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Biological Psychology

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by: Chelsea Nebolisa

Biological Psychology PSYC 220

Chelsea Nebolisa
GPA 3.37

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These notes cover week 1-4 material. Chapter 1-3 in the Kalat textbook
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This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by Chelsea Nebolisa on Sunday January 17, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PSYC 220 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by LOEB,JEANNIE H in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 147 views.


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-Miss Bennett Sanford


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Date Created: 01/17/16
Nerve Cells and Nervous System 01/30/2016 ▯ NEURONS  Receive and transmit information from/to other cells.  Vary in size and shape. o A difference in physical structure means a different function ▯ Neuroglia or glia o Smaller and more   Smaller, numerous  Variety of functions like modulating communication, exchanging material, clearing  of waste etc.  Different types = different functions  Microglia  small and glue like o Clearing out the brain’s wastes o Involved with the immune system o Contribute to learning by eliminating weak synapses  Oligodendrocytes  few and branch­like o Located in the brain and spinal cord. o Work along with Schwann cells (in the peripheral nervous system) to create  myelin sheath, which speeds up neurological messages going travelling  through the nerve and axon. o They supply axons with nutrients to function well.  Radial Glia o Help immature  neurons to migrate to designated location.  Astrocytes o Modulate communication between neurons o Waste disposal  Brain Cells o Highly specialized units of communication o Vary in shape  Bipolar – transmit signals between different neurons  Unipolar­ receive information to the brain  Multipolar­ sensory  neurons/ efferent cells which sends messages ▯ ▯ Blood Brain Barrier  a physical and chemical barrier to prevent unneeded chemicals from contacting the  brain. o Prevents the immune system from attacking the brain o Consists of blood vessels an tightly packed blood cells.  Things that can enter the barrier includes: o Small uncharged molecules (O2, Carbon dioxide), o  lipid/soluble molecules (Vitamin A & D, drugs) other important molecules, o H2O, protein  o Glucose  primary fuel for the brain o Charged and/or large molecules CAN NOT enter  Area postrema is where the blood brain barrier is weak and leaks. o The source of drainage o Monitors the brain fluids o Determines what’s in the blood. o ▯ Nerve Impulse  Membrane of a Neuron o Selectively permeable  some chemicals can pass o Has an electrical gradient (polarization)  difference in electrical charges  between the inside and outside part of the cell o Uneven separation of ions  concentration gradient  Greater concentration of Na+ Cl­ outside the neuron  Greater concentration of K+ and anions inside  at resting potential,  the membrane is more negative on the inside  These ions cross through a gated protein channel  Voltage­gated (opens/closes when difference in electrical  charges is present through the membrane)   When the gates open Na+ and Cl­ flow inside while K+ stays  inside  Ligand­gated (opens/closes in response to binding with a  molecule. o Membrane potential  the extent of the separation of ions.  Ratio of amount of electrical ions inside vs. outside the neuron.  Measured by oscilloscope.   Resting membrane potential = ­70mV  70 units more negative inside  than outside.  If +35mV  35 mm more positive inside than outside the  neuron. o Polarization  Depolarized is when there is less of a difference than before electrical  changes  value of mV is approaching zero  Polarized is the difference in position in opposite directions  Hyperpolarization is the greater difference in polarization between  the outside and inside.  Action Potential o Takes place inside the axon of a neuron o Larger diameters lead to faster action potentials o Rapid depolarization and brief reversal of usual electrical polarization. o Stimulating a neuron opens sodium ion gatesforces of diffusion and  electrostatic pressure forces sodium ions inwards.  at peak of action potential Na+ channels refract (stop working)  the  period of absolute refractory period.  K+ channels open and push outside the neuron because the inside is  more positive.  No Na+ is coming as the K+ is leaving  membrane potential reaches  zero  As membrane potential channel slowly closes K+ channels  relative  refractory period.  The membrane potential isn’t at 70mV therefore sodium­potassium  pump restores it to the normal state. o “all or none” is when the neuron is stimulated to go off  action potential  occurs or nothing at all o threshold of excitation  ­ has to be a certain amount of stimulation for action  potential to occur. o Propagation of the action potential describes the mechanism of action  potential being able to produce new action potentials along an axon. o ▯ Synapses  Reflexes are automatic muscular responses to stimuli o Reflex arc = circuit from sensory neuron to muscle response  Presynaptic neuron delivers the signals; postsynaptic neuron receives signals  Temporal summation is when there is repeated stimuli happening at the same  location but at different times.   Spatial summation is when there is repeated stimuli happening at the same time but  at different locations  Depolarization  Excitatory Postsynaptic potential o ESPS’s occur when gates open to allow sodium to enter  Hyperpolarization  Inhibitory postsynaptic potential o ISPS’s occur when gates open to allow potassium ions to leave. o ▯ Neurotransmitters   Neurons release chemicals to affect neurons; they have quick effects  Many different types of neurotransmitters o Peptides (neuro­modulators) have a delayed, longer ad dispersed effect. o Hormones have a delayed, longer , and dispersed effect secreted by  endocrine glands  Lutenizing hormones predict ovulation o Vasopressin restricts blood vessels o Oxytocin is the “love” hormone, released when orgasmic reactions occur,  increases speed of labor, reduces blood flow after birth and even ejection of  milk.  o ▯ Pituitary gland   Produces many hormones which travel throughout the body; stimulates other  endocrine glands to secrete hormones. o Anterior pituitary  glandular because it is linked to glands; creates and  secretes hormones (Growth Hormone (GH), Lutenizing hormone (LH),  Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin, etc.) o Posterior pituitary  nervous tissue; stores and releases hormones created by the hypothalamus; does not create hormones. ▯ Drugs  Characteristics o Cholinergic agonist  relates to motor dysfunction, muscle  contractions/spasms ex. acetocholin o Cholinergic antagonist  chemicals will decrease activities, non­contraction  of muscles ex. Botox o Affinity is the attraction for receptors by drug/ Efficacy is the effectiveness of a drug. o Dopamine is an important brain chemical that is involved with movement,  addictions, rewards and other emotional responses.  Increases when one has cravings  Different Types Abused Drugs o Hallucinogenic  distort perceptions o Nicotine a stimulant that causes muscle contractions/alters reward system o Opiates relieve pain (morphine, heroin, methadone etc. o Cocaine is an anesthetic  ▯ Nervous System   Central Nervous System (CNS) consists of the brain and spinal cord. o Spinal cord communicates with other sense organs and muscles except the  head.   Consist of gray matter (center of spinal cord densely packed with cell  bodies and dendrites) and white matter ( contains myelinated axons).  Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) connects the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body. o Somatic nervous system consists of axons conveying messages from sense  organs to CNS which then lead to the muscles. o Autonomic nervous system controls heart, intestines ad other organs.  Sympathetic nervous system gives energy to muscles (increasing heart  rate, fight or flight, feeding, mating, breathing)  Parasympathetic nervous system decreases muscle arousal (decreases  heart rate, conserves energy)  Three divisions of the brain o Hindbrain  posterior part of the brain; contains   medulla (controls vital bodily reactions, heart rate, vomiting etc.)   pons (axons connect each half of the brain to the opposite side  left  hemisphere controls muscles of the right side of the body/ right  hemisphere controls the left side) and   cerebellum (controls movement, balance and coordination  damage  to this area causes lack of coordination. o Midbrain contains the tectum and tegmentum  pain tolerance o Forebrain has cerebral hemishperes   Left side of the brain  more dominant, language and visual field  Cerebral cortex involves with higher mental processing  Limbic system deals with processing emotions  Olfactory bulb (sense of smell), hypothalamus (releases  hormones), hippocampus (memory), amygdala (fear and  hunger), congulate gyrus (emotion and behavior).  Corpus callosum (sensory, motor and cognitive functions)   anterior commissure (connects the cerebral hemispheres)   massa intermedia  ▯ ▯


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