AN 1103 : Highlighted Notes
AN 1103 : Highlighted Notes AN 1103
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This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by Bryanna Lamm on Thursday January 14, 2016. The Bundle belongs to AN 1103 at Mississippi State University taught by Professor Jean Marcus in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 01/14/16
Ethics of the Anthropologist AAA Code of Ethics American Anthropology Association Largest Anthropology group Responsibilities to: ● Human subjects ● Other species ● Society and Culture ● The environment ● The profession ● Materials discovered ( fossils, human remains, artifacts ) Chunky Stones: a game, shoot it with an arrow Study Abroad ● Get permission from host country ● invite scholars and graduate students from host country to participate ● Primary ethical responsibilities to human subjects ○ informed consent ○ confidentiality Reciprocity: Going beyond ethical behavior is the idea of reciprocity or giving back ● Tutoring children ● Legal advice ● Write letters ● First aid inoculation ● Start a library KNMER1470 Belonged to Kenya People African Burial Ground ( In Manhattan ) Respectfully moved elsewhere Kennewick Man ● Discovered in Washington ● 9,000 years old skeleton ● Important to Native Americans and Anthropologists ● Study for DNA, Anatomy, Diet, Disease NAGPRA Act (Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation) ● Gives custody of artifacts to Native Americans if there is a cultural connection cultural affiliation ● Signed by President George Bush 1990 Ethics and Reciprocity in Primatology ● Jane Goodall studied chimpanzees ● Dian Fossey studied the mountain gorilla ● Both have worked to protect their nonhuman primate subject and their environment Archaeology Called the cultural anthropology of the past Through excavation and analysis they attempt to recreate past cultures Techniques of Archaeology ● Site survey shovel test ○ two dimensional ○ surface artifacts ○ features ● Excavations ○ three dimensional ● Laboratory analysis Excavation ● Datum point: vertical reference of depth (metal bar in ground) ● Surveyor’s sextant ○ longitude ○ latitude ● Provenience or 3D location determined by latitude, longitude and datum point Screening Dirt ● Looking for small artifacts in the dirt Flotation ● Dirt goes to bottom and light objects on top Three Major Archaeological Finds ● Artifacts: man made or modified objects ● Biofacts: flora or fauna ● Features: immovable objects such as cave art, wells, cisterns, fireplaces, buildings, postholes Skeletal Material: Usually excavated and analyzed by a physical anthropologist or bioarchaeologist Cultural Information from Skeletal Material ● Trephination (holes in skulls) ● Cranial deformation ● Dental inlays ● Grave goods ● Orientation and position of remains ● Intentional mummification Laboratory analysis of Skeletal Material ● Age at time of death ● Sex ● Stature ● Diet ● Race Dating Techniques ● Absolute Dating ( range of dates, numbers) ○ Carbon 14 (1950s) ○ Potassium argon (millions/ volcanic ash) ● Relative Dating (one area older than another) ○ Stratigraphy (reverse stratigraphy) layers ○ Seriation: looks at artifacts with same function Ceramics ● The study of pottery artifacts ● Potsherdsfragments ○ Clay ○ Tempering (dry material to clay) ○ Glaze ○ Style, Decorations ○ Quantity ● Laboratory Analysis ○ Ceramics ○ Lithics (stone tools) ○ Flora ○ Fauna ○ Coprolites (feeces) Old World Archaeology ● Europe ● Asia ● Africa ○ Hominid evolution occurred in africa. The time frame of Old World archaeology begins earlier. The domestication of plants and animals, state formation, the invention of writing and metallurgy occurred earlier in Old World Rosetta Stone ● Signifigance: key to translating hieroglyphics New World Archaeology ● Genetics and Evolution Creationism: biological traits originated at creation; immutable New Theories ● Catastrophism: after each catastrophe; new creation ● Transformation: evolution ● Darwin and Wallace: Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection ○ nature selects the most fit individuals to survive Genetics ● Gregor Mendel (1856): Austrian Monk ● Experiments with pea plants 7 traits ○ tall v short ● Crossed different pea plants; tall with short, next generation were tall. Second generation crossed together; some small reappeared. ● Tall is dominant over short and two short factors in 3rd generation for short to appear Chromosomes ● The factors described by Mendel; alleles located on chromosomes ● 23 chromosomes from both parents in humans add up to 46 ● Chrome (color) ; some (body) Genes and alleles ● Some alleles are dominant while others are recessive and some are codominant ● 2 alleles for each trait are genotype ● Actual expression of those genes (alleles) are phenotype (appearance) Punnett Square t t T Tt Tt t tt tt Tall: T (Dominant) Short: t (Recessive) Tt (Codominant) Solution: 2 Talls and 2 Shorts Human Blood Type ● A dominant over O ● B dominant over O ● A & B codominant ● O is recessive Genotype and Phenotype ● Blood Types ○ Genotype: AA, AO, BB, BO, AB, OO ○ Phenotype: A, A, B, B, AB, O Mitosis ● Replication and cell division in Somatic Cells (body cells) ● A somatic cell begins with 46 chromosomes; DNA replicated and after cell division get back to 46; 1 division. Meiosis ● In cells, ovary and testes, precursor to egg and sperm ● Replication to 46 then to 92 ● First cell division; 2 divisions ● Fertilization; restores it back to 46 Mitochondrial DNA ● DNA in the mitochondria in cell cytoplasm, zygote, father’s sperm fertilizes the mother’s ovum. Ovum provides zygote with cytoplasm. Passed from mother to child. Mutations in mDNA occur at constant rate, so distance between generations can be calculated. Four major mechanisms of evolution ● Natural selection ● Mutation ● Random Genetic Drift ● Gene Flow Natural Selection ● Nature selects individuals most fit in a paenvironment ● They will have the greatest reproductive success. Mutations ● Mutations can occur in somatic (body) cells or in sex (sperm/egg) cells ● Only mutations in sex cells are passed onto offspring ● Mutations are important because they provide movariati . ● Mutations can be: harmful, neutral, beneficial ● Mutations can be caused by: temperature, xray, gamma and beta radiation, neutrons, UV radiation, chemical formulas ● A edundancy in the genetic code protects from mutation ● Error in gene replication. Random Genetic Drift (Founder’s Effect) ● Change in allele frequency from CHANGE rather than Natural Selection ● Random ● Decrease gene frequency or Can increase gene frequency ● Works better in smaller populations Old Order Amish ● Founded by 200 individuals ● 39 heritable traits ● No autism Hutterites ● 443 individuals founded ● More than 25 disorders ● high fertility (10.4 children/ family) Utah Mormons ● Founded by 2000 individuals ● Not isolate ● Thousands continue to join ● Genetically similar to European populations Gene Flow ● Direct interbreeding/ indirect interbreeding between populations without direct contact Gene Evolution ● Gene Pool: all of the alleles and genotypes within a breeding population ● Genetic Evolution: change in gene frequency in a breeding population from generation to generation.
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