Biological Psychology PSYC 220
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This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by Chelsea Nebolisa on Sunday January 17, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PSYC 220 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by LOEB,JEANNIE H in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 147 views.
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Date Created: 01/17/16
Nerve Cells and Nervous System 01/30/2016 ▯ NEURONS Receive and transmit information from/to other cells. Vary in size and shape. o A difference in physical structure means a different function ▯ Neuroglia or glia o Smaller and more Smaller, numerous Variety of functions like modulating communication, exchanging material, clearing of waste etc. Different types = different functions Microglia small and glue like o Clearing out the brain’s wastes o Involved with the immune system o Contribute to learning by eliminating weak synapses Oligodendrocytes few and branchlike o Located in the brain and spinal cord. o Work along with Schwann cells (in the peripheral nervous system) to create myelin sheath, which speeds up neurological messages going travelling through the nerve and axon. o They supply axons with nutrients to function well. Radial Glia o Help immature neurons to migrate to designated location. Astrocytes o Modulate communication between neurons o Waste disposal Brain Cells o Highly specialized units of communication o Vary in shape Bipolar – transmit signals between different neurons Unipolar receive information to the brain Multipolar sensory neurons/ efferent cells which sends messages ▯ ▯ Blood Brain Barrier a physical and chemical barrier to prevent unneeded chemicals from contacting the brain. o Prevents the immune system from attacking the brain o Consists of blood vessels an tightly packed blood cells. Things that can enter the barrier includes: o Small uncharged molecules (O2, Carbon dioxide), o lipid/soluble molecules (Vitamin A & D, drugs) other important molecules, o H2O, protein o Glucose primary fuel for the brain o Charged and/or large molecules CAN NOT enter Area postrema is where the blood brain barrier is weak and leaks. o The source of drainage o Monitors the brain fluids o Determines what’s in the blood. o ▯ Nerve Impulse Membrane of a Neuron o Selectively permeable some chemicals can pass o Has an electrical gradient (polarization) difference in electrical charges between the inside and outside part of the cell o Uneven separation of ions concentration gradient Greater concentration of Na+ Cl outside the neuron Greater concentration of K+ and anions inside at resting potential, the membrane is more negative on the inside These ions cross through a gated protein channel Voltagegated (opens/closes when difference in electrical charges is present through the membrane) When the gates open Na+ and Cl flow inside while K+ stays inside Ligandgated (opens/closes in response to binding with a molecule. o Membrane potential the extent of the separation of ions. Ratio of amount of electrical ions inside vs. outside the neuron. Measured by oscilloscope. Resting membrane potential = 70mV 70 units more negative inside than outside. If +35mV 35 mm more positive inside than outside the neuron. o Polarization Depolarized is when there is less of a difference than before electrical changes value of mV is approaching zero Polarized is the difference in position in opposite directions Hyperpolarization is the greater difference in polarization between the outside and inside. Action Potential o Takes place inside the axon of a neuron o Larger diameters lead to faster action potentials o Rapid depolarization and brief reversal of usual electrical polarization. o Stimulating a neuron opens sodium ion gatesforces of diffusion and electrostatic pressure forces sodium ions inwards. at peak of action potential Na+ channels refract (stop working) the period of absolute refractory period. K+ channels open and push outside the neuron because the inside is more positive. No Na+ is coming as the K+ is leaving membrane potential reaches zero As membrane potential channel slowly closes K+ channels relative refractory period. The membrane potential isn’t at 70mV therefore sodiumpotassium pump restores it to the normal state. o “all or none” is when the neuron is stimulated to go off action potential occurs or nothing at all o threshold of excitation has to be a certain amount of stimulation for action potential to occur. o Propagation of the action potential describes the mechanism of action potential being able to produce new action potentials along an axon. o ▯ Synapses Reflexes are automatic muscular responses to stimuli o Reflex arc = circuit from sensory neuron to muscle response Presynaptic neuron delivers the signals; postsynaptic neuron receives signals Temporal summation is when there is repeated stimuli happening at the same location but at different times. Spatial summation is when there is repeated stimuli happening at the same time but at different locations Depolarization Excitatory Postsynaptic potential o ESPS’s occur when gates open to allow sodium to enter Hyperpolarization Inhibitory postsynaptic potential o ISPS’s occur when gates open to allow potassium ions to leave. o ▯ Neurotransmitters Neurons release chemicals to affect neurons; they have quick effects Many different types of neurotransmitters o Peptides (neuromodulators) have a delayed, longer ad dispersed effect. o Hormones have a delayed, longer , and dispersed effect secreted by endocrine glands Lutenizing hormones predict ovulation o Vasopressin restricts blood vessels o Oxytocin is the “love” hormone, released when orgasmic reactions occur, increases speed of labor, reduces blood flow after birth and even ejection of milk. o ▯ Pituitary gland Produces many hormones which travel throughout the body; stimulates other endocrine glands to secrete hormones. o Anterior pituitary glandular because it is linked to glands; creates and secretes hormones (Growth Hormone (GH), Lutenizing hormone (LH), Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin, etc.) o Posterior pituitary nervous tissue; stores and releases hormones created by the hypothalamus; does not create hormones. ▯ Drugs Characteristics o Cholinergic agonist relates to motor dysfunction, muscle contractions/spasms ex. acetocholin o Cholinergic antagonist chemicals will decrease activities, noncontraction of muscles ex. Botox o Affinity is the attraction for receptors by drug/ Efficacy is the effectiveness of a drug. o Dopamine is an important brain chemical that is involved with movement, addictions, rewards and other emotional responses. Increases when one has cravings Different Types Abused Drugs o Hallucinogenic distort perceptions o Nicotine a stimulant that causes muscle contractions/alters reward system o Opiates relieve pain (morphine, heroin, methadone etc. o Cocaine is an anesthetic ▯ Nervous System Central Nervous System (CNS) consists of the brain and spinal cord. o Spinal cord communicates with other sense organs and muscles except the head. Consist of gray matter (center of spinal cord densely packed with cell bodies and dendrites) and white matter ( contains myelinated axons). Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) connects the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body. o Somatic nervous system consists of axons conveying messages from sense organs to CNS which then lead to the muscles. o Autonomic nervous system controls heart, intestines ad other organs. Sympathetic nervous system gives energy to muscles (increasing heart rate, fight or flight, feeding, mating, breathing) Parasympathetic nervous system decreases muscle arousal (decreases heart rate, conserves energy) Three divisions of the brain o Hindbrain posterior part of the brain; contains medulla (controls vital bodily reactions, heart rate, vomiting etc.) pons (axons connect each half of the brain to the opposite side left hemisphere controls muscles of the right side of the body/ right hemisphere controls the left side) and cerebellum (controls movement, balance and coordination damage to this area causes lack of coordination. o Midbrain contains the tectum and tegmentum pain tolerance o Forebrain has cerebral hemishperes Left side of the brain more dominant, language and visual field Cerebral cortex involves with higher mental processing Limbic system deals with processing emotions Olfactory bulb (sense of smell), hypothalamus (releases hormones), hippocampus (memory), amygdala (fear and hunger), congulate gyrus (emotion and behavior). Corpus callosum (sensory, motor and cognitive functions) anterior commissure (connects the cerebral hemispheres) massa intermedia ▯ ▯
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