PSY 205 Study Guides
PSY 205 Study Guides PSY 205 - M024
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This 19 page Bundle was uploaded by Allison Raymond on Thursday January 14, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PSY 205 - M024 at Syracuse University taught by Dr. Tibor Palfai in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 417 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Human Behavior in Psychlogy at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 01/14/16
PSY Exam 1 Review CHAPTER ONE Structuralism (Titchner) o British, followed Wundt to Germany, founded school of structuralism (mental chemistry, consists of the mind, thoughts, and sensations) Functionalism (James) o American, goal of psych is the learn the function of the mind, deals with hypnosis, learning, development, etc Behaviorism (Watson) o The study of observable behavior only, reflexes, (the mind isn’t an organ and so you can’t accurately measure it) Introspection (Wundt) o First psychologist (coined name), goal of psych is to figure out how the mind works, introspection is one technique of this Pavlov o Classical conditioning with dogs (bell and food = salvation, eventually just bell = salvation), learning Thorndike o Puzzle box with cats and law of effect (reward system) Differences between Clinical Psychologist and a Psychiatrist o CP: grad school PhD, behavioral o P: med school MD, pharmaceutical interventions (drugs) Goals of PSY o Define, explain, predict, and control a behavior CHAPTER TWO Experimental design o Case studies In depth study of one person (ex: brain injuries, not going to purposely experiment with a human’s brain but if someone’s is already damaged, then can study it and apply to rest) o Surveys High bias, but large sample size Independent v. dependent variables o Independent variables are the ones you manipulate in an experiment o Dependent variables are the outcomes/what you measure Theory v. hypothesis o Hypothesis is a tentative estimate of what will happen in one case o Theory is tested many times, lots of evidence, conclusions from all the evidence put together into one theory about the subject Operational definition o An operational definition describes exactly what the variables are and how they are measured within the context of your study Correlation coefficient o How the variables relate to each other if at all o A negative correlation means as one increases, the other decreases o A positive correlation means as one increases, so does the other CHAPTER THREE Neuron anatomy (hand analogy) o Arm = myelin sheath, hand = soma, fingers = dendrites o Three types: sensory, motor, interneurons o Resting potential More negatively charged ions inside o Action potential Neuron becomes more positively charged and fires o Presynaptic neuron Sends the signal o Synaptic vesicles Hold the neurotransmitters o Postsynaptic neuron Receives the signal (receptor sites) Neurotransmitters o Dopamine Voluntary movement and pleasurable emotion o Noradrenaline Modulates mood and arousal o Acetylcholine Activates motor neurons, regulates attention, arousal, and memory o GABA Inhibitory transmitter, regulates anxiety and sleep/arousal PNS v. Central Nervous System o CNS = brain and spinal cord o PNS = everything else/body Somatic: hand and hot plate Autonomic: digestive Sympathetic: fight or flight Parasympathetic: resting Brain lobes o Frontal Movement, executive functions, speaking, judging, personality o Temporal Hearing, visual processing, memory o Parietal Sensations (touch) o Occipital Vision Major parts of the brain o Hypothalamus Basic biological drives (hunger, thirst, sex drive, body temp) o Thalamus Sensory relay station (seeing, feeling, touch, taste, etc) o Limbic system Emotion and memory o Cerebral cortex thin layer of interconnected neurons o Reticular formation Reflexes, breathing, pain perception, sleep and arousal (dopamine) Descartes v. De La Mettrie o Descartes “I think, therefore I am”, hydromechanics, mind and soul are separate from each other (and connect at the pineal gland) o Mettrie brain is the soul, enlightened machine Luigi Galvani v. Otto Loewi o Galvani thought our brain and body are powered by electricity o Loewi says movement takes time so it must be chemicals Broca v. Wernicke o Broca- production of speech o Wernicke – understanding language CHAPTER FOUR Structures of the eye o Optic nerve Sends signals to the brain o Iris Constricts and dilates based on amount of light o Pupil Regulates the amount of light o Lens Focuses light rays on the retina o Retina Absorbs light o Optic chasm Where the crossing over happens Cells in the retina o Rods v. Cones Rods: low light vision (details) Cones: daylight vision (color) o Ganglion v. Bipolar Ganglion form the optic nerve Bipolar connect receptor cells to ganglion How light goes from the eye to the brain o Light hits the retina (neural energy/receptor cells) o Signal travels down the optic nerve o Signal passes through thalamus in the LGN o Sends signal to cerebral cortex where it is interpreted Binocular cues v. monocular cues o Binocular: depth and distance, convergence (cross-eye) o Monocular: closer images move faster (trees v. lines on highway) Blakemore and Cooper o Cat experiment Gestalt principles of organization o Figure-ground segregation, symmetry, similarity, proximity, closure, smoothness, parallel lines, etc Balloon video Hubel and Wiesel o One neuron per shape, all actively fire together to create whole image CHAPTER FIVE Sleep stages o Aroused, relaxed wakefulness, light sleep, deep sleep, REM Types of EEG waves o Beta, alpha (higher amp, still same frequency), theta (lower frequency), delta (highest amp, lowest frequency) REM Drug chart o Stimulants Increase CNS activity Amphetamine = benzedrine o Sedatives Sleep-inducing Barbiturate = nembutal o Narcotics/opiates Pain relieving Morphine o Anxiolytics Chlorpromazine = thorazine o Hallucinogens Distort sensory and perceptual experience LSD Circadian Rhythms o Release of cortisol (stress hormone) 24-hour cycle, the pineal gland and melatonin Cocaine o Blocks dopamine transporters so access dopamine stays in the synaps MAKE NOTECARDS OR DIAGRAMS OR CHARTS FOR THESE TERMS PSY 205 EXAM 2 REVIEW Chapter 6 – Learning Classical conditioning – Pavlov dog salivating and food experiment o UCS/CS – food/bell o UCR/CR – salvation at food/salvation at bell o Stimulus generalization and discrimination – gen=new stimuli that are similar to CS are also affected (little Albert); dis=the response if the stimulus is too specific (dog circle v. ellipse) o Extinction – when the CS and UCS are no longer paired, response to CS is limited Operant conditioning (Skinner)– learning by rewards o Reinforcement schedules Variable/fixed ratio - number of trials, VR=slot machines Variable/fixed interval – time o Extinction - not getting a reward anymore so don’t do the CR Scalloping effect – the person being taught anticipates when the reward is coming so they do the desired action right before the reward Observational learning – we learn by watching others Suzy – paid to stop coughing Lisa – hands and knees for attention Latent learning (Tolman) – rats and cognitive maps Chapter 7 – Memory Types of memory o Sensory (iconic) – split second o Short-term – 7 +/- 2 o Long-term Memory systems o Procedural and declarative – procedural= how to; declarative=facts Episodic and sematic- episodic=events, sematic=facts Recall v. recognition – recognition= from an array of options (exam mult choice); recall= memory test that requires a person to reproduce info without any clues (quiz questions) Encoding – forming a memory code o Storage – maintaining encoded information in memory over time o Retrieval – recovering info from memory stores Interference (retroactive v. proactive) – retro= what you learned before interferes with new learning; pro= what you learned after interferes with what you learned before Amnesia (anterograde v. retrograde) “Tip-of-the-tongue” phenomenon – failure of retrieval Savings – OL-NL/OL *100= %saved Plato – wax model Sherlock – attic model Chapter 13 – Social Psychology Internal/external attributions – internal= personality trait (that person cut me off because he’s an asshole); external= situation (I cut that person off because I had to get in the exit lane Robert Ciadini Persuasion o Weapons of Influence Reciprocity – someone gives something free, you owe them Commitment – want to stay consistent Social proof – other ppl do it, must be good/cool/etc Authority – someone with power told you to Liking – more likely to say yes to ppl we have things in common with (even if just a small irrelevant detail) Scarcity – not many left, best deal, more valuable o BIRGing v. CORFing – basking in reflected glory (mother taking child’s success as own); cutting off reflected failure Key factors in attraction o Matching, similarity – matching is 10 dates 10 and 4 dates 4, not 10 dates 4; similarity means personality wise Social schema – this different types of cliques, making categories Stereotypes/prejudice – stereotypes= widely held beliefs that individuals have certain characteristics because they belong to a certain group; prejudice= holding negative stereotypes about group members Bystander effect – diffusion of responsibility, everyone thinks someone else will do it/ help (more likely to get help not during rush hour) Conformity (Soloman Asch) – yielding to real or imagined social pressure (line experiment) Obedience (Milgram) – shock experiment, complying to commands given Dissonance Theory (Festinger) – brought up believing smoking is bad, cave to peer pressure and smoke, then change their attitude to match the behavior; inconsistencies among attitudes make ppl towards attitude change Sociobiologists o E.O. Wilson o Richard Dawkings o Desmond Morris Chapter 11 – Development Early motor development Prenatal development o Germinal (first 2 weeks) – formation of placenta o Embryonic (2 week- 2 months) – formation of vital organs and systems o Fetal (2 months-birth) – bodily growth, sex organs, brain cells rapidly multiply Attachment Theory (Bowlby, Harlow) – monkeys preferred the soft mother for contact comfort over the mother with food Ainsworth’s Strange Situation – mom and child, enter stranger, leave mom, return mom (interested in child’s behavior upon mom’s return) o Secure – quickly comforted upon return o Anxious-ambivalent – not comforted upon return o Avoidant – don’t seek contact with mom, not distressed when she or he leaves the room o Disorganized-disoriented – confused about whether to approach or avoid caregiver, highly insecure, usually result of abuse Plaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development o Assimilation/accommodation - assim= fit into existing schema; acomm= creating a new schema o Sensorimotor – birth-2yrs, differentiates self from objects, object permanence o Preoperational – 2-7yrs, language to represent objects, irreversibility (counting backwards, etc), egocentrism (what child sees, everyone else sees too) o Concrete operational – 7-11yrs, can think logically, conservation o Formal operational – 11-adulthood, abstract and hypothetical, the future and ideological problems Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development o Pre-conventional level Right/wrong determined by what is punished Right/wrong determined by what is rewarded o Conventional level Good boy/good girl Determined by laws o Post-conventional level Social contract Individual principles and conscience John Locke – babies are born with a blank slate and learn everything as they grow older John Bowlby – monkey attachment (contact comfort needed to grow up normally and be able to have normal social interactions with others) Acquatic Ape (Morgan) – because we have fat, no hair, and can automatically hold our breath, she theorizes we evolved from water animals Visual Cliff (Gibson) – visual cliff, differentiation hypothesis (things that are new or don’t make sense are more interesting) Chi experiment – chess, being and expert (knowledge v. age) QUIZ QUESTIONS 1. Describe Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development. 2. List four of Ceildini’s Weapons of Influence and give examples of each. 3. Identify and describe the contributions of three psychologists presented in class. 4. Name and describe the two independent memory systems and any subsystems that exist in each. 5. Define and give two examples of BIRGins and CORFing. PSY EXAM 3 OUTLINE CHAPTER 12 – PERSONALITY Sheldon’s Somatotype Theory o Ectomorphic (fat) – jolly, funny o Mesomorphic (muscular) – aggressive, violent o Endomorphic (thin) – frail, fragile, afraid, anxious Methods for Studying Personality o Objective Tests MMPI (like the online ones, lots of questions, measurable results) o Projective Tests TAT (make a story based on picture) Draw-a-person Rorschach (ink blot test) Sentence completion Hippocrates Personality Types o Sanguine (optimistic leader-like) – blood o Choleric (bad-tempered or irritable) – yellow bile o Melancholic (analytical and quiet) – black bile o Phlegmatic (relaxed and peaceful) – phlegm Sigmund Freud o Structures of personality Id (sexual desire), ego (balance), superego (morality) o Levels of awareness Conscious (tip), preconscious (can remember if provoked), unconscious (dreams, bulk of iceberg) o Defense Mechanisms Repression – ego tries to keep disturbing thoughts from becoming conscious Denial – blocking external events from awareness Projection – individuals attributing their own unacceptable thoughts or feelings onto another person Displacement – satisfying an impulse with a substitute object Regression – movement back in psychological stage when one is faced with stress Sublimation – satisfying an impulse with a substitute object BUT in a socially acceptable way o Psychosexual Stages Oral – mouth is pleasurable part of body Anal – bladder control/toilet training Phallic – shift from anal to genital, odious complex Latency – parental value system (superego develops) Genital – must have a strong ego (if superego dominates, can’t have a relationship; if id dominates, then will be abusive) o Freud’s Dream Birds carrying bed, feared mother was dead Jealous wish for father’s death and erotic desire for mother CHAPTER 14 – EMOTION, STRESS, AND HEALTH Health consequences of stress o Impared task performance o Insomnia, sexual difficulties alcohol abuse, drug abuse, depression, schizophrenia, PTSD, and anxiety o High blood pressure, heart disease, obesity and diabetes Things that contribute to stress o GSR= Galvanic skin response, measures stress o Noise, sudden or dramatic changes, pressure Types of conflict o Avoidance-approach One event has both positives and negatives o Avoidance-avoidance Picking between two negative things o Approach-approach Picking between two positive things o Double approach-avoidance Picking between two things, each has +/- Theories of emotion (lecture) o James-Lange Theory Emotions and physical reactions occur simultaneously o Cannon-Bard Theory Physical reactions come first and then emotions respond o Schacter’s Two Factor theory Experience comes first, and then the individual thinks and tries to find what is causing that feeling, answers with emotion CHAPTER 15 – PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS Clinical Disorders o Generalized anxiety disorder o OCD o Conversion disorder o Panic Disorder o DID o Schizophrenia o Depression o Manic Depression/ Bipolar Disorder o Dysthymia / Cyclothymia More mild cases of depression/manic disorder Thomas Szasz o Mental illnesses aren’t a thing (they’re a myth), for suicide Schizophrenia o Simple – process o Disorganized – reactive o Catatonic – waxy flexibility, can stand still for long periods of time o Paranoid – hallucinations, irrational fears of persecution o Negative Symptoms (taken away) Reduced affect (won’t respond emotionally) Waxy flexibility o Positive Symptoms (added) Hallucinations Delusions Disorganized, agitated speech Learned Helplessness o Feeling that you have no control over what is happening to you CHAPTER 16 – TREATMENT OF DISORDERS Main Treatment Approaches o Client-centered/humanistic therapy (Carl Rogers) Makes you feel good after therapy is done Relationships Patient talks about whatever they want to; therapist just there to support their client, client solves their own problems o Psychoanalysis (Freud) Dynamic Therapy (Hans Strupp) To help with traumatic events Free association – person asked to respond to words with first thing that comes to mind; person lays down and is asked to talk about first thing that comes to mind Transference – person transfers their feelings toward someone else onto the therapist Catharsis – emotional outbursts o Cognitive/RET therapy (Albert Ellis) Reconfigure ways of thinking about problems, give a different perspective on situations Action -> belief -> cognitive response o Behavioral therapy Assumes your behavior is being reinforced Behavioral modification (classical conditioning) Systematic Desensitization o Biomedical therapy Assumes you are ill ECT (electroconvulsive treatment) is most successful in treating depression (more than anything else) Brain surgery (frontal lobotomy/illegal) Drugs Main Drug Categories o Antianxiety Diazepam (Valium, Xanax) – GABA receptors o Antipsychotic Chloropromazine and Haloperidol (Thorazine, Haldol) - dopamine o Antidepressant Triclylics: imipramine (Tofranil) – dopamine, adrenaline, serotonin MAOIs: paragyline (Eutonil) – serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRIs: Flouxetine (Prozac) – blocks reuptake of serotonin o Mood Stabilizers Lithium PSY REVIEW SESSION EXAM 3 Go through his slides and understand all of it (lots of lecture questions) Stress and health stuff in lecture (ch 10 emotional, but not in chapter) Chapter 12 – Personality (mostly Freud) This is an example of an OBJECTIVE personality test, while this is an example of a PROJECTIVE personality test o MMPI; Rorschach Freud described these behavioral tendencies as unconscious reactions that protect us from feelings of anxiety and guilt o Defense mechanisms (know all different ones) Freud often conceptualized the structure of personality as an iceburg… bulk is _____ and tip is _____ o Unconscious; conscious o Three bubbles of consciousness (conscious, pre-conscious, unconscious) Freud fixation at this psychosexual stage could contribute to developing a very disciplined personality o Anal o Know oral stage (develop habits with mouth ex: smoking, biting nails) o Know latency (final) – ego and superego develop Which of the following harnesses the majority of sexual urges, accourding to Freud o Id (as opposed to superego (moral) or ego (which is balance) KEY CONCEPTS o Sheldon’s somatotype theory Ectomorphic (fat) – happy, jolly Mesomorphic (muscular) - aggressive Endomorphic (thin) – fail, afraid o Methods for studying personality Objective v. projective Mmpi Tat Draw-a-person Rorschach KEY TERMS AND NAMES o Hippocrates personality types Sanguine, choleric, melancholic, phlegmatic o Sigmund Freud Structures of personality (3) Id, ego, superego Levels of awareness (3) Conscious, preconscious, unconscious Defense mechanisms Psychosexual stages (5) Pral, anal, phallic, latency, genital Freud’s dream (lecture) M: dad is dead, mom is in bed; L: odepous complex Chapter 14 – Emotion, Stress and Health (not a lot of questions, mostly from lecture) You get an offer fro a summer internship… all offers you experience you want but requires you to be away from friends for some months o Approach-avoidance (know all types) **The saying “caught between a rock and a hard place” is best explained by this type of conflict o Avoidance – avoidance Jane encounters a negative situation. At the same time her heart starts racing, she experiences a sense of fear and panic. The fact that these occurred simultaneously is best explained by the o **Cannon-Bard theory (other is *James-lange theory – experience physical first and then emotions after) Jane notices heart starts racing while she is thinking about the fact she forgot to do her hw… she determined she was anxious o **Schacter two factor model – experience comes first and then looks around/thinks what is causing that feeling KEY CONCEPTS o Health consequence of stress o Things that contribute to stress (noise, changes) o GSR = galvanic skin response o Types of conflict Approach-approach Avoidance-approach Avoidance-avoidance Double approach-avoidance o Theories of emotion (lecture) James-Lange Theory Cannon-Bard Theory Schacter’s Two Factor theory Chapter 15 – Psychological Disorders (LOTS OF QUESTIONS) Phobias, panic disorder, ocd, ptsd are all diagnosed within this category of clinical syndromes according to the DSM-V o Anxiety disorders (mood disorders, dissociative disorders, schizophrenic disorders) This disorder is often characterized by delusional beliefs, visual or auditory hallucinations, and a lack of self-care behaviours (cleanliness) o Schizophrenia (lots of symptoms, roommate stops showering) This sub-type of schizophrenia is often characterized by delisions of grandeur and irrational fears of persecution o Paranoid (catatonic=wax-like figure) Which neurotransmitter is most implicated in schizophrenia? o Dopamine (too much=schizophrenia, too little= depression, serotonin, GABA=anxiety, acetylcholine, adrenaline) Sonia has been suffering from panic disorder for months, Before she even enters treatment her symptoms subside and she is panic free suddenly. This is an example of: o Spontaneous remission (think cancer remission) KEY CONCEPTS o Clinical disorders Generalized anxiety disorder Ocd Conversion disorder DID/ multiple personality disorder Schizophrenia Depression Bipolar disorder Dysthymia/cyclothymia More mild cases of depression/manic disorder KEY TERMS AND NAMES o Thomas Szasz (mental illnesses aren’t a thing – can’t treat it because it doesn’t exist, it’s a myth, for suicide) o Schizophrenia Four sub-types o Learned helplessness Feeling that you have no control over what is happening to you Martin Seligman Chapter 16 – Treatment of Disorders (KNOW DRUGS) At the start of each session, a therapist asks Michael to make himself comfortable, to close his eyes, and to simply talk about anything that comes to mind o Free association (transference-patient mad at mom, transfers anger to the therapist) This common behavioral therapy technique can help patients overcome phobias by generally bringing them into closer contact with the feared stimulus o Systematic desensitization (aversion therapy – opposite of classical condition; ex- alcoholic, if spike alcohol with something that makes them sick, so then whenever they drink alcohol, they feel sick) Prozac, Paxil, and Zoloft – some of the most well-known treatments for depression – all belong to this newer class of antidepressant drugs o SSRIs (serotonin reuptake inhibitors) p. 667 These two fast-acting benzodiazepine drugs are commonly prescribed to patients suffering from chronic anxiety problems o Valium and Xanax (thorazine and haldol - to treat szichophrenia) This type of psychotherapy (talk therapy) is marked by the therapist showing the patient unconditional positive regard and empathy o Client-centered therapy (role of therapist is just to be there, let the client talk and work it out on their own) This type of mediacation is often presctibed to regulate mood swings (mania) o Lithium (stabilizes your mood) KEY CONCEPTS o Main treatment approaches Client-centered/humanistic therapy Psychoanalysis Cognitive therapy Behavioral therapy Biomedical therapy o Main drug categories Antianxiety Antipsychotic Antidepressant Tricylics, MAOIs SSRIs Mood stabilizers KEY TERMS AND NAMES o Psychoanalysis Free association, transference, resistance o Systematic desensitization o Ect (electroconvulsive treatment) is most effective treatment for depression o Carl Rogers – founded client-centered therapy o Albert Ellis – RET therapy; cognitive therapy – change mindset (irrational beliefs) ABCs
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