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AN 1103 : Highlighted Notes

by: Bryanna Lamm

AN 1103 : Highlighted Notes AN 1103

Bryanna Lamm
GPA 3.62

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About this Document

I am currently adding all of the notes I have taken over this course. This is not a complete collection but it has the chapters gone through for the first midterm for sure! All highlighted material...
Introduction to Anthropology
Professor Jean Marcus
Anthro, intro to anthropology, an 1103
75 ?




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This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by Bryanna Lamm on Thursday January 14, 2016. The Bundle belongs to AN 1103 at Mississippi State University taught by Professor Jean Marcus in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Mississippi State University.


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Date Created: 01/14/16
Ethics of the Anthropologist    AAA Code of Ethics    American Anthropology Association  Largest Anthropology group  Responsibilities to:  ● Human subjects  ● Other species  ● Society and Culture  ● The environment  ● The profession  ● Materials discovered ( fossils, human remains, artifacts )  Chunky Stones​: a game, shoot it with an arrow  Study Abroad  ● Get permission from host country  ● invite scholars and graduate students from host country to participate  ● Primary ethical responsibilities to human subjects  ○ informed consent  ○ confidentiality   Reciprocity: Going beyond ethical behavior is the idea of reciprocity or giving back  ● Tutoring children  ● Legal advice  ● Write letters  ● First aid inoculation  ● Start a library  KNM­ER1470 ­ Belonged to Kenya People  African Burial Ground ( In Manhattan ) ­ Respectfully moved elsewhere    Kennewick Man  ● Discovered in Washington   ● 9,000 years old skeleton  ● Important to Native Americans and Anthropologists  ● Study for DNA, Anatomy, Diet, Disease    NAGPRA Act (Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation)  ● Gives custody of artifacts to Native Americans if there is a cultural connection ­ cultural  affiliation   ● Signed by President George Bush 1990    Ethics and Reciprocity in Primatology  ● Jane Goodall studied chimpanzees  ● Dian Fossey studied the mountain gorilla  ● Both have worked to protect their non­human primate subject and their environment      Archaeology  Called the cultural anthropology of the past  Through excavation and analysis they attempt to recreate past cultures    Techniques of Archaeology  ● Site survey ­ shovel test  ○ two dimensional  ○ surface artifacts  ○ features  ● Excavations  ○ three dimensional  ● Laboratory analysis    Excavation  ● Datum point: vertical reference of depth (metal bar in ground)  ● Surveyor’s sextant  ○ longitude  ○ latitude  ● Provenience or 3D location determined by latitude, longitude and datum point    Screening Dirt   ● Looking for small artifacts in the dirt  Flotation  ● Dirt goes to bottom and light objects on top    Three Major Archaeological Finds  ● Artifacts: man made or modified objects  ● Biofacts: flora or fauna  ● Features: immovable objects such as cave art, wells, cisterns, fireplaces, buildings,  postholes    Skeletal Material: Usually excavated and analyzed by a physical anthropologist or  bioarchaeologist    Cultural Information from Skeletal Material  ● Trephination (holes in skulls)  ● Cranial deformation  ● Dental inlays  ● Grave goods  ● Orientation and position of remains  ● Intentional mummification    Laboratory analysis of Skeletal Material  ● Age at time of death  ● Sex  ● Stature  ● Diet  ● Race    Dating Techniques  ● Absolute Dating ( range of dates, numbers)  ○ Carbon 14 (1950s)  ○ Potassium argon (millions/ volcanic ash)  ● Relative Dating (one area older than another)  ○ Stratigraphy (reverse stratigraphy) ­ layers  ○ Seriation: looks at artifacts with same function    Ceramics  ● The study of pottery artifacts  ● Potsherds­fragments  ○ Clay  ○ Tempering (dry material to clay)  ○ Glaze  ○ Style, Decorations  ○ Quantity  ● Laboratory Analysis  ○ Ceramics  ○ Lithics (stone tools)  ○ Flora  ○ Fauna   ○ Coprolites (feeces)    Old World Archaeology  ● Europe  ● Asia  ● Africa  ○ Hominid evolution occurred in africa. The time frame of Old World archaeology  begins earlier. The domestication of plants and animals, state formation, the  invention of writing and metallurgy occurred earlier in Old World  Rosetta Stone  ● Signifigance: key to translating hieroglyphics    New World Archaeology  ●     Genetics and Evolution  Creationism: biological traits originated at creation; immutable    New Theories  ● Catastrophism: after each catastrophe; new creation  ● Transformation: evolution  ● Darwin and Wallace: Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection  ○ nature selects the most fit individuals to survive  Genetics  ● Gregor Mendel (1856): Austrian Monk  ● Experiments with pea plants ­ 7 traits  ○ tall v short  ● Crossed different pea plants; tall with short, next generation were tall. Second  generation crossed together; some small reappeared.  ● Tall is dominant over short and two short factors in 3rd generation for short to appear    Chromosomes  ● The factors described by Mendel; alleles located on chromosomes  ● 23 chromosomes from both parents in humans add up to 46  ● Chrome (color) ; some (body)    Genes and alleles  ● Some alleles are dominant while others are recessive and some are co­dominant  ● 2 alleles for each trait are genotype  ● Actual expression of those genes (alleles) are phenotype (appearance)    Punnett Square      t  t  T  Tt  Tt  t  tt  tt  Tall: T   (Dominant)  Short: t (Recessive)  Tt (Co­dominant)  Solution: 2 Talls and 2 Shorts    Human Blood Type  ● A dominant over O  ● B dominant over O  ● A & B co­dominant  ● O is recessive  Genotype and Phenotype  ● Blood Types  ○ Genotype:  AA, AO, BB, BO, AB, OO  ○ Phenotype: A, A, B, B, AB, O  Mitosis  ● Replication and cell division in Somatic Cells (body cells)  ● A somatic cell begins with 46 chromosomes; DNA replicated and after cell division get  back to 46; 1 division.  Meiosis  ● In cells, ovary and testes, precursor to egg and sperm  ● Replication to 46 then to 92  ● First cell division; 2 divisions  ● Fertilization; restores it back to 46  Mitochondrial DNA  ● DNA in the mitochondria in cell cytoplasm, zygote, father’s sperm fertilizes the mother’s  ovum. Ovum provides zygote with cytoplasm. Passed from mother to child. Mutations in  mDNA occur at constant rate, so distance between generations can be calculated.    Four major mechanisms of evolution  ● Natural selection  ● Mutation  ● Random Genetic Drift  ● Gene Flow    Natural Selection  ● Nature selects individuals most fit in a paenvironment  ● They will have the greatest reproductive success.    Mutations  ● Mutations can occur in somatic (body) cells or in sex (sperm/egg) cells  ● Only mutations in sex cells are passed onto offspring  ● Mutations are important because they provide movariati​ . ● Mutations can be: harmful, neutral, beneficial  ● Mutations can be caused by: temperature, x­ray, gamma and beta radiation, neutrons,  UV radiation, chemical formulas  ● A edundancy ​in the genetic code protects from mutation  ● Error in gene replication.    Random Genetic Drift (Founder’s Effect)  ● Change in allele frequency from CHANGE rather than Natural Selection  ● Random  ● Decrease gene frequency or Can increase gene frequency  ● Works better in smaller populations  Old Order Amish  ● Founded by 200 individuals  ● 39 heritable traits  ● No autism    Hutterites  ● 443 individuals founded  ● More than 25 disorders  ● high fertility (10.4 children/ family)    Utah Mormons  ● Founded by 2000 individuals   ● Not isolate  ● Thousands continue to join  ● Genetically similar to European populations    Gene Flow  ● Direct interbreeding/ indirect interbreeding between populations without direct contact    Gene Evolution  ● Gene Pool: all of the alleles and genotypes within a breeding population  ● Genetic Evolution: change in gene frequency in a breeding population from generation to  generation.         


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