World History After 1500 - Week 1 & 2 Notes
World History After 1500 - Week 1 & 2 Notes ART-HIST 110-01
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Date Created: 01/16/16
THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION AND THE WORLD IN 1500 Global Empires/Dynasties • Ming Dynasty • Songhai Empire (Africa) • Mughal Empire (India, Middle East) • Aztec Empire • Incan • Ottoman Akbar the Great, 1542-‐1605 • Din-‐e-‐llahi, 1582 o A syncretic religion-‐combined religious thoughts • Mughal Empire • Patron of Culture • Muslim, married a Hindu woman Ottoman Empire • Combined the cultures of Middle East and Asia • Main language: Ottoman Turkish. Many other languages spoken • Fall of Constantinople, c. 1453 o Scholars fled, settled in European cities. Brought their knowledge to Europe, encouraged interest in antiquity Scientific Revolution • Before, Church knowledge was paramount • The Middle East was already ahead in learning. Europe absorbed some of this • Cosmology-‐physical cosmology, the study of the origin and evolution of the universe. This was different from religious cosmology o Ptolemaic Model of Universe-‐traditionally accepted theory o Copernican Model-‐heliocentric o Kepler-‐laws of planetary motion § Builds on Copernicus o Galileo Galilei-‐law in inertia, 1632 § Further developed telescope o Isaac Newton-‐laws of gravity § Principia Mathematica 1687 THE AGE OF REASON Concepts of Enlightenment • Methods of natural science to be applied to everyday life • Scientific method • Progress-‐reason could make for a better life or society o Caused challenges of authority o Appealed to ‘new money’ John Locke – constitutional Government ‘Republic of Letters’ – Philosophes communicated through this New religion: Dayism Enlightenment Effects • International trade encouraged spreading • Voltaire idealized Chinese Society • Fad for Chinese items – though not much was really known about the culture China’s Culture in 18 Century • Ming Dynasty & Qing Dynasty o High level intellectuals o Tons of peasants and poor people, though • Interactions w/ Europe o Trade negotiations were difficult-‐did not see European trade as necessary • Jesuits bring their ideas to East LESSON #3 KEY TERMS: • Columbian Exchange: between Europe and Americas. Included biological factors (diseases), raw materials, animals • Cofradias: Association of people, church-‐based. Organized community festivals, etc. • Dutch East India Company: Funded by crown and private investors. Example of a new idea of investment involving multiple sources. Traded with East Mingh Dynasty has large Exploration fleet • Both diplomatic and educational • Zheng He, a Chinese explorer, 1405-‐1433 First truly global period Columbian Exchange effects: • Spread of Disease • Overrun Species • European merchant class enriched • Slave system • Religious exchange Assimilation: • In New England, settlers were not interested in assimilation with native people • In South America/Central America, Spanish and Portuguese assimilated with Natives more European Presence Abroad: • In Americas, Europeans conquer and establish rule • In Asia, the collective culture and government was more established; they were more able to resist Europeans THE ATLANTIC REVOLUTIONS East India Companies • Coin money • Create treaties • Make colonies • Netherlands and England were protestant, Church of England • Spain and Portugal were Catholic Revolutions: • N. American Rev. 1775-‐1787 • French Rev. 1789-‐1815 • Haitian Rev. 1791-‐1804 o Only successful slave revolt ever • Many Latin American Revolutions after that Common Aspects of Revolutions – enlightenment ideas • All people are created equal • Inalienable rights • Property o One can only vote if they have property • Fair trial/justice • Representation in Government • Abolition of slavery • Equal taxes • Innocent until proven guilty N. American Rev. • Prior and during the revolution, people identified themselves as English • Differences: o Land, colonies, o No state religion o Mostly the same type of people; homogenous o Authority stayed in wealthy people’s control French Rev. (events in chronological order) • Causes: o Three estates: royalty, clergy, commoners (95% commoners, only estate paying taxes) o Ancien Regime-‐old governing body o Inspired by Rev. ideas after helping America o Philosophes talking about and spreading enlightenment ideas being applied to gov’t o Competition in Europe o Recent bad harvests and food prices o Big Five: countries increasing role in global affairs § Russia, Prussia, England, France, Austria-‐Hungary § Balance of Power – if one country became too powerful, the others would join together to bring it down and bring back the balance o Size of standing armies was increasing, taxes increasing o France had a large concentration of people. Was the center of enlightenment ideas • Revolution Begins 1789 o Louis XVI was in power § Tries to reform • National Assembly o 3 Estate, voice of the people o Will not disband until an adequate constitution is written o Was a response to a list of demands from commoners not being met o People believed the kind had failed the people • Bastille Stormed • Uprisings in Provinces • ‘Declaration of Rights of Man’ by the National Assembly, 1789 o State power limited • Establishment of a constitutional monarchy o King forces clergy to swear an oath to the state o Estate system gone • 1791-‐ factions begin to form o Radical political group – Jacobins o The poor people feel marginalized o Other European states band together to stop the Revolution • 1792-‐ Monarchy Abolished, Republic Formed o Reign of Terror (~25,000 dead) § Guillotine • 1793-‐ Jacobins in control of France o At war with other Europeans states, too o Proclamation of Levee en Masse § First time all citizens are to contribute to war effort. Total War • Maximilien Robes Pierre o Committees of Public Safety (CPS) § Decided to use new calendar § Prosecuted the Church § Emphasis on state interests, not personal o Suppression of Liberty § Women driven out of politics § People convicted w/o reason o After death, Reign of Terror Ends § Catholic services held once again § Plays and parties commence • Effects of Rev. o Increased State Authority o Society now based on property and social standing o Capitalism on the rise o Rise in Nationalistic attitudes o Increase in military participation o Metric system
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