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PSY 393 Personality Theories Midterm Reviews

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by: Allison Raymond

PSY 393 Personality Theories Midterm Reviews PSY 393

Marketplace > Syracuse University > Psychlogy > PSY 393 > PSY 393 Personality Theories Midterm Reviews
Allison Raymond
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About this Document

These outlines cover all of the emphasized lecture material for all four midterms.
Personality Theroies
L. Gellis
Psychology, personality, personality theory, PSY393
75 ?




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1 review
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"Yes YES!! Thank you for these. I'm such a bad notetaker :/ will definitely be looking forward to these"
Wendell Goldner

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This 21 page Bundle was uploaded by Allison Raymond on Thursday January 14, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PSY 393 at Syracuse University taught by L. Gellis in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see Personality Theroies in Psychlogy at Syracuse University.


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Yes YES!! Thank you for these. I'm such a bad notetaker :/ will definitely be looking forward to these

-Wendell Goldner


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Date Created: 01/14/16
PSY 393 EXAM ONE REVIEW  Compare and contrast the three types of research. Know what information is provided by  each type and the sorts of conclusions that can be drawn. o Correlational   Association with correlation coefficient r  Does not show which one CAUSES the other  Used to set up experiments, can show theory drive associations o Qualitative   Systematic bias free observations; interviews, etc  Idiographic info (for specific cases); gathered in natural environment  Can’t show relationships, and highly subjective analysis and interpretation o Experimental  Show manipulation of x (IV) causes a change in y (DV)  Can be impractical, unethical, or may not reflect natural behavior (external validity)  Know the definitions of personality from the perspective of the Author, first lecture, and  Allport. o Lecture: personality is characteristic patterns of cognition, affect, behavior, and  DNA patterns combined with the environment o Book: The underlying causes within the person of individual behavior and  experiences o Allport: “personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those  psych systems that determine his characteristic behavior and thought” o  Understand how heritability coefficients can be inflated.  Understand the lecture material on reliability and validity (e.g., can a test be valid and  unreliable?). o Empirical validity is replication o A measure CAN be reliable and invalid  o A measure CANNOT be valid but unreliable  Know the difference between trait and type (typology). o Types­ person fits into category, qualitative, (introverted v. extroverted, etc); a  person fits into only one o Traits­ continuous quantitative variables, numeric score to indicate how much of a trait the person possesses; a person can be described on every trait   Know the differences between continuity and discontinuity theories a la Allport. o Continuity theories  Focused on accumulation of skills, habits, and discriminations  Quantitative changes within a closed system o Discontinuity theories  Emphasize organismic transformation and qualitative changes (higher  organizational levels and the stages of development) 1  From the Lectures, study the behavioral correlates of neurotransmitters and hormones. o Neurotransmitters   Serotonin: linked to behavioral inhibition; low levels correlate with  chronic pessimism, irrational anger, and fear of risk taking  o Hormones  Testosterone: control and inhibition, aggressiveness and sexuality,  psychographic factors (education and socialization)  Cortisol: depression and decreased immunity  From the evolutionary psychology lecture, study mating preferences of females versus  males and differences in what each sex emphasizes in mate attraction. o Women look for older, successful men with money (take care of them and baby) o Men look for younger, healthy, and attractive women (best mothers)  Know, as presented in class, the three major components of the brain (reptilian,limbic  system), their associated structures, and their associated behaviors/emotions. o Reptilian brain  Fixed action patterns/instinct related to basic functions related to survival  (breathing, heart, desire to avoid harm)  Contains the brain stem, and cerebellum  o Limbic system  Cortical tissue and structers that evolved after lizard brain; provides  greater behavioral flexibility and learning ability  5 senses, emotional memory, and context  contains the hippocampus and linked to memory, perception of  subordination, and loss of control, thalamus and sensory perception and  motor production, the hypothalamus (fighting, feeding, fleeing,  fortification)   basis of emotion and motivation, appetite and fear, curiosity, learning, and memory o Neocortex  Unique to humans  Left Cerebral Hemisphere  Language and logic  Approach related behavior  Words, patterns, sequences, analysis  Right Cerebral Hemisphere  Holistic, image­oriented  Intuitive thinking  Withdrawal related behavior   Know Allport’s discussion of common, cardinal, central, and secondary traits. o Cardinal – everything goes back to it, rare, Hitler and power o Central – most people just have a few of these v. cardinal; 5­10 essential  characteristic tendencies o Secondary – stems from central; focused tendencies in certain contexts 2 o Common traits – within cultures (ex: America values independence and  individuality)  Understand, as presented in class, the concept of Empirical Validity o Replication – can your results be replicated by yourself or someone else  Review Galen’s four personality types, as presented in class. o Sanguine (blood)  Lively and upbeat, care free, leader o Phlegmatic (phlegm)  Slow­moving and controlled, passive, careful, calm o Melancholic (black bile)  Worry and sadness, quiet, sober, moody o Choleric  (yellow bile)  Excitable, anger, touchy, aggressive, optimistic, restless  Study the essential trait approach and have a rudimentary understanding of this  approach’s use of factor analysis. o Usually with factor analysis o Correlation matrix o Inductive, reduce many traits down to essential few  Review each of the BLIS data types, as discussed in class.  o Life outcomes data (L­Data)  Demographics and life events data, ex: where you grew up o Informant data (I­Data)  Target judged by others regarding attributes  Judgments relate to two contexts:  Immediate context and consistency of past behavior o Subject data (S­Data)  Self­reports provided by participant (enough insight? Motivated to share?  Honest?) o Behavior data (B­Data)  Natural: person doesn’t know being observed  Contrived: experiments  Contain personality instruments: MMPI and projective tests  Review Eysenck’s Hierarchical Model of Personality Development (figure presented in  class); that is, know how the specific response level, habitual response level, trait  response level, and type levels relate to each other. o Type level (extroversion or introversion) o Trait level (social, impulsive, activity, liveliess, excitability) o Habitual level (always loose keys, talks a lot) o Specific response (given context)  o We make poor predictions on people’s behavior when we don’t have enough  contextual evidence/observations  Study the Lecture on Temperament; know that Buss and Plomin are major researchers in  this field. 3 o Tempermants are “inherited personality traits that appear during the first 2 years  of life and endure as basic components of personality”  Wild fox example o Emotionality  High arousal (autonomic nervous system activation) characterized by  distress  Primordial distress differentiates into fear and anger during first year of  life o Activity  Amount of energy expended in body movements o Sociability  Preference for being with others o Impulsivity  A coarse variable lined to short reaction time to social pressure, emotional  driven­ness, lack of forethought  Know the difference between nomothetic and idiographic research. o Idiographic is situational and specific cases o Nomothetic is generalized research  Study both book and class discussion of Eysenck’s conceptions of  introversion/extraversion and neuroticism/emotional stability. Also review the  psychoticism dimension. Know how Eysenck’s theoretical development of personality  differs from the Big Five researchers. o Traits are derived from 3 underlying bio systems  Extroversion – outgoingness and assertiveness  Neuroticism – instability and apprehensiveness  Psychoticism – tendency toward psychopathology o Multiple traits and personality things underneath these three  Review, as presented in class, the combined models of Eysenck and Gray.   IN NOTES BOOK MATERIAL  Imitation and mirror neurons, evolutionary theory of altruism, brain development, and  discussion of Cloninger’s theory. o Imitation and mirror neurons  Mirror/Imitation: fires when animal acts and when it observes someone  else doing the action o Evolutionary theory of altruism  Social behaviors were often genetically programmed into species to help  them survive, he said, with altruism—self­destructive behavior performed  for the benefit of others—bred into their bones. o Cloninger’s theory  Persistence: determination and tenacity to reach a goal  Harm avoidance: optimistic, outgoing, trusting v. cautious tense, shy 4  Novelty seeking: excitement in potential reward or escape from  punishment  Reward dependence: responds to stimuli that suggest a reward is  forthcoming, particularly verbal indications of social approval or  sympathy 5 PSY 393 EXAM TWO REVIEW  Review and know difference between Freud’s concepts of resistance and catharsis.  Study the three structures of the mind and their related principles, as well as the concepts  of transference, cathexis (how does this differ from Jung’s concept of value), and fixation.  How does Freud’s concept of libido differ from Jung’s concept? o Catharsis  Realization of self o Resistance  Oppose changing their behavior or refuse to discuss, remember, or think  about presumably clinically relevant experiences o Structures of the mind  Id  Beat within, primitive unconscious urges, pleasure principle  Superego   Morality principle, represents internalization of parental  standards, develops around age 5  Inhibit id’s urges, persuade ego to act morally, motivate us to  strive for perfection (ego ideal)  Ego  Balances superego and id, reality principle, logic and rationality = conscious portion, serves the id o Cathexis  Charging mental representations, filling image or thought with libido o Fixation   Libido used to fuel defense mechanisms (more conflict, more fixation, less libido for coping with daily life), can lead to regression o Libido  Freud – all sex and aggression, Jung – libido not = to sexual energy  Review Carl Jung’s research and therapy contributions, as well as his approach to  analysis of dreams. o Balanced human being o Principle of opposites – conflict between parts of mind/complexes leads to tension which creates libido/ energy o Principle of Equivalence – can’t be whole perfect human – focus on one area at a  time (college example, now focusing on education) o Complex  Ex: mother complex includes warmth, love, nurturing, and security  Group of emotionally charged thoughts that are related to a particular  theme (word association test)  “EGO Complex” – conscious conceptualization of who you are o Levels of Informational Storage  Consciousness 1  Personal unconscious  Unique, personal experiences that are forgotten, repressed, or of  insufficient value, begins to form at birth  Collective unconscious  All share, latent memories, nervous system, pre­dispositions to act, archetypes (universal emotional symbols), present at birth  Archetypes = modes of perception  Instincts = modes of action and reaction o Dreams Freud Jung Function Protect sleep Compensatory function or attempts to: Wish fulfillment Solve problems Advance healthy personal  development Sexual and  Information about… Symbolic Meaning aggressive urges Problem solving Balancing and integrating the  personality o Theory of Psychological Types: Functions  Irrational functions  Deal with acquisition of info (irrational = information not obtained by judging)  Sensation – conscious ascertainment whether something is present  Intuition – inexplicable knowing not traceable to any other  Rational functions  Judgment of info gathered from internal and external worlds  Thinking – info from irrational functions judged by reasoning and  logic  Feeling – affective reaction of live v. dislike of info obtained from  irrational functions o Theory of Psychological Types: Attitudes  Extraversion – libido channeled into external world and its objects are  highly valued  Introversion – libido is channeled to internal world and internal events and stimuli are highly valued  Study Horney’s concepts of basic anxiety, real self, the idealized self­image, and the  three interpersonal styles (moving toward, moving against, moving away) in relation  mental health and neurotic styles (self­effacing, expansive, resignation). Is the idealized  self­image similar to Freud’s concept of ego­ideal? o Basic anxiety  Uncertainty/security – family shapes how child deals with  Fear of being destroyed by hostile forces o Real self 2  Who we actually are, the inner core of personality o Idealized self­image  One’s view of perfection, tyranny of the should o Three interpersonal styles  Moving toward  Striving to make others happy and gain love  Moving against  Striving for power and recognition  Moving away  Withdrawal of emotional investment o Neurotic styles  Self­effacing  Moving towards, if I can make you love me then you won’t hurt  me, morbid dependency ­> interpersonal conflict  Ideal – loving sacrifice, care, and suffering  I must always feel love and be loved  Expansive  Moving against, if I can defeat you, then you can’t hurt me,  ruthless dominance strivings  interpersonal conflict  Ideal – I’m the greatest  I must always dominate and be in charge  Resignation  Moving away, if I don’t need you then you can’t hurt me.  Independence and uniqueness strivings  social isolation  Ideal – total autonomy and uniqueness  I must always be totally self­sufficient  Know the difference between manifest and latent contents of dreams. o Manifest is the literal meaning of the dream and the events in the dream o Latent is after analysis, the true meaning of the dream and its significance  Study the concept of Freudian defense mechanisms from both book and lecture  material. o Either threat of losing control of id impulses or punishment from superego  Repression – unconscious blocking of animal urge  Suppression – consciously blocking an urge  Denial  Displacement – substituting another object for original object, shift  aggression or fears onto a safer target  Projection – undesirable attributes are attributed to the character and  actions of others, protects motives contrary to ego­ideal on to others  Rationalization – creating logical, socially acceptable explanations  Undoing – acts or rituals performed to remove guilt  Intellectualization – separate thoughts and emotion 3  Sublimation – an unacceptable urge is transformed and replaced by a  socially acceptable one   Study the Book’s presentation of Erikson’s stage theory of development, and how it is  similar and differs from Freud’s psychosexual stages. o Freud focused on id, Erikson focused on ego 1. Trust v. mistrust (hope) 0­1.5 2. Autonomy v. shame (will) 1.5­3 3. Initiative v. guilt (purpose) 3­5 4. Industry v. inferiority (competency) 5­12 5. Ego identity v. role confusion (fidelity) 12­18 6. Intimacy v. isolation (love) 18­40 7. Generativity v. stagnation (care) 40­65 8. Ego integrity v. despair (wisdom) 65+ o Unlike Freud, continues all through life (not just childhood)  Understand the factors related to the occurrence of Freudian regression. o Trauma = arrest of libido at stage of development (b/c spent on defense) o Trauma  fixation  similar crisis  regression o Regression can’t occur w/out fixation  As discussed in class, study Jung’s concept of levels of consciousness in relation to  personality structures, and review the main archetypes presented in book and class. o Levels of consciousness  Consciousness  Personal unconscious  Contains personal experiences that are forgotten, repressed, of  insufficient value  Both past and future material  Collective Unconscious  Latent memories pre­dispositions to act, archetypes  Present at birth, genetically passed down 4 o Main archetypes  Animus/anima  Masculine in women, feminine in men  Persona/shadow  Good likable person, dark sinister side of personality  Hero/demon  Mother  Self­exploration, interrogates the unconscious into daily lives  Review Adler’s position on mental health, striving for superiority, and the role of the  unconscious in causing behavior, and social interest. o Superiority striving  Striving to obtain power and superiority over one’s own inferiority  Perfection striving – meet fictional goals which reflect the individual’s  views of perfection  Inferiority complex – try to attack ppl who make them feel inferior,  motivated by low self esteem o Social interest  Healthy superiority strivings  Consequences of one’s actions are considered relative to the welfare of  others and the environment  Innate kinship with family, friends, humanity, develops potential o Unconscious   Focused on our conscious thinking, not the unconscious o Mental Health  Not having a social interest or a motive to strive for superiority  Lack of a “community feeling”, selfish, striving to perfect only self 5  Maladjustment = denial of social interest  “safe­guarding” operations, selfish strivings for dominance and personal  glory; pathological inferiority feelings cause an “inferiority complex”  What is the basic catchword for Jung’s concept of health? o Balanced   Review the pleasure principle and what causes pleasure in relation to homeostasis. o Avoid things that cause pain and try to maximize pleasure o Survival (passed down), avoid dangerous situations  Review Book’s discussion of the basis of Adler’s personality typology. o The Getting or Leaning  Sensitive ppl who developed a shell to protect them but must rely on  others to get through life’s difficulties, low energy, phobias, general  anxiety, amnesias, obsessions and compulsions o The Avoiding  Hate being defeated, don’t take risks, low social contact o The Ruling or Dominant  Strive for power and manipulate situations and people to get their way,  prone to anti­social behavior o The Socially Useful  Outgoing and very active, lots of social contact and strive to make changes for the good o Formed in childhood and are expressions of the style of life  Study Jung’s stages of psychotherapy. o Confession o Transference o Elucidation (provide insight) o Education  o Transformation or back to confession  Compare and contrast Freud, Jung, Adler, and Horney in terms of the basis of  neurosis. o Freud   Everything is sex, id ego and superego, oral, anal, latency and genital  stages, latent and manifest content of dreams, ego ideal o Jung  Balanced human being, principle of opposites, conflict between complexes leads to tension which creates energy, the Ego complex, conscious,  personal unconscious, collective unconscious, archetypes, instincts,  sensation v. intuition, thinking v. feeling o Adler  Social cognitive perspective, social issues, superiority striving and  perfection striving, social interest, we create our personality, develop a  way of living that reduces our experience of insecurity o Horney 6  Basic anxiety, real self, idealized self, moving against, away, and toward,  self­effacing, expansive, resignation   Review Freud’s stages of development and what personality traits result from psychic trauma (unresolved conflict). o Oral stage  Sexual tension reduced by sucking  Developmental problems relate to giving and taking from world o Anal stage  Conflict over retaining or expelling waste  Over = anal expulsive (sloppy and wasteful, defiant of authority)  Under = anal retentive (stingy, greedy, neat freak) o Phallic stage  Conflict desire for sexual relationship with opposite sex parent  Oedipus complex and Electra complex (penis envy)  Fixation – vanity, inability to love, reckless and arrogant behavior o Latency and Genital stage  Development of sublimation skills through schooling and bad  relationships (boys hang out with boys, girls with girls)  Genital period marked by inability to be vulnerable in relationships,  sublimate id impulses into productive, creative work 7 Allison Raymond  Review May’s Criticisms of Freud and Skinner and Rogers o Crit of Freud  Increased sexual freedom doesn’t reduce psychological suffering, decreases conversion hysteria but complaints of alienation, apathy, and lack of purpose increased o Crit of Skinner  Overemphasized the object  Assumed we are controlled by environment and devoid of free will o Crit of Rogers  Overemphasized subject  Assumed we are innately good and prone to rational decisions and thoughts  Not taking responsibility  Know the concepts of phenomenology, relational truth, angst, the human dilemma, threat to Dasein, and May’s, Rogers’, and Maslow’s perspectives on the good versus evil nature of humans. o Phenomenology  How you perceive the world and your own unique experiences o Relational truth  All truth relative to the individual perceiving o Angst  Results from knowledge and awareness  Threat of nonbeing, psychological destruction  Reaffirm existence, assert diasean, personal growth o The human dilemma  Only beings that are aware that we will die/stop existing  Personality derived from fact we know we are going to die o Threat to Dasein  Threat of nonbeing  ontological (meaning) anxiety o Perspectives on Good v. Evil  May  Existential evil – when essence precedes existence  Rogers  Assumes we are innately good, society is evil  Maslow  Both good and evil (if needs), everything in terms of self actualization  Know the characteristics of the Self-Actualized Person (Maslow) and Fully Functioning Person (Rogers). o Self-Actualized Person (Maslow)  Spiritually fulfilled, comfortable with selves, loving, ethical, creative, and productive, independence of cultural environment, sense of humor o Person oriented inventory  way of measuring self-actualization  Fewer than 1%, Roosevelt o Fully Functioning Person (Rogers)  Open to experience, existential living, trust feelings, creativity,  What motivates them from the inside, tune out societal messages, not listening to societal stereotypes  Know Rogers concepts of Actualizing tendency, Organismic Valuing Process, Congruence vs. incongruence in relation to Mental Health, selective attention, self-concept, and subceptive. o Actualizing tendency  Innate drive towards potential fulfillment and self actualization o Organismic valuing process  Innate ability (subconscious guide) to value positively, whatever we subceive as actualizing  Growth producing o Congruence v. incongruence  Mental health  State of congruence with self-concept and organismic valuing process  Self-actualization is congruent with actualization tendency  Expectations of self and reality of self (accepting differences between personalized definition of perfection and self)  Selective attention  Most of what your mind processes is unconscious  Self-concept  Conscious conceptualization of our self as a separate, and distinct entity  Subceptive  Evident in visceral, intuitive sensing or knowledge (processed outside of awareness)  Know Maslow’s concept of Self-Actualization and how it can differ from or be similar to Rogers’ concept of Self-Actualization Tendency, and the Hierarchy of Needs and how it relates to human behavior, cognition, and emotion. Know the difference between D-needs/motivation and B- needs/motivation. o Rogers Self-Actualization Tendency  Strivings to actualize the self-concept (concept of self) o Hierarchy of Needs  D-Needs, Deficiency Needs  Press for elimination of drive state, relate to self- preservation, fulfilled with external objects  B-Needs, Growth Needs  Independent of the environment and unique to the individual, drive increases (unselfish love, curiosity), relate to pleasurable and healthier functioning o Human behavior  Cognition  You’re going to steal if you can’t reach primitive need of food, etc  Review and understand ontological guilt and ontological anxiety (angst) in relation to the three interrelated aspects of Dasein (umwelt, mitwelt, and eigenwelt). o Dasein  Innate need to actively exist in world and develop a unique sense of self (stronger Daesin, healthier the personality)  Umwelt  Biological and physical environments  Throwness- factual conditions people are born into (culture, parents, temperament)  Freud = biology; Skinner = environment  Mitwelf  Need to form personal relationships for own sake  Meaningful existence cannot be achieved in isolation from other human beings  Horney and Adler  Eigenwelt  World of self-awareness, ability to know we are the center of our existence and are capable of fulfilling potentials  Evident when we personally evaluate our experience, experience feelings of emptiness and self- estrangement, and accurately judge what we do or do not desire o Ontological Anxiety (angst)  Confronts us with meaningful challenge related to assertion of Dasein (creative process involving risk/threat of loss)  Clash between being and nonbeing  Review Rogers’ concept of unconditional positive regard in relation to personal well-being (health vs. unhealthy self-concept) and how social and familial conditions of worth can hamper the actualization tendency. o Detach actions from personal worth – disapprove of actions but always love them o Always respect them o Specific to situations and behaviors o Needed in therapy  Unconditional positive regard  Congruence  empathetical understanding PSYCHOLOGY 393 EXAM IV REVIEW  What positions do Bandura, Dollard and Miller, and Skinner hold on the necessity of  cognition for effective reinforcement?  o Casual cognitions(B): mental events that can elicit, reinforce, or punish behavior o Bandura: assumes conscious learning (aware being conditions) o Dollard: must be aware of reinforcements to learn o Miller: learning can occur outside of awareness o Skinner: learning can occur outside of awareness  Know Skinner’s position of environmental control of operant behavior. o Extreme behavioralist – environmental control is the only factor o Conditioning=learned through stimuli association  Study how operant conditioning happens and the concepts of operant generalization,  operant extinction, discriminative stimuli (S ), operant punishment, and operant  reinforcement. o Operant conditioning ­ learned through environmental consequences  o Generalization – similar stimuli grouped together so also can elicit the CR o Extinction – non­delivery of consequence leads an eventual decreased likelihood  of the operant’s occurrence o Discriminative stimuli – threatening us with consequences (seeing police officer) o Punishment (wakening) – decrease frequency of responding; o Reinforcement (strengthening)­ increase frequency of responding  Positive – responses emitted to obtain more of the consequence  Negative – responses emitted to avoid delivery of the consequence o MOST SOCIAL CONTROLS ARE PUNISHMENT OR NEGATIVE  REINFORCEMENT  According to Bandura, what is the cause of psychopathology? o Related to a high degree of self­efficacy  Efficacy – effectiveness (outcome expectance)  Review Mischel’s views on traits and the  consistency of behavior across situations. In terms of his CAPS framework, should we attempt to predict consistency or attempt to predict the  patterns of variability across situations? o Consistency of behavior: ppl see selves as acting consistently across situations, but cross­situational correlations are low o CAPS framework: Cognitive Affective Personality Systems  Stimuli: features of the situation  Behavior  Behavior generation 1  Encoding process o Predict patterns of variability  According to Dollard and Miller, what is the “hall mark” of neurosis? Can labeling be  distorted, and what is the difference between an unconscious versus conscious cue­ producing response? o Hall mark of neurosis  Drive reduction is sacrificed for fear reduction  Drive remains unfulfilled and continues to press for fulfillment  At an unconscious level, these conflicts contribute to neurosis o Labeling of conflictual issues = insight; helps client face feared circumstances and extinguish the fear response o Cue­producing response – human behavior is a function of internal mental or  cognitive responses  Go over Mischel’s concepts related to Encodings, Expectancies and Beliefs, Affects,  Goals and Subjective Stimulus values, and Self­Regulatory Systems and how these  variables relate to “If >>>Then” relationships. o Encoding – categories (constructs) for the self, people, events, and situations   Personal constructs – yourself and others  Prototypes – typical ex of constructs o Expectancies and beliefs  The social world and world in general (stimulus outcome expectancies)  Outcomes for behavior in particular situations (behavior outcome exp)  Personal self­efficacy o Affects  Feelings, emotions, and affective responses (including physiological  reactions) o Goals and Subjective stimulus values  Desired outcomes and affective states  Aversive outcomes and affective states  Goals, values and life projects o Self­regulatory systems  If>> then relationships  Situation of being ignored occurs to Sally, then she becomes  irritated due to her need for approval  Situation of being ignored occurs to Joan, then she feels calm due  to her desire to be left alone  Review Mischel’s criticism of aggregation. o Trait solution to temporal instability  Aggregating scores (summing across situations) used to increase reliability of trait assessment  Drawbacks  Variance = source of error to be averaged across  Ignores variability and situational specificity 2  What is the key difference between Freudian theory and the theory of Dollard and Miller. o Frued  o Dollard/Miller  Thoroughly review Bandura’s work on modeling and vicarious learning, as well as his  concept of Reciprocal Determinism. o Modeling and vicarious learning  Imitate learning, effective for socializing people  Observational learning can occur regardless of the consequences delivered to the model o Reciprocal determinism – behavior, personal factors, and environmental events  viewed as interlocking regulators of each other   Go over Rotter’s concepts of Behavior Potential, Reinforcement Value, Locus of  Control, and Funder’s interpretation of Rotter’s behavior potential formula. o Rotter’s Behavior potential  Relates to hierarchy of likely responses given to a particular situation  “what you are likely to do depends on whether you think you can get  something, how badly you want it, under the circumstances” o Reinforcement value  Ex: two students in class – teacher asks “who can solve this problem?” à  one student jumps up, raising hand, etc; other student looking out window, the RV of teacher encouraging student is stronger for student 1 o Funder’s interpretation of behavioral potential formula  E’ à specific expectancy ­>  RV à reinforcement value ­>  BP à behavior potential   All a part of every situation/ predicting behavior   S will change all else  Go over books discussion of self­efficacy, optimism, locus of control and self­ regulation. o Self­efficacy  Situational   Outcome expectance, perceives themselves at being effective at executing  the behavior (ask me to walk, can do. Ask be to do a backflip… no) o Optimism o Locus of control  INTERNAL 3  Goal outcomes are largely influenced by one’s skills and abilitlies  (outcome expectancy)  EXTERNAL  Goal outcomes determined by powerful environmental controls  (yes, but….) o Self­regulation  Did Mischel use the term “cognitive person variables” to refer to concepts designed to  replace the trait related concepts? o Yes, made of five different social and cognitive learning person variables  Competencies: skills, problem solving  Encoding strategies and personal constructs: what you pay attention to  Expectancies  Subjective values: personal values, reinforces for behavior  Self­regulatory systems and plans: future goals are set and plans are made  Go over Dollard and Miller’s approach/approach competition, avoidance/avoidance  competition, and approach/avoidance conflict, and, in terms of the latter conflict, at  what point is the person most likely to experience anxiety and ambivalence? o Approach/approach competition  Picking between two good things o Avoidance/avoidance competition  Picking between two bad things o Approach/avoidance conflict  Picking between avoiding bad and getting good  Review Dollard and Miller’s four steps of the learning process. o Drive: wanting o Cue: noticing o Response: doing o Reinforcement: getting  Is the Freudian concept of insight, according to Dollard and Miller, related to labeling? o Yes, insight referred to bringing unconscious mind to conscious, labeling leads to  understanding and interpreting the outside world effectively  According to Mischel, are tendencies triggered by specific situations? In other words, are  trait tendencies independent of the situation? o Traits are determined by situations (different traits in different situations)  In terms of psychotherapy, what would Bandura try to modify? Likewise, what are the  therapeutic objectives of Dollard and Miller? o Bandura and Psychotherapy  Increase self­efficacy  Reduce defensive, avoidant behaviors  Uses coping behaviors through modeling and exposure therapy o Dollard and Miller therapeutic objectives  Development of higher mental process 4  Go over Dollard and Miller’s discussion of defense mechanisms, primary versus  secondary drive reduction, and transference. o Defense mechanisms  Suppression – unconscious thought stopping  Repression – conscious decision to stop thinking about it  Displacement – stimulus generalization induced by absence or fear of  particular stimulus o Primary drive reduction  Fundamental innate motivator  Hunger, thirst, sex, pain   Innate – can be satisfied but never extinguished o Secondary drive reduction  Learned by association with satisfaction of primary drives   Can be extinguished  Anger, guilt, sexual preferences, need for power and money o Transference  BOOK QUESTIONS  Review Tiger Woods Biography  Skinner: Primary versus Secondary Reinforcement, Positive versus Negative  Reinforcement, punishment, extinction, conceptual foundations of operant conditioning  Mischel: the effect of situation on trait expression, role of competencies and expetancies  Bandura: views of expectancies such as self­efficacy, research on modeling and  implications for aggression, and review concept of self­regulation and the relationships  among behavior, environmental, person factors. 5


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