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World History After 1500 - Week 1 & 2 Notes

by: Gabrielle Strong

World History After 1500 - Week 1 & 2 Notes ART-HIST 110-01

Marketplace > University of Massachusetts > Art History > ART-HIST 110-01 > World History After 1500 Week 1 2 Notes
Gabrielle Strong
GPA 3.9

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Notes from weeks 1 & 2 of World History After 1500
Survey: Renaissance-Modern Art
world, history, after 1500, french, revolution, scientific
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This 6 page Bundle was uploaded by Gabrielle Strong on Saturday January 16, 2016. The Bundle belongs to ART-HIST 110-01 at University of Massachusetts taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Survey: Renaissance-Modern Art in Art History at University of Massachusetts.


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Date Created: 01/16/16
THE  SCIENTIFIC  REVOLUTION  AND  THE  WORLD  IN  1500     Global  Empires/Dynasties   • Ming  Dynasty   • Songhai  Empire  (Africa)   • Mughal  Empire  (India,  Middle  East)   • Aztec  Empire   • Incan   • Ottoman     Akbar  the  Great,  1542-­‐1605   • Din-­‐e-­‐llahi,  1582   o A  syncretic  religion-­‐combined  religious  thoughts   • Mughal  Empire   • Patron  of  Culture   • Muslim,  married  a  Hindu  woman     Ottoman  Empire   • Combined  the  cultures  of    Middle  East  and  Asia   • Main  language:  Ottoman  Turkish.    Many  other  languages  spoken   • Fall  of  Constantinople,  c.  1453   o Scholars  fled,  settled  in  European  cities.    Brought  their  knowledge  to   Europe,  encouraged  interest  in  antiquity     Scientific  Revolution   • Before,  Church  knowledge  was  paramount   • The  Middle  East  was  already  ahead  in  learning.    Europe  absorbed  some  of   this   • Cosmology-­‐physical  cosmology,  the  study  of  the  origin  and  evolution  of  the   universe.    This  was  different  from  religious  cosmology   o Ptolemaic  Model  of  Universe-­‐traditionally  accepted  theory   o Copernican  Model-­‐heliocentric   o Kepler-­‐laws  of  planetary  motion   § Builds  on  Copernicus   o Galileo  Galilei-­‐law  in  inertia,  1632   § Further  developed  telescope   o Isaac  Newton-­‐laws  of  gravity   § Principia  Mathematica  1687       THE  AGE  OF  REASON     Concepts  of  Enlightenment     • Methods  of  natural  science  to  be  applied  to  everyday  life   • Scientific  method   • Progress-­‐reason  could  make  for  a  better  life  or  society     o Caused  challenges  of  authority   o Appealed  to  ‘new  money’     John  Locke  –  constitutional  Government     ‘Republic  of  Letters’  –  Philosophes  communicated  through  this     New  religion:  Dayism     Enlightenment  Effects   • International  trade  encouraged  spreading   • Voltaire  idealized  Chinese  Society   • Fad  for  Chinese  items  –  though  not  much  was  really  known  about  the  culture     China’s  Culture  in  18  Century   • Ming  Dynasty  &  Qing  Dynasty   o High  level  intellectuals   o Tons  of  peasants  and  poor  people,  though   • Interactions  w/  Europe   o Trade  negotiations  were  difficult-­‐did  not  see  European  trade  as   necessary   • Jesuits  bring  their  ideas  to  East       LESSON  #3     KEY  TERMS:   • Columbian  Exchange:  between  Europe  and  Americas.    Included  biological   factors  (diseases),  raw  materials,  animals   • Cofradias:  Association  of  people,  church-­‐based.    Organized  community   festivals,  etc.   • Dutch  East  India  Company:  Funded  by  crown  and  private  investors.    Example   of  a  new  idea  of  investment  involving  multiple  sources.    Traded  with  East     Mingh  Dynasty  has  large  Exploration  fleet     • Both  diplomatic  and  educational   • Zheng  He,  a  Chinese  explorer,  1405-­‐1433     First  truly  global  period     Columbian  Exchange  effects:   • Spread  of  Disease   • Overrun  Species   • European  merchant  class  enriched   • Slave  system   • Religious  exchange     Assimilation:   • In  New  England,  settlers  were  not  interested  in  assimilation  with  native   people   • In  South  America/Central  America,  Spanish  and  Portuguese  assimilated  with   Natives  more     European  Presence  Abroad:   • In  Americas,  Europeans  conquer  and  establish  rule   • In  Asia,  the  collective  culture  and  government  was  more  established;  they   were  more  able  to  resist  Europeans     THE  ATLANTIC  REVOLUTIONS     East  India  Companies   • Coin  money   • Create  treaties   • Make  colonies   • Netherlands  and  England  were  protestant,  Church  of  England   • Spain  and  Portugal  were  Catholic     Revolutions:   • N.  American  Rev.  1775-­‐1787   • French  Rev.  1789-­‐1815   • Haitian  Rev.  1791-­‐1804   o Only  successful  slave  revolt  ever   • Many  Latin  American  Revolutions  after  that     Common  Aspects  of  Revolutions  –  enlightenment  ideas   • All  people  are  created  equal   • Inalienable  rights   • Property   o One  can  only  vote  if  they  have  property   • Fair  trial/justice   • Representation  in  Government   • Abolition  of  slavery   • Equal  taxes   • Innocent  until  proven  guilty     N.  American  Rev.   • Prior  and  during  the  revolution,  people  identified  themselves  as  English   • Differences:   o Land,  colonies,   o No  state  religion   o Mostly  the  same  type  of  people;  homogenous   o Authority  stayed  in  wealthy  people’s  control     French  Rev.  (events  in  chronological  order)   • Causes:   o Three  estates:  royalty,  clergy,  commoners  (95%  commoners,  only   estate  paying  taxes)   o Ancien  Regime-­‐old  governing  body   o Inspired  by  Rev.  ideas  after  helping  America     o Philosophes  talking  about  and  spreading  enlightenment  ideas  being   applied  to  gov’t   o Competition  in  Europe   o Recent  bad  harvests  and  food  prices   o Big  Five:  countries  increasing  role  in  global  affairs   § Russia,  Prussia,  England,  France,  Austria-­‐Hungary   § Balance  of  Power  –  if  one  country  became  too  powerful,  the   others  would  join  together  to  bring  it  down  and  bring  back  the   balance   o Size  of  standing  armies  was  increasing,  taxes  increasing   o France  had  a  large  concentration  of  people.  Was  the  center  of   enlightenment  ideas   • Revolution  Begins  1789   o Louis  XVI  was  in  power   § Tries  to  reform   • National  Assembly   o 3  Estate,  voice  of  the  people   o Will  not  disband  until  an  adequate  constitution  is  written   o Was  a  response  to  a  list  of  demands  from  commoners  not  being  met     o People  believed  the  kind  had  failed  the  people   • Bastille  Stormed   • Uprisings  in  Provinces   • ‘Declaration  of  Rights  of  Man’  by  the  National  Assembly,  1789   o State  power  limited   • Establishment  of  a  constitutional  monarchy   o King  forces  clergy  to  swear  an  oath  to  the  state   o Estate  system  gone   • 1791-­‐  factions  begin  to  form   o Radical  political  group  –  Jacobins   o The  poor  people  feel  marginalized   o Other  European  states  band  together  to  stop  the  Revolution   • 1792-­‐  Monarchy  Abolished,  Republic  Formed   o Reign  of  Terror  (~25,000  dead)   § Guillotine   • 1793-­‐  Jacobins  in  control  of  France   o At  war  with  other  Europeans  states,  too   o Proclamation  of  Levee  en  Masse   § First  time  all  citizens  are  to  contribute  to  war  effort.  Total  War   • Maximilien  Robes  Pierre   o Committees  of  Public  Safety  (CPS)   § Decided  to  use  new  calendar   § Prosecuted  the  Church   § Emphasis  on  state  interests,  not  personal   o Suppression  of  Liberty   § Women  driven  out  of  politics   § People  convicted  w/o  reason   o After  death,  Reign  of  Terror  Ends   § Catholic  services  held  once  again   § Plays  and  parties  commence   • Effects  of  Rev.   o Increased  State  Authority   o Society  now  based  on  property  and  social  standing   o Capitalism  on  the  rise   o Rise  in  Nationalistic  attitudes     o Increase  in  military  participation   o Metric  system  


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