter influences behavior of participants 3 types of research methods:case studies, observations and self report methods and interviews o Case studies examination of an unusual person organization o Observational studies participant observation researcher is involved in the situation naturalistic observation observer is passive, separated from situation o Coding systematic assessment and coding of overt behavior might involve written subjective assessments o Reactivity The concern that if the observer is visible, it might alter the person's behavior while being observed Hawthorne effects changes in behavior that occur when people know that others are observing them o Observer Bias flaw and errors in observation because of observer’s expectations o Experimenter expectancy effect observer expectations can even change the behavior being observed e.g students that were told that the rats they had were better at solving a maze actually did solve it faster because of expectations o SelfReports and interviews self report methods surveys or questionnaires, can be use to gather data Interviews Problem is that often introduce biases into their answers and may not reveal negative personal information Correlational studies examine how variables are related to real world WHEN ITS IMPOSSIBLE TO CONTROL VARIABLES RESEARCHERS WILL USE CORRELATIONAL STUDIES Positive correlation when x and y are directly related Negative Correlation inversely proportional Zero correlation variables are not related Complications such as genetics, environmental variables can stop researchers from drawing causal conclusions Directionality problem o one problem is in knowing the direction of the relationship of the variables o A could cause B, or B could cause A o High stress could cause less sleep, and less sleep could cause high stress Third Variable Problem: o it is possible C causes both A and B Some correlational research designs are used for ethical reasons By establishing connection in correlations, people can make predictions experiment manipulating one variable to test 2nd Can test multiple hypotheses Always want to compare your experimental group with control group confound anything that affects a dependent variable that may screw up results potential confounds sensitivity of measuring tools, changes in weights and scale Population and Sampling o sample subset of people you study o sampling process by picking people from the population to be the sample o best method is random sampling and larger sampling yields better results o people usually use convenience sampling and is likely to be biased Random Assignment o randomly assign people to experimental or control groups o There's sometimes selection bias and groups are not equivalent in a certain way Generalizing across cultures o difficulty is comparing people from different cultures o some traits are different across cultures o Culturally sensitive research takes into account the role culture plays in how people do things Because of ethics, people can't always use experimental method. E.g, can’t force someone to smoke Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) are set of guidelines they review all research to make sure its scientific and ethical Privacy is one ethical concern Anonymity and confidentiality are important Potential for risk, such as pain risk/benefit ratio analysis of whether the research is important enough to warrant placing participants at risk need to give informed consent If deception is used, Debriefing must take place after Researchers should be careful as to who has access to data due to confidentiality Health and wellbeing of animals are also concerns IACUC is a committee that evaluates animal proposals Some animals like mice are used to research like damage hippocampus in rats Scientist must balance concern for animals lives with concern for humanity Construct validity extent to which variable measure what they are suppose to measure External validity degree to which the findings of a study can be generalized to other people o valid if participants accurately represent intended population o variables were manipulated and measured in ways similar to real world Internal validity degree to which effects in experiments are due to independent variable and not confound Reliability, stability, consistency and accuracy is all important Human error happens a lot random error or unsystematic error overestimate or underestimate duration systematic error or bias amount of error introduced is constant, e.g stopwatch has glitch and overstates 1 min Descriptive statistics summarize basic pattern and summary of results Central tendency single value describes response of the group as a whole Mean average Median middle value Mode most frequent value Variabilitywidely dispersed values are from each other and from the mean Most common is standard deviation inferential statistics to determine whether effects actually exist in the population from which samples were drawn Meta analysis study that analyzes multiple analysis PEOPLE USE STATISTICAL METHODS TO MAKE SURE THEIR FINDINGS DON’T HAPPEN BY CHANCE Chapter 6 notes: Learning pair Neutral with US Learning results from experience occurs when an animal benefits from experience so that its behavior is better adapted to the environment learning is essential for learning survival skills and basic abilities Watson believed that observable behavior was only indicator of psychological activity Watson founded behaviorism on these principles based on belief that human and animals could learn anything Watson stated that environment and its effects were only determinants of learning 3 types of learning o nonassociative learning response to something in the environment occurs after repeated exposure to something o Associative learning linking of 2 events take place on after the other understanding how stimuli are related o Observational learning changing a behavior after exposure to something else Habituation decrease in behavioral response after repeated exposure to a stimulus leads us to ignore it because you learned its not important dishabituation increase in response because of a change in something familiar e. g birds stop singing, you know theres a predator Sensitization increase in behavioral response after exposure to a stimulus e.g sensitization to things that are threatening and painful heightened response to stimuli Presynaptic neurons alter their neurotransmitter release Increase in release leads to sensitization Decrease leads to habituation Conditioning process that connects environmental stimuli to behavior 2 types of conditioning: Classical conditioning and operant conditioning This section only classical o classical conditioning or Pavlovian conditioning neutral stimulus elicits a response because it has been associated with something that already produces that response learn that one event predicts another3 derived from Ivan Pavlov. He was interested in salivary reflex and how much animals or dogs salivated from various types of food dogs started salivating when they saw bowls and people Pavlov realized that the response was learned and taken from experience Edwin twitmyer studied patellar (kneejerk) reflex in humans He would ring bell when the knee tap was delivered created a response in humans that couldn't be suppressed even if no knee tap Unconditioned response (UR) response that is unlearned Unconditioned stimulus food leads to stimulus without training Conditioned response response from conditioned stimulus CR is usually weaker than the UR Pavlov believed that conditioning is the basis for how animals learn to adapt to their environments Acquisition Process of association to make conditioned response contiguity acquisition of a learned association and the stimuli occur together in time strongest conditioning happens when their is a brief delay between CS and US After CS and US is well learned, CS itself can take value Secondorderconditioning Once the CS has value, other stimuli may become associated with the CS only and can also produce CR Extinction When CR is extinguished when the CS no longer predicts the US Spontaneous recovery after some time, the extinguished CS again produces a CR and is temporary and will fade again extinction replaces associative bond but it does not eliminate it Stimulus generalization when CS are similar but are not identical but can still produce CR Same CS is rarely produced in nature and so animals adapted to variations Stimulus discrimination when animals learn to differentiate between 2 CS if one is consistently associated with the US and other is not John Garcia found that certain pairings of stimuli are more likely to become associated than others Conditioned taste aversion happens when animals receive nonlethal amounts of poison in their food that make them ill, quickly learn to avoid the tastes and smells. Response occurs even if illness clearly was caused by a virus or some other condition happenis if food and the sickness were not contiguous Likely to occur if the taste were not part of the person’s usual diet adaptive value of a response varies according to history of species e.g taste aversions are easy to condition in rats but hard to do in birds differences in learned adaptive responses may reflect the survival value that different auditory and visual stimuli have for particular animals in different environments. Biological preparedness programmed to fear specific objects Classical conditioning is a way that animals come to predict the occurrence of events Robert Rescorla argued that for learning to take place the CS must come before the US, thereby setting an expectation RescorlaWagner models states that an animal learn an expectation that some predictors (potential CS) are better than others According to this model, the strength of the CSUS association is determined by the extent to which the US is unexp2ected The difference between the expected and actual outcomes is called prediction error positive prediction error strengthens association between CS and US Negative Prediction error weakens CS US relationship positive and negative do not mean good or bad positive= presence of unexpected negative= absence of something expected e.g can opener for food breaks. now manual can opener opens food. This is a positive prediction error. Cause your dog to pay attention to events in the environment that might have produced unexpected food learning will reach maximum and no prediction errors will be generated animal more easily associate an US with a new stimulus than with a familiar stimulus Blocking effect once a CS is learned it can prevent the acquisition of a new CS Blocking is different from second order conditioning cuz when previous CR and new ew stimulus are presented at the same time, there will be no CR to new CS when monkeys initially got fruit juice (US), positive prediction error, high dopamine activity monkey were then condition with a CS NOw burst of dopamine activity to CS but none for the US US was no longer a surprise in next trials, US was no longer given, created negative prediction error, expected result did not happen and reduction in dopamine prediction error signals alert us to important events optogenetics activated dopamine neurons and overcame blocking effects. phobiaacquired fear that is out of proportion to the real threat fear conditioning conditioning animals to fear neutral objects freezing a fear response where animals like humans freeze in place Watson demonstrated classical conditioning of fears Conditioned so that whenever baby reached for rat, loud clang baby started to just fear rat US led to UR then pairing of CS and US led to CR WAtson planned to extinguish phobia by pairing rat with candy technique is called counter conditioning pairing phobia with enjoyable task smell of coffee can become CS and can arouse coffee drinkers cues associated with drug ingestion have led addicts to experience withdrawal cues lead to activation of prefrontal cortex and regions of limbic system, which are involved in reward when tolerance increases, body is altering neurochemistry of physiology to metabolize it show greater tolerance when provided with familiar cues Operant conditioning or instrumental conditioning particular behavior leads to a particular outcome action’s consequences determine the likelihood of that action being repeated humans or animals make associations between events that it can control in classical conditioning, makes association between events that it cannot control Cat learned to escape puzzle box after each consecutive trial Law of effects any beneficial behavior is likely to occur again, any negative behavior is less likely to occur Skinner believed he could change animal's behavior by providing incentives to the animal for performing particular acts Skinner objected to Thorndike’s law of effect Skinner states that “satisfaction” are not observable empirically reinforcer stimulus that occurs after a response and increases teh likelihood that the response will be repeated Skinner created operant chamber could expose rats to repeated conditioning trials Shaping make animal spontaneously perform the action through operant conditioning technique like skinner box Primary reinforcers satisfy biological needs Secondary reinforcers events or objects that do not satisfy biological needs and are established through Classical conditioning, like money There is a generalization and discrimination learning of the reinforcing stimulus David Premack said that a reinforcers’ value could be determined by how willing they engage in behavior linked to reinforcer children reinforce icecream more than spinach Premack principle more valued activity can be used to reinforce the performance of a less valued activity e.g Finish hw, go out Positive reinforcement increases chances of behavior repeating, also called reward Negative reinforcement increases behavior through removal of unpleasant stimulus continuous reinforcement for fast learning, behavior might be reinforced each time it occurs Partial reinforcement intermittent, occasional reinforcement of behavior PArtial reinforcement can be given according to either number of behavioral responses or the passage of time ratio schedule based on number of times behavior happens and when behavior is reinforced on every 3rd or 10th occurrence Interval Schedule specific unit of time when behavior is reinforced when it is performed every minute or hour Fixed Interval Schedule (FI): o when reinforcement is provided after a certain amount of time has passed o Cat learns that after certain amount of time feeding is likely Variable Interval Schedule (VI): o reinforcement is provided after the passage of time, but time is not regular o e.g getting texts o pop quizzes, so gotta prepare regularly Fixed Ratio Schedule (FR) o reinforcement is given after a certain number of responses have been made o paid depending on amount of goods made Variable RAtio Schedule (VR) o reinforcement given after unpredictable number of responses o e.g casino slot machines Partial reinforcement extinction effect greater persistence of behavior under partial reinforcement than under continuous reinforcement in continuous, person can detect when it stops Punishment decreases probability of action happening again Positive punishment decreases the behaviors probability through administration of a stimulus Negative punishment decreases the behavior’s probability through removal of pleasant stimulus For punishment to be reasonable, it must be reasonable, unpleasant and applied immediately so relationship between unwanted behavior and punishment is clear People tend to learn to avoid punishment, and not get caught Punishment is administered badly and child associates it with person and could lead to long term problems Negative outcomes with physical punishment Behavior modification use of operant conditioning to eliminate unwanted behaviors and replace them with good ones most unwanted behaviors are learned and therefore can be unlearned one behavior modification method draws from secondary reinforcement when people learn to do tasks in exchange for tokens that can be traded for good shit Rewards reinforce good behavior Biological constraints: o animals have hard time learning stuff that counter to their adaption Acquisition/ PErformance Distinction o learning can take place without reinforcement o Latent learning when people animals or people learn simply by observing o Insight learning solution suddenly emerges after either a period of inaction or contemplation neural basis of reinforcement neurotransmitter dopamine o dopamine sets value of a reinforcer o distinction between the wanting and liking aspects of reward o Liking refer to subjective sense of pleasure from consuming substance o Wanting refers to desire or craving for substance Observational learning acquisition or modification of a behavior through observation of someone else Albert Bandura found that exposing kids to violence encourage them to act aggressively Modeling imitation of observed behavior Vicarious learning people learn about an action’s consequences by watching others be rewarded or punished for the actions Watching violence in media may encourage aggression Fear can be learned through observation o lab reared monkeys learned to fear snakes from wild monkeys o biologically prepared to fear snakes Mirror neurons in the brain activated during observational learning when someone reacts to pain You feel the pain too or flinch Chapter 7 notes: Memory Memory the nervous system’s capacity to retain and retrieve skills and knowledge Memories have bias, can be altered COGNITIVE MAP IS SPATIAL REPRESENTATION OF ENVIRONMENT Three phases of memory processing: o encoding phase occurs at time of learning, as information is transformed into a format that can be stored in memory o Storage phase retention of the coded representation ConsolidationNeural connections that support memory become stronger and new synapses are constructed consolidation allows info to be stored in memory o Retrieval o reaching into memory and bringing it out Karl Lashley researched memory Engram physical site of memory storage Size of brain region removed was most important in predicting retention Location was not as important Equipotentiality memory was throughout the brain These are all lashley’s theories, not all right Hebb got it right: Memory involves creation of neural circuits through different regions of brain Longterm potentiation (LTP) strengthening of a synaptic connection, making the postsynaptic neurons more easily activated stimulating one neuron with a pulse leads to firing in a second neuron NMDA receptor opens only if a nearby neuron fires at the same time The firing neuron releases glutamate into the synapse and this neurotransmitter binds with the NMDA receptors on the postsynaptic neuron memory results from learned associations that come about through firing of nearby neurons HDAC, inhibit gene expression and may hinder memory drugs that block HDAC lead to increased LTP and memory Different memory systems use different brain regions temporal lobes, such as hippocampus, are important for ability to store new memories middle section of temporal lobes medial temporal lobes responsible for formation of new memories Visual information is stored in the cortical areas involved in visual perception medial temporal lobes form links between different storage sites and direct strengthening of the connections between links Reconsolidation once memories are activated, must be stored back again once memories are retrieved, those memories can be affected by current circumstances and change Memory systems: o Sensory memory temporary system closely tied to the sensory systems Lasts only for a fraction of a second Iconic memory visual sensory memory Echoic memoryauditory sensory memory Visual memory persisted for about ⅓ of a second sensory memories allow us to experience the world as a continuous stream smooth transition between images o Working/Short Term Memory it is an active processing unit with multiple types of information more contemporary model is working memory working memory storage system that actively retains and manipulates multiple pieces of temporary information from different sources Information remains for about 2030s only retain by practicing or thinking about it Working memory lasts less than half a min without rehearsing Three processes: retrieval, transformation and substitution Working memory can only hold limited amount of info Memory span how much people can remember, generally 4 Chunking breaking down info into meaningful units makes it more efficient and easier to remember o Longterm memory nearly limitless Serial position effect items presented earlier or later are easier to remember Serial comprises of 2 more effects primacy effect better memory of beginning recency effect better memory for most recentend There is a distinction between working and long term They are still interrelated info goes into long term through rehearsal Info about an environment that helps us adapt is turned into long term memory evolutionary theory helps explain long term animals use past experiences to increase chance of survival mental representation are stored by meaning More deeply encoded, stronger the memory 2 different types of rehearsal with different types of encoding Maintenance rehearsal repeating over and over Elaborative rehearsal thinking conceptually, or deciding whether it refers to yourself, link knowledge with long term memories Schemas structures in long term memory that help perceive, organize and process and use information Schemas allow us to make new memories by filling in holes within existing memories, overlooking inconsistent info and interpreting meaning based on past Schemas can bias info, culture influences schemas Node Unit of information each node is tied together, creates network model Closer nodes are, the stronger the association Spreading activation models of memory when one node activates, associated nodes will likely activate Retrieval cue anything that helps recall a memory like smell, fav song Encoding specificity principle stimulus encoded along with an experience can later trigger a memory of that experience Context dependent memory memory based on location, odors, background music, place with familiarity Statedependent memorymemory enhanced through a person’s internal states, moods Mnemonics learning aids or strats that use retrieval cues to improve recall Method of loci or memory palace mnemonic that associates items you want to remember with physical locations Long term memory systems: o Explicit memory processes we use to remember information we can say we know involves conscious effort Declarative memoryknowledge we can declare Explicit memory can be divided: Episodic memory person’s past experiences and includes info about time and place the experiences occurred Semantic memory knowledge of facts independent of personal experience o Implicit memory occurs without effort: Cannot put these memories into words Classical conditioning uses implicit memory Procedural memory or motor memory involves motor skills and habits used to achieve goals without being aware of them Implicit memory may make you attracted to someone cuz they are similar to someone you liked before implicit memory branding, seen it a lot, will buy it falsefameeffect: made people see a name, next day asked people to guess if people were famous or not. Through implicit memory saw familiar names and assumed they were famous o Prospective Memory Remembering to do something someone remembers to do something at some future time It involves both automatic and controlled processes Forgetting allows us to retain meaningful points Savings save time and effort relearning things you use to remember Daniel Schacter identified 7 sins of memory o transience o blocking o absentmindedness o persistence (above are related to forgetting and remembering) o misattribution o bias o suggestibility(the next 3 are distortions of memory) Memory transience memory decay over time o proactive interference old info inhibits the ability to remember new info o retroactive interference new info inhibits ability to remember old info Blocking retrieval failure o temporarily unable to remember something o tip of the tongue o blocking often occurs because of interference from words that are similar in some way Absentmindednessinattentive or shallow coding of events o often occurs when caught up in a different activity Amnesia lost ability to retrieve information from long term memory o retrograde amnesia lose past memories of events people etc. o anterograde amnesia people lose ability to form new memories Persistence when unwanted memories are remembered in spite of desire not to have them o e.g traumatic memories o PTSDposttraumatic stress disorder o extinction can be used during reconsolidation to yield results o drugs such as propranolol has to be given in time to the traumatic event and reconsolidation of the memory o HDAC inhibitors are sometimes used too Memory bias changing memories over time so that they become consistent with current beliefs Flashbulb memories vivid memories of experiences which people first learn of a surprising and consequential or emotionally arousing event, do not reflect problem of persistence von Restorff effect people are more confident in their flashbulb memories than their ordinary memories Source misattribution when people misremember the time, place, person or circumstances involved with a memory Source amnesia form of misattribution o childhood amnesia forgetting early memories of childhood o cryptomnesia getting new idea, but failing to attribute it to og source suggestibility people can develop biased memories when provided with misleading info False memories when they recall something related to the memory, but not the acutal memory repressed memories are controversial maybe be false memories that are implanted EXAM 1:1` cognitive map is spatial representation scientists use statistical model to make sure their findings didn’t happen by chance When you recall a car, you activate cortical circuits in the visual cortex involved with perceiving learn more from testing because of increased retrieval times functionalism how the mind functions advantage humans evolutionarily Chapter 3: basic units nerve cells neurons 2 units: Central Nervous system and the peripheral nervous system Central nervous system brain and spinal cord, lot of neurons peripheral nervous system all other nerve cells in the rest of body CNS organizes and evaluates info and directs PNS to perform behaviors and adjustments nerve cells are powered by electrical impulses and communicate with other nerve cells through chemical signals during reception phase, neurons take in chemical signals from neighboring neurons during transmission neurons pass own signals to other neurons 3 types of neurons: o sensory neurons detect info from the physical world and pass info to brain through spinal cord somatosensory nerves sensory nerves in skin and muscles that provide info afferent o motor neurons direct muscles to contract or relax, creating movement efferant o interneurons communicate within local or short distance circuits interneurons integrate neural activity within a single area rather than other structures or organs sensory and motor neurons work together to control movement neuron has 4 structural regions: o dendrites short branchlike appendages that detect chemical signals from neighboring neurons o cell body information received is collected and integrated o axon long narrow outgrowth longest is from spinal cord to big toe o terminal buttons end of axon are knoblike structures nerve is a bundle of axons that carry info between brain and other parts synapse site where chemical communication occurs between neurons neurons communicate by sending chemicals into synapse, a tiny gap between axon of the sending neuron and the dendrites of the receiving neuron neuron covered with membrane fatty barrier that does not dissolve in water semipermeable ion channels specialized pores allow ions to pass in and out of cell when neuron transmits signals down the axon Controlling movement of ions regulates concentration of electricity charged molecules resting membrane outbreak difference in electrical charge of inside and outside neuron different because ratio of negative to positive ions is greater inside the neuron than outside it electrical charge inside neuron is more negative than the electrical charge outside 70millivolts neuron is polarized polarized state of resting neuron creates electrical energy necessary to power the firing of neuron Sodium and potassium ions contribute to neuron’s resting membrane potential ions pass through its specific ion channels in neuron membrane. e.g sodium cant pass through K channel selective permeability more K than Na inside neuron sodiumpotassium pump pump increases K and decreases Na inside neuron, helps maintain resting membrane potential action potential or neural firing electrical signal that passes along axon. Tells terminal buttons to release chemicals that transmit signals to other neurons by affecting polarization, chemical signals tell neuron whether to fire 2 types of signals: o excitatory signals depolarize cell membrane decreased negative charge inside cell increase likelihood cell will fire o inhibitory signals hyperpolarize the cell increase polarization increases negative charge in cell less likely that neuron will fire if total amount of excitatory input surpasses neuron’s firing threshold ( 55mV 0 an action potential is generated When neurons fire, sodium gates in cell membrane open influx of Na causes inside of neuron to be + second later K channels open and allow K ions inside cell membrane to go out change from to + inside neuron is basis of action potential Starts off negative then when cell fires, it becomes positive Through natural restoration, goes back negative when neuron fires, cell membrane’s depolarization moves in a wave Na+ move down to terminal buttons and cause adjacent Na+ channels to open propagation Electrical signals move quickly down because of fatty myelin sheath myelin sheath encases and insulates axons, made up of glial cells, speed of conduction increases nodes of Ranvier between segments of small gaps of exposed axon\ axon without myelin, Na+ channels must still open but action potential speed is decreased All or none principle a neuron fires with the same potency each time action potentials cause neurons to release chemicals from their terminal buttons Travel across the synapse and received by other neuron’s dendrites presynaptic neuron neuron that sends the signal postsynaptic neuron neuron that receives the signal Neurotransmitter inside each terminal button, chemicals that are made in the axon and stored in vesicles When released by vesicles, the neurotransmitters convey signals across the synapse to postsynaptic cells After action potential travels to terminal button, it causes the vesicles to attach to the presynaptic membrane and release their neurotransmitters into the synapse Neurotransmitters then travel across the synapse and attach themselves or bind to receptors on the postsynaptic neuron receptors specialized protein molecules on postsynaptic membrane that respond to the chemical structure of the neurotransmitter available in the synapse binding of neurotransmitter to receptor can cause ion channels to open or close more tightly, producing excitatory or an inhibitory signal in the postsynaptic neuron each receptor can be influenced by only one type of neurotransmitter neurotransmitters in synapse continue to exert effect and block new signals until its influence is terminated 3 events that terminate neurotransmitter’s influence in synapse o reuptake when neurotransmitter is taken back into the presynaptic terminal buttons action potential tells terminal buttons to release neurotransmitter into the synapse and recycle it o degradation: ]\enzyme deactivation an enzyme destroys the neurotransmitter in the synapse o autoreceptors monitor how much neurotransmitter has been released when excess, autoreceptors signal presynaptic neuron to stop releasing neurotransmitter All neurotransmitters have excitatory or inhibitory effects on action potentials through polarization of the postsynaptic cells neurotransmitter can send excitatory or inhibitory postsynaptic signals depending on receptor properties Drugs and toxins can change neurotransmitter’s action agonists drugs that enhance the actions of neurotransmitters antagonists drugs that inhibit these actions drugs can mimic neurotransmitters and bind with their receptors 8 types of neurotransmitters o acetylcholine (ACh) responsible for motor control junctions between nerves and cells after moving across synapses, Ach binds with receptors on muscle cells making muscles contract or relax Botulism, food poisoning results in muscle paralysis, used in botox injections for plastic ACh also involved in learning, memory, sleeping and dreaming ACh antagonists can cause temporary amnesia lack of ACh causes Alzheimer's o Monoamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine) regulate arousal, regulate feelings and motivate behavior o epinephrine (adrenaline) gives energy boost to deal with threats o Norepinephrine states of arousal and alertness fine tuning attentions heightened sensitivity to what's around you o Serotonin important for emotional states, impulse control and dreaming low levels are associated with sad and anxious moods, food cravings and aggressive behavior drugs can inhibit so used to treat depression and obesity o Dopamine motivation and reward responsible in motor control and planning guide behavior toward things that will lead to additional rewards lack of dopamine is implicated in parkinson’s disease ??
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'