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Music of Western World Bundle including Test 2

by: Emily Goff

Music of Western World Bundle including Test 2 MUSIC 210

Marketplace > Clemson University > Music > MUSIC 210 > Music of Western World Bundle including Test 2
Emily Goff
GPA 3.5

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Music of Western World Bundle including Test 2
Music in the West World
Rhea Jacobus
75 ?




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This 10 page Bundle was uploaded by Emily Goff on Thursday January 14, 2016. The Bundle belongs to MUSIC 210 at Clemson University taught by Rhea Jacobus in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Music in the West World in Music at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 01/14/16
Sound waves- regular/periodic= pitch Irregular= noise Frequency- how high or low, measured in Hertz Amplitude- volume, measured in decibels-Db’s (anything over 85 Db’s causes hearing damage) Timbre- “tam-ber”, the quality of a certain instrument/voice. Determined by the size of the instrument, shape of the instrument, the material of the instrument, and the manner in which that instrument is played (plucked, blown, struck). Human voice- the most natural instrument. Is divided up into vocal ranges- determined by the length of their vocal chords. • Sopranos- girl with high voice • Altos- girl with low voice o Contralto • Tenors- guy with high voice o Baritone • Bass- guy with low voice Woodwind- pitch is determined by length of air column Strings- pitch is determined by length of string Brass- pitch is determined by length of the tube Percussion • Definite- has a singable pitch- the instruments played with mallets o Xylophone o Marimba o Vibraphone o Glockenspiel o Tympani (kettle drum) § Length of vibrating object determines the pitch • Indefinite- no singable pitch o Snare drum o Bass drum o Cymbals o Triangle Sacred Music • Religious o Ancient Greek/Roman chants § Monophonic chants • Hebrew- chants in their religious practice 476- fall of Rome, Constantine legalizes Christianity Roman Catholic Church follows • Developed liturgy- texts, words, the order of service • The Mass- Kyrie, Gloria, Sanctus, Offertory, Benedicts • Chants evolved in Latin • Monophonic sung by choirs of men and boys • Not metrical • No instruments o Syllabic- one pitch per syllable o Neumatic- up to 5 or six pitches per syllable o Melismatic- many pitches per syllable 476-1400 Medieval Period 590-604: Pope Gregory the 1 / Gregory the Great • Composed some of the chants • He had them WRITTEN DOWN, all 3,000 • Codified the chants 1100 AD- Paris at Notre Dame Cathedral • Beginning of harmony- expanding to 2-4 musical lines= organum Secular Music • Dancing • Court ceremonies • Jousting tournament • Dinner • Parades o Troubadours- singer poets, sometimes royal, or serving a knight Russia • Dance/Ballet • French in Influence Igor Stravinsky • Went to Paris • Writes the “Fire Bird” and 1913 writes Rite of Spring, it was a ballet about Russian Pagan Rituals. Fairytale folklore • Primitivism- artistic sub movement o Dissonance- retains a sense of key o Polytonality- 2 or more keys at once o Poly-rhythms – non symmetrical meter o Bassoon, bass clarinet, alto flute, ED clarinet, strings used “percussively” • 1917- Communists come into Power U.S.S.R. • Neo-classicism- return to smaller, traditional forms • A soldier’s Tale Ballet Russe- Serge Diaghilev (impresario) • Commissions Debussey, Stravinsky and Ravel for music • Artists- Picasso, Matisse, Roualt Serge Prokofiev – pianist, composer, • Returned to Soviet Union o Deal with Josef Stalin • Was censored Dmitro Shostakovich • Product of the soviet system • Stalin didn’t approve of some of his music. It was atonal, complex. • Was censored 1900-1945- more nationalism, Phonograph was invented, microphone was invented. Bela Bartok- Hungarian • Studied in Budapest • Hungarian nationalism • Hungarian folk music • Records folk music o Ethnomusicologist • Additive rhythm- nonsymmetrical rhythms o Followed speech patterns • Dissonance, polytonality • Upset with Berlin radio for playing his music because the Nazi’s had invaded Hungary, so he didn’t want his music being played on a Nazi network. • Concerto for Orchestra (1943) o Commissioned by Serve Koussevitsky, conductor of the Boston Symphony Aaron Copland • Born in Brooklyn, NY • Populist ideas • Was censored- due to his previous association (in Mexican friends who were communists) • 1930’s- Depression- New deal.. o Works Project Administration o Federal Music Project • Was asked to write Lincoln Portrait- due to being in the midst of WWII Mid 1950’s-The Red Scare- “McCarthyism” American Music • Contributions of early African American music that combines with some folk traditions • Greatest contribution to music from America is Jazz. o African drumming o Slave songs o Early spirituals • Scott Joplin- African American, pianist o Rag time- “ragged rhythm”, piano style o Syncopated rhythm- on the off beat o Improvised • Mississippi Delta o Beginning of blues o Blues- “12 bar blues” o Robert Johnson (movie Crossroads) • New Orleans Jazz o Louis Armstrong o Combos- 5,6,7,8, players § Trumpet, trombone, clarinet, piano, guitar/banjo, drums, bass § Structure • Song • Key • Tempo • Harmonic progression • After you have this, decide on order of solo improvisations. • Big Band Era o 10-25 players o Duke Ellington- gifted pianist, composer, starts composing works for Jazz § Arranger, later composing, basic framework written on charts • Swing era o White musicians § Glen Miller, Artie Shaw, Benny Goodman • Bebop (bop) o Reaction to the big band/swing commercialization and cutting back of finances o Smaller groups, freer improvisation 5-7 players o Dizzy Gillespie, Charlie Parker, o “Concert approach” • Cool jazz o Miles Davis o Fusion, jazz rock o “Free” Musical Theater • Roots in European operetta- lighter, comic form of opera • Had no recitative, had spoken dialogue. • Were fun, light entertainment, not tragedies. • Significance of Scott Joplin • George Geurshwin • Leonard Bernstein- West side Story- paved the way to what we know as musical theater Rock and Country • Early rock in 1950’s- combination of African American Rhythm and Blues (from slave traditions, rural roots) (R&B) and white country/western (from white camp meeting tradition) created rock-a-billy o African American- Staxx Records (in Memphis) § Chuck Berry § Little Richard (Gospel) o R&B § Muddy Waters • Leads to funk o George Clinton o Sly & Family Stone o White- Sun Records (in Memphis) § Elvis Presley § Jerry Lee Lewis § Bill Haley • Early rock led to soul music- Mo-Town o Ray Charles o Aretha Franklin o James Brown o Mo-Town § Smokey Robinson • Michael Jackson • Backbeats- 1,2,3,4 • Country music o The Carter Family- Jone, Maybelle, Jonny Cash) o Bill Monroe o Jimmi Rodgers • Early country merges into western swing and honkey-tonk o Hank Williams • Outlaw • Nashville- country rock, commercial • British Invasion o The Beatles o The Rolling Stones • Folk rock o Comes out of California o Bob Dylan o Joan Baez o Came as Vietnam War Protests started to heat up o The Byrds § Emergence of pop- Beach Boys • Blues o Janice Joplin o Jimmi Hendrix o Grateful Dead o Led Zeplin- moves us into Metal à black Sabbath, ACDC, Metallica § Emergence of more psychedelic/acid • Led to aft/progressive rock o Pink Floyd o Frank Zappa § Leads to grunge • Pearl Jam • Nirvana • Merge of blues and harder rock o The Yard Birds- Eric Clapton • Influence of Reggae o Bob Marley • Punk o Clash o The Sex Pistols • New Wave o The Police • Hip hop/Rap o Origins of Baroque opera • Started in Italy- Florentine Camarata wanted to combine drama and singing • Greek roots • Art forms that combine to make opera- vocal singing, instrumental, orchestra, drama, visual (scenery, costumes), and dance (ballet) Opera Seria • Based on tragic themes, serious • Subject matter- Greek and Roman mythology, ancient history • Castrati singers- males who were castrated to preserve high voice Opera • 1. Overture- orchestra only • 2. Choruses- singing something to comment on what is going on • 3. Recitative- not rhythmic, conveys an action, sets up a scenario • 4. Aria- soloist conveys emotions about recitative • 5. Ensemble- group of singers • No opera allowed in lent… solution? o Oratorio- based on biblical, religious themes, no drama or costumes, mostly the choir/chorus only 3 o Da Capo Aria [A|B|A]- repeat of A- oriented • GF Handel Basso Contunio • Harpsichord + cello Figured Bass • 6/4, 6/3, 7 à realization of the keyboard J.S. Bach • Fugue- subject (monophonic, theme, melody), answer, counter subject • Cantata- short work for choir, soloist, orchestra • Lutheran Chorales- Vivaldi • Four Seasons- • Programmatic elements- Best Violin Makers • Amati, Guarneri, Stradivari Concerto • Concerto grosso • Brandenburg Concerto #2 concerto grosso (group)- by Bach Sonata • Solo instrument and keyboard • Movements o 1. Slow o 2. Fast o 3. Slow o 4. Fast • Ritornello- repeating theme in orchestra Improvisatory Elements in Baroque and Classical Music • Baroque- • Classical- Piano concerto- Cadenza= orchestra stops playing and solo improvisation on piano Keyboard Instruments • Pipe organs- powered by air • Harpsichord- plucked action, very soft • Piano- hammered action, louder than harpsichord Franz Joseph Haydn • First movement of symphony= sonata-allegro form o [Exposition:| development | recapitulation (sometimes a coda)] • Symphony movements o 1. Sonata-allegro o 2. Slow, aba, ab, song form, different key than sonata o 3. Minuet- moderate tempo, contains a trio, triple meter o 4. Fast- rondo, tonic key • Haydn is famous for symphony and string quartet • Origin of symphony genre o Hungary, as Haydn went to work for the Prince of Esterhazy • Overture influence on symphony o Overture went like [fast| slow | fast], and symphony added the minuet so it went [fast| slow | minuet | fast] Absolute Music • No pictorial/literary title or description Program Music • W. A. Mozart • Piano concerto o [Double exposition| development | recapitulation and cadenza (orchestra stops playing and solo improv on piano)] Requiem • Mass for the dead, token of remembrance for the dead. Mozart composed a requiem for an anonymous person, and went kind of nuts thinking that he was writing his own requiem. Finances • Haydn- was well off, the prince of Esterhazy was his patron o Hob. • Bach- was pretty comfortable o BWV • Mozart- had debt problems o K #___ *opus- a separate composition or set of compositions by a composer, usually in ordered date of publication Opera Buffa • Comedic opera • The Marriage of Figaro o Da Pante (librettist) worked with Mozart to make this an opera o Was based on a play that was banned in Paris because it was bad Ludwig von Beethoven • Bridge from classical era to romantic era • Born in Bonn, Germany, moved to Vienna to make a career • Incredible pianist • Not as natural with composing as Mozart was • Early symphonies- style of Haydn’s format • After symphony #3, he really expands symphonies • Deafness starts in late 20’s • 1802-in Heiligenstadt Testament- was a suicide note • Suffered from lead poisoning • Symphony #5 in C minor o 4 movements mmm


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