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BISC 132 exam 2

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by: Carlie Notetaker

BISC 132 exam 2 BISC 132

Carlie Notetaker
LA Tech

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notes and quizzes
BISC 132 Exam 2
Dr. Kemege
75 ?




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1 review
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"I'm pretty sure these materials are like the Rosetta Stone of note taking. Thanks Carlie!!!"
Odell Kirlin

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This 9 page Bundle was uploaded by Carlie Notetaker on Friday January 15, 2016. The Bundle belongs to BISC 132 at Louisiana Tech University taught by Dr. Kemege in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 111 views. For similar materials see BISC 132 Exam 2 in Biology at Louisiana Tech University.


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I'm pretty sure these materials are like the Rosetta Stone of note taking. Thanks Carlie!!!

-Odell Kirlin


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Date Created: 01/15/16
Chapters 30­32, 36, 38­41 Chapter 32 Fungi 1. Fungus Traits • unicellular or multicellular • hyphae — single or branded tubes with multiple nuclei and a connected cytoplasm • incomplete division of cytoplasm by cross walls called septa • considered one cell • cytoplasm and contents flow freely, allows for fast growth • mycelium — mass of hyphae • grow on/through substrate • multiple hyphae increase surface area for nutrient uptake • secrete digestive enzymes • cell walls of chitin • cells can have multiple nuclei • Dikaryotic — two nuclei • Monokaryotic — one nucleus • mitosis does not directly lead to cytokinesis  • sexual or asexual reproduction • produce spores • dispersed by wind • very small, so suspended in the air for a long time • heterotrophs • some fungi are carnivores, hunt small invertebrates • most are detritivores • break down dead organic matter • very thorough—can break down cellulose 2. Microsporidia • unicellular, obligate intracellular parasite • only grow/replicate inside of a host cell • completely take it over • smallest Eukaryotic genome 3. Blastocladiomycota • Haplodiplontic life cycle • have both multicellular haploid (1N) and multicellular diploid (2N) stages of life 4. Basidiomycota • unique reproductive structure called a basidium • fungus produces haploid, monokaryotic mating spores that form primary mycelium • fuse to form secondary mycelium, which is dikaryotic (2 nuclei—N+N—not diploid) • karyogamy — fusing of 2 haploid nuclei into one diploid nucleus • N+N —> 2N Fungi play a key role in their ecosystems—decompose dead organic matter Many fungi participate in symbiotic relations • close, long­term relationships between 2 species • parasitic, mutualism and commensalism • obligate symbiosis—required for survival • facilitative symbiosis—not required for survival 1 Chapters 30­32, 36, 38­41 • ex. Lichens  • obligate mutualism • between fungus and a photosynthetic partner • bacteria or plant • fungus protects partner • partner gives nutrients (photosynthesis products) to fungi • can be found in harsh arctic conditions • ex. Myorrhizae • facilitative, mutualistic  • between fungus and plant roots • very common • fungus aids in absorption of mineral nutrients from soil • plant provides sugar to fungus • fungus may grow around or through plant cells • ex. Fungi and Leaf Cutter Ants • obligate, mutualistic • ants cut and carry leaves to colony to feed to a fungus • then eat fungus • domesticated fungus gardening 5. Human Fungal Pathogens • candida albicans • commensal, on skin • can cause yeast infections • oral thrush • associated with lowered immune function • ex. AIDS 6. Plant Fungal Pathogens • can damage food crops • “rusts” and “smuts” are most common Chapter 30­31 Plant Diversity 1 Plant Traits • plants have chlorophyll A and B • different from bacterial chlorophyll • have unique chloroplast structures • different from protist • have cellulose cell wall • all are photosynthetic  • autotrophs Green Plants = Plants = Kingdom Plantae Humans have a diplontic life cycle • only diploid stage is multicellular Virtually all plants have haplodiplontic life cycle  • multicellular haploid and diploid • sporophytes — multicellular diploid 2 Chapters 30­32, 36, 38­41 • gametophytes — multicellular haploid • either sporophyte or gametophyte may be prominent form of that plant 7. Haploidiplotonic Life Cycle • sporophyte (2N) produces haploid spores (unicellular) by meiosis • spores divide by mitosis to form gametophyte (1N) • Gametophyte (1N) produces eggs/sperm by mitosis • egg + sperm fuse to form zygote (2N) • zygote divides to form sporophyte (2N) 8. Green Algae • includes chlorophytes and charophytes • aquatic plants • multicellular, some have unicellular forms in life cycle • ex. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii  • swim using 2 flagella • sexual or asexual reproduction  • not haplodiplontic 9. Land Plants • plants that live on land • includes all further groups 10. Bryophytes • prominent gametophyte (1N) • photosynthetic body • lack tracheids (cells that transport water/nutrients) • Liverworts • flattened gametophyte structures—not leaves • liver shaped • Mosses • leaf­like structures • not leaves • have simple water­conducting tissue • Hornwarts • sporophyte and gametophyte are both photosynthetic 11. Tracheophytes • have specialized vascular tissue • transports water, nutrients • allows for larger plants • stems, roots, leaves • includes all further groups 12. Lycophytes • sporophyte (2N) is prominent • includes club mosses • grow on forest floors 13. Pterophytes aka ferns • life cycle: • sporophyte and gametophyte are both photosynthetic—can live independently • distinct male and female structures on gametophyte—produce sperm or eggs,  respectively 3 Chapters 30­32, 36, 38­41 • sperm have flagella  • require water for fertilization  14. Seed Plants • have seeds • embryos (sporophyte—2N) after fertilization • delay growth until conditions are good • protect embryo • provide food • include all further groups • distinct multicellular male and female gametophytes • male gametophyte : pollen • travel by wind • do not require water for fertilization • female gametophyte • does not travel 15. Gymnosperms • naked seeds • no flowers or fruit • ovule (houses female gametophyte) is exposed  • rely completely on wind for fertilization  • Conifers • thick cuticle around leaves • reduce water loss • Ginkgophytes • Ginkgo biloba — only living member • Dioecious — distinct male and female sporophytes exist—produce only male or  female gametophytes • female trees more rare—foul odor • living fossils • resilient • Angiosperms • seed plants • also have flowers and fruit • flower • protects ovule and female gametophyte  • houses anthers ­ contain pollen • can use wind to pollinate but flower attracts pollinating animals • fruit • surrounds seed • also nurtures growing plant • can aid in dispersal Chapter 36 Plant Form 1 Plant Meristems 4 Chapters 30­32, 36, 38­41 • diving cells in plants • divide in two • one daughter cell differentiates into a new, non­diving cell type • other daughter cell stages a meristem • keeps a consistent number of meristem cells • most are at sites of active growth • root apical meristems at root • protected by root cap • shoot apical meristems at leaf/stem • protected by leaf primordia • lateral meristems • grow outward, increase girth (width) 16. 3 Types of Tissue in Plants 1. Dermal Tissue • outermost cells • usually one cell layer thick  • protective coating  • covered in cuticle • made of fats/waxes • special cells of dermal tissue • ex. Guard Cells — paired sausage­shaped cells • line stomata : pore/mouth­like opening that serves as entrance/exit for O2,  CO2, H2O • control opening of stomata to minimize water loss • ex. Trichomes — hair­like outgrowths • protect leaves • in some species, secrete sticky or toxic substances to discourage being eaten • ex. Root hairs • increase surface area of root to optimize water uptake 2. Ground Tissue • responsible for storage, photosynthesis and structural support • makes up most of the mass of plants • 3 types 3. Vascular Tissue • transports fluids and dissolved substances (ex, ions, nitrates) • Xylem : water transportation • tubes made of dead cells • thin cylinders (tracheids) and thick cylinders (vessels)  • Phloem : transports “food” (dissolved sugars) • tubes made of living cells, connected to companion cells that keep them alive 17. Roots • absorb nutrients and water from soil • 4 regions • Root Cap : bottom; protects meristems • Zone of Cell Division : meristems • Zone of Elongation : cells grow/elongate • Zone of Maturation : top; cells differentiate into specific cell types 5 Chapters 30­32, 36, 38­41 • youngest cells are closer to the bottom of the root • cells in root cap are responsible for gravitropism  • detect gravity, grow “down” 18. Modified Roots • prop roots • visible above ground • brace plant against wind and water logging (too much water) • aerial roots • don’t touch the ground • wrap around another plant • get H2O from air • pneumatophore • is swampy soil, roots need O2 • spongy outgrowths of roots break surface of water, transport O2 down • water storage roots • store water  • plants in dry regions • food storage roots • store carbohydrates (sugars and starches) • many species important to humans • buttress roots • provide immense structural stability • radiate out from trunk 19. Stems • carry leaves, flowers—support plant’s weight • grow by shoot apical meristems Flowering plants are split into 2 major groups • Monocots — vascular bundles scattered throughout stem • Eudicots — vascular bundles are around the outside of the stem 20. Modified Stems • bulbs and corms • can be edible • store nutrients • allow stem to grow quickly • stolons and runners • horizontally running stems • enable lateral spread of plant • stolons are underground • tubers • store carbohydrates • unlike bulbs, corms or modified roots, can sprout and grow into a new plant • tendrils • twine around support structures • allow plants to grow higher with less energy use 21. Leaves 6 Chapters 30­32, 36, 38­41 • photosynthetic organs • increase surface area for sunlight capture • veins in leaves • monocots: parallel lines • eudicots: branching veins 22. Modified Leaves • spines  • on desert plants • reduced surface area • less efficient photosynthesis • very thick cuticle • prevents water loss • defense against herbivores • insectivorous leaves  • in swampy soil, regions with low nitrogen soil • supplement nutrition from soil with nitrogen from amino acids in insects • ex. Venus flytrap • trap and digest insects • trigger hairs cause leaves to snap shut • ex. Pitcher plants • lure insects in with scent • drown insects, digest fluid at bottom of pitcher Chapter 41 Plant Development and Reproduction 1 Plant Fertilization • pollen (male gametophyte) produces sperm • 2 sperm travel down pollen tube to reach egg and polar nuclei • double fertilization • egg + sperm = zygote           1N       1N          2N • polar nucleui x2 + sperm = endosperm           1N      1N                1N            3N 23. Embryo Development • first division of zygote is asymmetrical • small cell: divides repeatedly, forms ball—will be plant • large cell: divides to form elongated structure call suspensor • will transport nutrients to embryo • formation of root­shoot axis • embryo cells near suspensor will be roots, cells at far end will be shoot (stem, leaves) • embryo develops first leaves called cotyledons • cells of endosperm divide, envelop embryo • provide nutrition to growing plant • endosperm varies from species to species • some plants use up almost all endosperm during development 24. Seeds 7 Chapters 30­32, 36, 38­41 • Advantages • dormancy : do not germinate until conditions are favorable • metabolic activity shut down • H2O and O2 needed for germination  • some stay dormant until more specific conditions are met • germinate after passing through digestive tract of animals • aids in dispersal • ex. Jack pines • high temperature leads to seed release, germination • protection : young plant is vulnerable • endosperm provides nutrients to help germination 25. Monocots vs. Eudicots • monocots : one cotyledon • eudicots : two cotyledon  26. Fruits • Angiosperms only • ovary of plant develops into fruit • pericarp is part of ovary • 3 layers • endocarp : inner layer • mesocarp : middle layer • exocarp : outer layer • sometimes, thin layer • sometimes, ovary develops around undeveloped/unfertilized seeds • ex. bananas 27. 6 Major Types of Fruits 1. True Berries • multiple seeds in one or more ovaries • ex. tomato 2. Legumes • dry, thin pericarp (shell) houses multiple seeds • ex. beans, peas 3. Drupes • one seed, thick pericarp—different layers have different functions • endocarp : pit around seed • mesocarp : fruit flesh • exocarp : skin • ex. peaches 4. Samaras • thin, dry pericarp around a single seed • ex. maples, elms 5. Aggregate Fruits • multiple ovaries from one flower—each with one seed in pericarp • ex. black berry 6. Multiple Fruits 8 Chapters 30­32, 36, 38­41 • multiple flowers house multiple ovaries, each with seed—fuse together during  development • ex. pineapple 28. Fruits Aid in Dispersal • ingestion by animals • sugars in pericarp encourage consumption • hopefully, not damage seed! • physically sticking to fur/haiir • blown by air • float on water 29. Germination • the emergence of first root (radicle) from seed • occurs when metabolism resumes • requires H2O, O2 • radicle, then cotyledon(s) • radicle : gravitropism • cotyledons : phototropism — grow toward light source Chapters 38­40 Additional Plant Topics 1 Phytoremediation — use of plants to concentrate or break down pollutants • take up pollutants through roots • Phytoaccumulation — plants store pollutant • used to concentrate heavy metals in plant bodies • plants then disposed of/contained • Phytodegradation — plants break down pollutant • used for complex pollutant molecules that can be broken down to harmless molecules • however, sometimes results in phytovolatization — plant releases pollutant into air • limitation/drawback : animals in the area can eat plants with accumulated pollutants 30. Secondary Metabolites • organic compounds not involved in normal growth or development • optional, might help in certain situations OR side­products or intermediates in normal  metabolic pathways 31. Nicotine • harmful to tobacco hornworm • addictive, carcinogenic stimulant to humans 32. Pacific Yew—Taxol • anti­cancer drug • use to plant not known 33. Quinine—from Cinchona Tree • anti­malarial compound 34. Morphine—from opium poppy • painkiller — derivatives still used in medicine today • addictive narcotic 35. Ricin—from castor beans • weaponized • potent toxin—binds to ribosomes, prevents translation 9


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