History Lecture Notes
History Lecture Notes 250
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verified elite notetaker
HIST 1100 - 01
verified elite notetaker
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verified elite notetaker
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verified elite notetaker
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Date Created: 01/17/16
9/4/15 Joan Francois de la Perouse French Count, came to CA circa 1786 -had negative views of Missions; didn’t like the Mission system -the image of the Mission = sinister place, slave colony CRITIQUES Did not agree with corporal punishment Believed the Indians were forced to stay Didn’t agree with the men and woman staying in separate dorms (this caused low birth rate) -Perouse was so critical because he had been through the enlightenment believed in human dignity and human rights -he believed it would be different if the Missions were French -Europeans always had bad things to say about the Missions because they thought their country would be better if they were in charge. Americans come to CA in 1840’s Richard Henry Dana (from England) Wrote “Two Years Before the Mast” -When he came to visit, he believed there was a “stillness of death” around the Missions -“What a country this might be under an enterprising people” Americans take CA from Mexico Collapse of CA Missions from 1850-1880’s Missions fall apart + dissolve -Missions converted to sheep sheds, bars and saloons -Missions deteriorated and became rain-soaked piles of mud The Americans didn’t preserve these buildings and wanted to erase the past. “Justifies the conquest?” – Sigmon Helen Hunt Jackson from New England, comes to CA in 1872 Dismayed by the genocide of the Indians, so much so she wrote a book “Ramona” - Wanted to bring awareness - In the book she created a contrast, a before and after picture st o Romanticized the Mission in the 1 half nd o Talks about the Americans coming over and creating chaos in the 2 half o “Ramona” a best-seller BUT people never read the second half, so Jackson’s plan to bring awareness to Americans backfired. Jackson very disappointed with this outcome. o California has “Ramona-fever” Mission revival architechture BLOOMS At the turn of the century, CA revives the Mission (WHY??) -Buisness men pushed the Mission, and sold it as an icon -gives CA an instant heritage and culture ironically we make up our own history - commercialization of the Mission (Mission Schlock) “Whose fault is it?” The Donner Party -Lansford Hastings goes to CA and convinces people to take treacherous route -James Reed going towards CA meetss James Clyman who says it isn’t safe. Fate/God/Karma -1846 Westward Haul (Expansion of America to CA) NOTES 9/21/15 1844 Presidential Election John C. Calhoun deep down, was very in favor of slavery (didn’t admit it) - “Old War Horse” = involved in politics since the war of 1812. - Vice president to John Quincy Adams and then VP to Andrew Jackson Martin Van Buren deep down, he was an abolitionist (didn’t admit it) - From New York, also an “old war horse” * Calhoun and Buren both openly admit their stand on slavery, lose the race to James K. Polk because he dances around the issue of slavery and doesn’t have a direct standpoint on the issue. Texas wins independence from Mexico, then wants to be a part of the US US says no bc it’s a slave state Packenham (British Ambassador) Calhoun writes a letter to Packenham o Calhoun wants slavery to spread across America o BUT van Buren says slavery is evil and it should be eradicated James K Polk “I think the people should pick whether or not they want slavery”; Polk’s main reason to campaign is to get California Won election in 1844 (between him, Calhoun and van Buren) Polk says we will “expand from sea to shining sea” Manifest Destiny Polk wanted San Francisco Bay o Thought buying CA would be best bet BUT it doesn’t look too presidential and CA was not for sale Slidell Mission John Slidell goes to Mexico City to get Mexico to sell CA (DOESN’T WORK) Polk can’t just start invading CA because he is afraid other countries might try to get a piece Larkin Intrigue “sparking a revolt”; Thomas Larkin is a consul sent by Polk to get the Americans to revolt against Mexico to gain control of CA Taylor Provocation Polk sends troops to the Texas-Mexico border and forces led by Zachary Taylor provoked an incident with the Mexican army in the fall of 1845. John C. Fremont Fall of 1845, leads 50 heavily armed group of mapmakers Castro (leader of the Mexican army) tells Fremont to leave, Castro shows up with 200 Californios Bear Flag Revolt 2 Americans revolt, bodies badly mutilated June 23 only battle a bit of chaos (strategic canon maneuvers but overall, no real damage o One Californio dies o July 9 1846 American flag replaced the Bear Flag Bear Flag Revolt is thought of as a face, because it lasted 3 weeks Still impacts our flag today May, 1846 Mexican American War shooting begins 1848 Mexico and US sign treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo treaty under fire because it was signed under gun-point CA and part of the southwest ceded by Mexico to the US GOLD RUSH Feb 2, 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo signed and during that same week, gold was being discovered on the American river. CA Indians saw the gold in the rivers but left it there o Gold fit in with Manifest Destiny James Marshall credited with finding cold o finding gold was a common scam (people advertised property by telling people there was gold there and then when they bought the property and found out there was no gold the real-estate business men said “oh there’s no more! It’s gone now!” no one believed there was actually gold in CA for a while UNTIL Sam Brannan (Mormon merchant) who found some gold nuggets, put them in a glass jar of water and waved it around SF telling people the gold was real and to go find it. People went to his shop (before anyone else’s shop) to find the supplies to mine for gold and he made a lot of money first CA billionaire He establishes a very important principle: “Merchants not miners get rich” 75% of San Francisco’s population left to mine for gold (600 out of 800 people) Gold Rush spreads in the Pacific first 1848 President makes State of the Union speech and talks about his gold from California and by 1849, the East Coast knew about the gold in CA o EVERYBODY comes pouring in Chinese, Europeans, Latin Americans and Americans o 1848-1852, 400,000 rushed to CA largest peace time mass migration in the world o How’d they get here? People made money off gullible people by selling incorrect maps Rufus Porter suggests making a steam power blimp which would take you from NY to CA in 3 days 3 main ways to CA: 1) Take a ship to Panama then take a ship from Panama to SF (chancy and expensive, lasted 2 months) 2) Sail from Cape Horn to SF, 2ndleast expensive, took 4 months (Sf Bay cluttered with ships big boom in ship industry 3) HIKE across the country, least expensive, most dangerous and lasted 6 months. Wagon train most dangerous way of travel, 3 main risks 1. Cholera if you got it in the morning, you were dead by evening. Highly contagious, spread by contaminated water. 2. Drowning meandering rivers made it tiresome to keep crossing 3. Accidental shooting Gold Rush is important not just because of the money but there were 5 major consequences 1) Political consequence CA becomes an instant state, it wasn’t a vague territory 2) Gold Rush pulled CA out of a depression 3) CA develops industry rapidly o Miners not getting rich business men are o Levi Strauss went to SF, saw ships with canvas sails, saw that miners’ pants were getting ruined panning for gold all the time in the rivers, creates denim jeans with rivets at stress points. 4) All the Gold Rushers were very diverse from all over the world BUT they were all the same: they were all 20 year old men who were ambitious, maybe greedy, risk-takers. People who were willing to bet their lives on the risk they would take. Mainly youngest sons, middle class, professional types) 5) Gold Rush gives CA’s golden reputation o “Eureka! I’ve found it!” 1844 (about 800 people in SF) 1849 (20,000 people call SF home) 1852 (35,000 people in SF) Huge leap jump in population within only 8 years 10/5/15 POST MIDTERM NOTES Ethnic Conflict Xenophobia In 1850, CA becomes a part of the US In 1849 the State developed a constitution based on English common laws Not covered in English common law was ethnic laws. 4 other areas not touched on very well were 1) Laws for African Americans: African Americans come over free from the south 2) Latinos: was there a place for Latinos in CA after the Mexican control ended? 3) Asians: Many Asians were coming over for the Gold Rush 4) “And what will we do about those Native Americans?” There was always an attempt to deny these people their rights. WHITE SUPREMACY o “particularly popular with white people” –Sigmon o Rationalized genocide, xenophobia (fear of foreigners/strangers) Nativism belief that public policy should favor the native born (anti- immigrant ruse) There were things unique to CA led to incredible diversity thus led to very intense economic competition, racism and ethnic conflict Xenophobia & economy = inversely proportional African Americans in CA Out of 250,000 there were 1000 blacks in 1850 in CA o This was 5% so they were below the radar o If you’re minority was in the 5-15% amount it was dangerous because your group was noticeable by non-minority groups. Free blacks and enslaved blacks had come over. George Washington Dennis son of E.G. “Green” Dennis, his father owned him and Washington managed to pay off his own father by working and making $1000 at the hotel he worked at (in the kitchen) owned by Green in San Francisco. o African Americans did fairly well in SF/CA because they did the hard, dirty jobs. o Slave-owning districts in CA California Testimony Act of 1851: California law which stated no black, mulatto or Indian can testify against a white man o Murder of Gordon Chase: Gordon Chase was a black man who owned a barber shop. Across the street, his sister owned a millinery shop and was being robbed by a white man. She had called him a thief, respectively. The white man had come to Chase’s barber shop the next evening to tell him that his sister should take back what she said. Chase didn’t have anything to do with the event but the white man had begun to abuse Chase and then shot him in his barber’s chair. Chase ran out to the street but was shot again by the white man and died that evening. There was a sole witness by the name of Robert Cowles in the barber shop that night however his hair was put under a microscope and it was determined that he was 1/16 African. He couldn’t testify against the white man. o 13 Amendment did away with slavery o 14 Amendment granted citizenship to “all persons born or naturalized in the United States” and this included former slaves who had recently been freed. o 15 Amendment All Americans have equal protection under the law 1810 “All men have the right to vote regardless of race/ creed” Spanish-speaking people in California post-Mexican American war o Whites didn’t like Latinos because they were good at getting it out o Prohibitive tax $20/month Foreign Miners Tax of 1850 targeted at Latinos, it drove them out and that was the goal. People would bid to collect the tax Stereotypes emerged about Latinos whites = “immoral people” they were talking about Latinos Stereotype of the “Latina whore” or prostitutes Californios brought their wives with them to gold country Juanita of Downieville husband was a prospector On July 4, 1857 Juanita is alone in her cabin. In the town, miners of Downieville were celebrating the 4 of July. Joseph Cannon goes to Juanita’s house drunk, leaves, comes back even more drunk. Juanita claims he tried to rape her so when he came back she had a butcher knife ready and stabs him. Cannon dies but his friends form a lynch mob. They run her out of her house to the bridge in Downieville. They tried to hang her but one of the people in the lynch mob says if they hang her they will be killing two people because she is pregnant. Juanita denounces them and takes the noose, wraps it around her neck, tightens it and jumps off the bridge. It would have been a much different situation had it been a white woman in the situation. Mexican Bandito Mexican stereotype There was rise in crime during this time Joaquin Murieta a very secretive, talented bandit who hit lots of miners in gold country. In 1853 a $1,000 reward is set for his arrest. The Texas Ranger Captain Love is hired to find him first. After the 30 day deadline, he thought he wouldn’t be able to find him but he did. There is a furious gun battle between the Texas Ranger and Joaquin’s right hand man, Three-Fingered Jack. Joaquin is killed and his head was chopped off and paraded around in a traveling circus around America. Land Grants really big amounts of land (avg being 50,000 acres) o Peralta family given grant because they were good citizens from Mexico City. Given a grant from land in the East Bay (Berkeley) o Californios legally owned the land and they had title to the land. There were always white squatters were loitering on those grants. o Land Act of 1851 If you had title to the land, you had to go to the Board of Land Commissioners and prove you had that title to the land and that your title was legitimate. 800 cases came to the Board of Land Commissioners but only 600 cases proved legitimate. The time it took to settle a case would take an average of 17 years. Squatters would appeal and other bureaucratic BS make white lawyers owner of most of the land. Horace Carpentier Persuaded California state legislature to make Oakland a town became its first mayor. Indians in California There were 2 perceived Indians: “Wild Indians” and the “tamed/ Mission Indians” The “wild Indians” came from Northern California there was still a policy of genocide in Northern California from as late as the 1870’s. People were collecting bounties on Indian scalps o “genocide” because people were paid by the government (municipal money) to do ethnic cleansing o In 1852 and 1851, $1 million was given by the government to people who participated in Indian hunting. o In 1857 a $400,000 bond was created and use to pay people to hunt Indians “Tame Indians” were from the Missions o 1850 “An Act for the Government and Protection of Indians” 1) Vagrancy clause if an idle Indians was just standing around, he was arrested 2) Bail out clause anyone can bail an Indian BUT the Indian would have to work for the man who bailed him out until the bailer was “satisfied” 3) Apprentice clause a native American mother could turn her children over to white families and they would be taught to be “apprentices” Indian mothers didn’t want to give their children away so white slave dealers would kidnap Native American children they would tell court lies and sell the children on the street for about $200 to white families. LECTURE NOTES 10/12/15 1869 Coming of the Railroad Everyone thought the railroad would be impossible because the Rockies were too steep this is what everyone thought until 1854 Theodore Judah was called on to build a railroad from Sacramento to Folsom Judah went to Congress in 1854 and proposed building a railroad across the country however the idea went nowhere because the US was about to go into the Civil War so Congress was split about building the railroad in the North vs the South. o Judah said building the railroad would be a “triumph of nature”, appealing to civic pride but wealthy business men in SF said no. o He went to investors in Sacramento and appealed to their greed o The Big Four: became caricatures of themselves 1) Colis P Huntington at age 14 he was a travelling a salesman and owned his own store by 21. In 1848 he joined the Gold Rush and tripled his money. financially, politically ambitious, once voted “Most hated man in CA” Vice president of the Railroad but he was the puppet master 2) Charles Crocker “a jack of all trades”, salesman, iron maker, gold digger, would be in charge of building the railroad. 3) Mark Hopkins vegetarian, treasurer of the Railroad, very organized, penny pincher 4) Leland Stanford “ponderously slow”, arrogant, enjoyed the spotlight. President of the Railroad o Each man started with a $6,000 investment and ended up making $2 million each Pacific Railroad Act of 1862 passed o Government started with low interest loans $16,000/ mile in the flatlands Union Pacific build towards the West Central Pacific build towards the East o After Civil War, Big 4 build the railroad through Arkansas Created the Southern Pacific Railroad o Land grants 11.5 million acres in California alone; 17.5 million acres in all of the US. Government tried to persuade private industries/ interests instead of spending its own money. o Charles Crocker company made 2x as much $ than it had paid out o Judah wanted the Railroad to be a monument to him. o Big 4 sat Judah down and wanted to get rid of him because he was just the guy with the idea. Judah had not even contributed any of his own money. Had to find $300,000 to pay out the Big 4 Died of yellow fever before he could pay nothing named after Judah on the railroad, after his death, building went a little smoother. o May 10 th1869, 2 railroads come together @ Promontory Point, Utah “Country Joined together” Southern Pacific Railroad Transportation monopoly Showed how powerful the Railroad was o Could charge any price they wanted for transportation of goods. Farmer selling “hops” (needed to make beer taste good) how much does it take to transport a pound of barley etc. prices subject to change when it most benefitted the southern pacific railroad o Huntington said he would set the rate @ “all the market will bear” Battle of Mussel Slough 1888 Walter Crow + Marshall Alonzo Poe vs. Mills Hart o CORRUPTION IN THE 1870’S o David Colton in charge of political interests bribed public local officials Colton Letters Colton wrote letter Huntington discussing how to bribe officials. When Colton died, The Southern Pacific Railroad wanted to buy back his stock from Mrs. Colton. Mrs. Colton figures out the stocks were more expensive than what they wanted from her and she sues the Big 4 for $4 million. The lawyers try to help Mrs. Colton so they can sue the Big 4 for the most money they can; they ask how important Colton was to the Railroad. Mrs. Colton discovered a trunk of letters in the attic and shows them to the lawyers. In the end, the Railroad settled with Mrs. Colton and she becomes very rich. o “Dear Pard” Letters Colis Huntington was getting jealous that Leland Stanford was very successful and politically ambitious and getting lots of attention Huntington “backstabs” Stanford and becomes the President and Stanford becomes the vice president of the Railroad. Stanford never really recovered from this blow from Huntington. J. M. Bassett a background player with the Railroad the whole time. He was a devoted personal secretary to Standford. Bassett sent letters every week for several years labeled “Dear Pard” to Huntington. Letters spelled out the corruption which was going on. Chinese in the Gold Rush Chinese wanted to make the journey to America so they could make it rich. o Used the “ticket system” The Chinese couldn’t afford a ticket so a company in California paid for your ticket to come over but you had to work for the company for a while this system was like slavery. o American miners didn’t like the Chinese miners because they worked too hard o Foreign Miners Tax of 1882 $3/month Would account for 25% of California income Was a revenue raising tax which was easy to collect Right as they were building the railroad, silver was found in Nevada sometimes the Chinese would say they would go up to work on the railroad but would get off the train and simply walk to Nevada to mine for silver instead Chinese were 2x as cost effect because they were being paid half. The Railroad would go and recruit people in China for jobs like blowing up the sides of mountains, etc. There wasn’t too much competition for jobs like that. o “Terrible 70’s” 1873 economy collapsed, major recession in the south, war ended but domestic terrorist groups were popping up (KKK) corruption! economy went down the tubes and Californians blamed the Chinese; Chinese competing with white workers and stereotypes began popping up o Dennis Kearny “Big Mouth” Managed to unite working men/ lower class of CA and welded them together in a potent force BUT he was a flaming racist. Blamed everything on big business and the Chinese “Working Man’s Party” had socialist tendencies Kearney wanted to join but they said no because he was racist again the Chinese. Kearny made his own “The Workingman’s Party of CA” The Workingman’s party of CA started passing its own laws 3 The Breathing Space Ordinance: You need 500 ft of breathing space. A lot of Chinese bunked together and crammed themselves in small places. The police raided Chinatown apartments + arrested people who violated this ordinance The Laundry Cart Ordinance: horse drawn cart (white launderers) Chinese did not have horse drawn carts “If you’re a laundry business with no horse drawn cart you have to pay $5 a month” (The Chinese delivered things with their hands) The Pole Ordinance o Violence against the Chinese Riot in LA because Chinese man killed a while man 20 Chinese died, 15 hung from the trees. o 1882 –Chinese Exclusion Act 1 ban on immigrants US Gov passed it, no laborers from China but merchants + sons of merchants “paper sons” o 1892 –Act renewed for 10 more years o 1902 –made permanent + stayed on the books until 1942 but took it off in 1943 (WWII) o Chinese men living in SF “bachelor society” HIST LECTURE NOTES 10/19/15 Progressivism Why don’t we have revolution in the US today? - If the government thinks there will be one, it’s not afraid to use excessive amount of force - We can vote for change and hopefully change what will happen At the turn of the century in CA it looked like the time for a revolution - Enormous concentrations of wealth (corrupt companies) - Millions of worker trying to get organized - Politically, things were in turmoil - Violence metal worker strike by LA times explosion (Oct 1910) - Ultra rich vs downtrodden workers - In 1900, 94,000 people voted socialist, but by 1912, nearly 900,000 voted socialist - Progressive party emerged (nationwide movement) o Upper middle class, educated wanted to get back to a mythical “old days” Progressive’s 4 Main Goals 1) Correct the obvious abuses of power, get the railroad under control 2) Strengthen the state, the government, the people EXCEPT big business 3) Get rid of city bosses (corrupt) someone who could deliver votes from immigrants who didn’t really understand or know why they were and who they voting for. 4) Rescue the poor! CA became a progressive state very early The 1906 earthquake (caused a huge fire which led to major damage) helped convert CA to progressivism o Revealed just how mismanaged SF was o Ex. Pure marble columns at city hall cost lots of money, were hollow and were immediately damaged and ruined. o All the water mains broke = lazy construction of water mains o Fake fire hydrants were built all around the city o City was in ashes who would cleanup? Hiram Johnson District Attorney for SF; went after politicians etc. who were corrupt. Progressivism was a 2 step method, and a nationwide movement: 1) Bring problem to light 2) Pass a law to fix it (muckraking) Upton Sinclair wrote exposé literature; “The Jungle” - exposé about the meat packing industry Led to progressivism giving us the FDA etc.; gave America standards they had to follow Progressive legislature targeted 3 main things: economic, political and social benefits Created the Public Utilities Commission (a state commission) the Railroad fought this BUT the Railroad bribed the PUC. It tried to regulate the PUC. Gave us the Direct Primary Gave us direct election of Senators Gave us the Recall, Referendum and Initiative o Used if someone did something really bad/corrupt o RECALL: the way to get someone out of office; if 6% of the people who voted signed a petition, you could get that person you wanted out of office. o REFERENDUM: like a recall but for a law o INITIATIVE: when the voters themselves initiate a law good way to fight big business th Progressives gave women the right to vote: 19 Amendment (1911 in CA and 1920: nationwide) Gave us child labor laws and women labor laws People felt like thing were changing Prohibition 1922 o Too much alcoholism in US especially in the working class o Anti-immigrant, anti-city, anti-working class o Paternalistic view Carey McWilliams migratory farmer Described CA’s workers as CA’s Peculiar Institution (a euphemism for slavery) Referred to them as “CA’s slavery” Farmworkers had no power because 1) Usually farmworkers were non-white, non-citizens and had no legal protections 2) Extreme poverty difficult to build power base with no money and no personal property 3) Transitory nature of their life they moved around a lot 4) Generally there was a surplus of unskilled workers than there were jobs. 5) Most labor unions were hostile to farm workers 6) Because growers were vulnerable, they were extremely hostile (paranoid) to workers blackballed the workers. The growers or employers couldn’t afford a strike from their workers so they set spies among them. 7) The big farm owners had a lot of power owned and operated local government. Who were these farmers? 1870-1880’s Chinese 1890’s-early 1900’s Japanese 1910-1930 (mixed) Southern European, Filipinos, Indians (from India), some Latinos 1930’s Oakies, Dust Bowl refugees (native born white) 1940’s-present Latinos from Mexico and Southern Americas Labor union NOT opposed to these farm laborers: Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) “Wobblies” o Wild-eyed visionaries o Struck fear into capitalists o Had a union constitution; their first line was “the working class and the employing class have nothing in common” o Led by Big Bill Haywood “physically imposing” Big guy who’d lost one eye and grestup and orphan Had faith in his country until his 1 strike @ 17 years old. Haywood believed the police were against him and the people Believed violence was the way of capitalism Basically communist… o Believed workers should own the means of production o IWW appeared in CA in 1907 and by 1910 had 10,000 members o Scared small communities in the central valley and the communities started passing laws (Gag laws) that prohibited public speech and assembly Frank Little organizing fruit pickers in Fresno first arrested a vagrant arrested in 1910 for speaking in public defended himself no law for public speaking BUT after he was released, a law for one was passed. Spring of 1911 mayor backed down, the laws were repealed because the laws violated the constitution. IWW popular in CA because there was a lot of abuse in CA o Durst Brothers Wheatland Hops Ranch Riot 1913 Durst brothers wanted to recruit workers to work at their ranch THE PROMISE: the workers would receive $1 for each 100 lbs of hops picked and a bonus THE REALITY: the workers received 90 cents + 10 cents “bonus” if he didn’t get fired by the end of the season. THE PROMISE: every who shows up you will get a job THE REALITY: the most they would hire was about 1,500 workers and about 2,800 people plus their families showed up THE PROMISE: camping facilities for ₡75 a week and a company store, lots clean drinking water THE REALITY: only 3 out of 5 wells worked and they were dangerously close to the 8 pit toilets. The Ranch was the perfect place for the IWW they went in Aug 1913 and ordered the arrest of the labor leaders The police showed up a riot broke out, 5 people died (3 of them police) National Guard sent into restore order INVESTIGATION only revealed the Durst camp was typical in CA IWW would eventually die out mainly because WWI o They said the war was “workers vs. workers” o “Put the bank owners on the front lines” o Joe Hill song writer o Frank Little dragged through the town and was lynched o Big Bill Haywood charged with murder In 1919 in CA, Criminal Syndicalism Act of 1919 was passed o Made it illegal to belong to a group that wanted to use violence to change things politically o Aimed at IWW but used against all other labor unions in CA o Would later be declared as unconstitutional (by the Black Panthers) HIST LEC 10/23/15 LA vs. SF LA mild, SF (Barbary coast) wild Railroad actively promoted the railroad Rose Bowl Parade attracted people to LA Promotion St Lewis to LA for $1 round trip. Railroad had a lot of land and tried to sell it SF “weird religions” SF said no to prohibition LA Anglo Saxon all the way o Very straight laced o LA said YES to Prohibition while SF said NO. 1910 15,000 people in LA like a giant Midwestern town with values, quiet sleepy place. by 1925, LA became the coocoo land, crackpot “oddball central”, lots of unorthodox religions One group showed up known as “theosophists” led by Katherine Tingly mixed Christianity + Eastern mysticism fundamentalists found them “shocking” “Mighty Iam” believed in St. Jermaine believed they could get powers by drinking from “the cup of electric essence” Sister Aimee McPherson devout Christian with 2 kids + a husband who lived in New York wanted to go to China to become missionaries. Her husband died suddenly and so she decided to go across the country with her mother and 2 kids. o 1918 arrived in LA with $100 and a tambourine, and over the next 5 years would build a temple and organized a “four square gospel” o Developed the 1 religious radio show o Congregation of 10,000 people with churches spread out all over the country o Instant hit in LA because she said “forget about hell, let’s focus on how to get to heaven!” o 15,000 people wanted her to lay her hands on them and heal them in San Diego. After 3 days of “healing” people she stopped and never did events like that ever again. She never spoke of the event and was unusually quiet about the matter because she was a “publicity hound” o 1923 she built 5,300 seat temple “Angelus” o 1924 Church raised $75,000 to create radio broadcast system o 1925 Aimee was a millionaire created “The Brotherhood”, bible school she was at the height of her power o In May 1926 Aimee had gone to the beach with her chaperone and then mysteriously disappeared. Her mother had set out a $25,000 reward. There was a memorial service 5 weeks later to which 14,000 people 3 days after memorial service, she reappeared and claimed she was taken by Mexican gangsters. the media had done some snooping and found out she was with Kenneth Ormiston (her radio engineer who was married) in Carmel o 1927 Aimee selling plots at the cemetery for spots next to her o 1930’s Aimee had nervous breakdown but during Depression came out of it and helped out, offering medical and dental care. o 1944 Aimee came to the Bay Area Revival meeting in Oakland, 10,000 people come to hear Aimee speak BUT the next morning she was found dead with sleeping pills around her. unsure whether or not she was suicidal or confused about the number of sleeping pills she had taken. o Oct 9, 1944 Aimee would have been 54 and was buried. o WHY DOES SHE MATTER? “You could become a millionaire doing absolutely nothing” Aimee was offering people a chance for fulfillment she had lots of opportunities for jobs “Maybe chasing the dream is better than actually achieving it” LA crazy because of all these new crazy religious groups but also because of timing SF grew up a compact city, you did not have to use transportation. In 1920, you could buy a $280 car cars were perfect for LA because everything was spread out vs SF which wasn’t) There was a dramatic role shift for women working class women who were literate 1890-1910 middle class women Gibson Girl became the model of femininity Victorian, cinched waist, bottom on Victorian dresses, hair long but put up in elaborate curled hairdos. 1920 Emergence of “The Flapper” leg was showing, square dresses, hair cut short, women very promiscuous and carefree. HOW DID WE GET FROM THE GIBSON GIRL TO THE FLAPPER? Middle class women lived in the city and had a white collar husband, in the 1890’s women learned to repress their sexuality because there was no birth control in the 1890’s. sex meant having kids so there was no passion in marriages. In the teens (1900’s), vulcanized rubber was created during WWI and condoms were invented. The government was wondering, “Do we teach the army how to use the condom and about safe sex?” troops came home with this new technology which surprised their wives. By the 1920’s there was a sexual revolution women could have sex without getting pregnant and so things changed, especially the idea about marriage. Companionate Marriage your wife is your best friend + lover + companion, instead of someone who had your kids. There was passion in a marriage now that sex was a “fun, recreational activity” o In the 1890’s marriage was an economic benefit o Marriage became a romantic and exciting thing o New idea of womanhood blossomed women were playful and sexy Hollywood played up this theme. o Douglas Fairbanks and Mary Pickford actors in Hollywood who had fell in love while doing a movie together. They divorced their first spouses to marry each other and because there was a sexual revolution during this time, instead of shaming them, America thought it was a great thing to happen. By the end of 1920’s the divorce rate was skyrocketing There was always a stigma: “The American family is going to hell in a handbasket because women were working and becoming literate” Elain Tyler May wanted to get at the voices of illiterate women o Went through divorce court records o In the 1920’s it was easy to get divorced companionate marriage raised the expectations and put a new stress on marriage. The Great Depression 1920’s business was booming There were 3 presidents during the 1920’s: 1) Warren G Harding Liked to smoke expensive Cuban cigars and drink whiskey Elected in 1920, died suddenly in 1922 in SF rumors his wife poisoned him, a series of scandals about to let out right before he died. 2) Calvin Coolidge Vice President turned President Was said he was the laziest president in our history Slept all the time Cut taxes for the wealth, but did little of much else His nickname was “Silent Cow” didn’t like to talk In 1928 the farmers began to fail and Coolidge didn’t do anything about it. 3) Herbert Hoover elected in 1928 Stock Market crashed a symptom of the great Depression but not the cause of it. Hoover said the Depression was a “psychological problem” told people to feel better and then the economy would get better In 1929 they didn’t know what to do took 4-5 years to figure out what to do Distribution of wealth was disastrous this is what caused the Great Depression o 1% of the population owned 59% of the wealth while a much larger percent (65%?) owned only 12% of the wealth spread out among them. o 1923-1929 business profit rose 62% Stock dividends rose 65% Wages only went up 11% o In 1929, a family of 4 only earned $2,000/ year This was the poverty line and 60% of families lived below it. What caused the Great Depression? o Consumers had no purchasing power o Business community “cut its own throat” saw its workers as an expense, not as consumers employers cut wages too much o Productivity went up too high, quality was too good, and there was a surplus of supply and not enough demand so workers were laid off and this became a domino effect for many companies. By 1932, 12 million were unemployed By 1932, you were either out of work or you had a friend who was out of work 32 million families had no regular bread winners (this was when the population of America was about 125 million The people had lost faith in the business community Hoover held up to ridicule “hoover blankets”, “hoovervilles”, “hoover flags” Hoover argument was he didn’t want the people to be dependent on the government. He thought the government was a referee who kept the game even but didn’t play. The people were lost and didn’t know how to feel or think Roosevelt (FDR) “caught in something we don’t understand”, “all we have to fear is fear itself” o Connected to the American people with fireside chats on the radio. He had 30 evening radio addresses between 1933 and 1944 with which he communicated directly with citizens. He talked about issues with the bank, the recession and New Deal initiatives. o People were searching for leadership o FDR campaigned with the New Deal March 9 1933, FDR brought up the Emergency Banking Bill got it passed THAT NIGHT (on the same day he had proposed it) o 15 major programs (major pieces of legislation) were passed by FDR and Congress within the First 100 Days of his Presidency o FDR saved capitalism and democracy in America [Meanwhile, Hitler was coming to power (Germany and Italy economy was also in a bad state, so bad that people supported totalitarianism)] o FDR made lots of “make-work” projects Out in California o New Deal made unions legitimate o 1934 National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) Section 7a said you couldn’t get fired if you were part of a union Wagner Act (passed by Congress in 1935) workers have the right to organize + bargain collectively + legally belong to a union Blue Book Unions formed by “schwarmy” business owners the boss would pick the negotiating team which would then turn on the workers. “Shape-up hiring” May 1934 ILA (International Longshoreman’s Association) went on strike against water front employers ILA put up a picket line people learned quickly not to cross the picket line and the 5 of July 1934, the police were determined to break a hole in the ILA picket line a riot broke out and 60 people were injured, 2 people killed and the National Guard had to be brought in. On the 16 of July (1934) ILA called for a general strike (everyone in SF) and things in SF came to a halt for 4 days. Ship owners + ILA fined agreed to a binding arbitration both sides told a judge what they want and the judge decides the judge handed down a decision that was an enormous victory ILA became the union for entire pacific coast 6 hour workday + substantial wage increase Hiring haul you would go to the union hall and they would put your name down on a list if you needed work and it would cycle through so that all workers had a chance to get work. HIST LEC NOTES 11/16/15 Racism, Ageism, Misogyny -Anti-Japanese sentiment Image of the Japanese “they were sneaky” -1880’s Japanese started coming over Japanese inherited anti-Chinese sentiment -By the 1905, SF labor unions formed “Asiatic Exclusion League” wanted to exclude all Asians Labor unions saw 3 threats in the Japanese: 1) Economic “they’re gonna take our jobs!” 2) Social “the Japanese couldn’t be assimilated” but at the same time, they assimilated too rapidly. 3) Biological threat racial Darwinism through sexual unions, the Japanese might absorb the white race. 1905 SF schoolboard ordered all schools be segregated 1906 earthquake Chinese school in SF rebuilt but called “The Oriental School” afterwards. 1906 Japan sent registered complaint to SF school board because the children were being discriminated against. o Teddy Roosevelt impressed by Japan + didn’t want to get on their bad side because he knew they had many assets. o 93 students in SF o 1907 Teddy Roosevelt created “Gentleman’s Agreement” between Japan and SF schoolboard o School had to accept Japanese kids but Japan was only allowed to send immediate family only. o Picture brides parents picked out wives for their sons in the US 1913 Californians were upset that the Japanese were buying too much land o Heney-Webb Alien Land Law passed directly aimed at the Japanese o It was determined that Japanese were aliens ineligible for citizenship so the Heney-Webb (all state) Law banned people who were aliens ineligible for citizenship from buying land. to work around this, the Japanese would put the land in their children’s name (who were American citizens) 1924 a system of quotas determined how many people could come over from their country the quota for the Japanese was 0 and it stayed that way until Dec 7 th1941, when America was attacked (Pearl Harbor) America at war with Japan o During the war, there was a certain curtailment of civil rights, “ a cutting back” THE INTERMENT “Nothing can ever justify the Japanese Interment” More than 60% of the people gathered up were American citizens, 1/3 under the age of 19. All 3 branches of government gave way to war-time hysteria and racism. o Roosevelt bore much of the responsibility issued Executive order 9066 (1942) o Congress passed Public Law 77-503 Logistics of internment camp -how to determine who was white/Japanese etc. o Supreme court 1944 Fred Korematsu vs US Army Did not want to go into internment camp, trials went very far In 1944 it was ruled that the internment was unconstitutional BUT it was a wartime necessity. 1980’s Korematsu would go back to court to overturn that case, PROVED the internment was NOT a war-time necessity. NO JUSTIFICATION FOR JAPANESE INTERNMENT o One excuse was “ even though the Japanese Americans were loyal, it only takes one Japanese to make everything go bad.” o Lt. Gen. John L. Dewitt most responsible for the internment, “inscrutable oriental” o in Hawaii, there were 168 Americans of Japanese descent who were not jailed or affected etc. o December 7 , 1941 Pearl Harbor Union groups went to Dewitt and told him they were afraid. Jan 25 , 1942 Congress released the “Roberts Report” which blamed two people: 1) Admiral Husband E Kimmel (Navy); 2) Lt. Gen. Walter Short as responsible for the tragedy at Pearl Harbor Jan 27 , Dewitt states he will not be another “Short” so he recommends the interment is good and the Japanese should be taken out of the West Coast. th March 27 , Japanese told to congregate at local assembly centers May 4 -8 US navy attacked Japanese navy at the battle of the Coral Sea. as of June 6 1942, Japan could not attack the US because its navy was crippled. o Issei generation immigrant parents who didn’t really know or pay attention to what was really going on. o Nissei generation young people in their 20’s who weren’t about to get pushed around. Some said they had to fight back versus those who said lets show the Americans how good they were as citizens. created bitter split in the community, strife and contention within the community. There were two questions aimed at the Japanese: 1) Do you renounce your loyalty to the Emperor? 2) Are you willing to serve for the US army? o Some people who answered no to both questions were called the “No-No Boys” o 442 Combat Regiment formed by the Japanese Americans (mainly from Hawaii) who answered yes and became the most decorated unit in the US Army and suffered the largest number of casualties. Mainly these soldiers fought when their families were in internment camps. These soldiers wanted to fight and prove their loyalty to America o Battle of the Lost Battalion Combat Regiment 442 saved 200 soldiers from Texas when they were trapped by German forces. War ends 1945 o Japanese soldiers came home + went about rebuilding their lives and did not want to talk about the internment o Wasn’t until the Sansei (3 generation) during the civil rights movement of the 60’s that these people started asking questions. o Redress Payment everyone who was still alive during the 80’s and was internment got an apology and compensation ($20,000) Zoot Suit Riots Racism was really bad Colored kids who made their own hangout/swimming pool in East LA “Sleepy Lagoon Murder” Zoot Suit Riots were deeply connected. th Henry Leyvas and girlfriend at the Lagoon (Leyvas a part of 38 street gang got chased out of the Lagoon Jose Diaz found unconscious near the house where the part happened, brought to the hospital and died from a fractured skull. LAPD found out Leyvas and friends were there, and got arrested with his friends During the interrogation, Leyvas + friends were strapped to a chair and beaten badly by the LAPD. When they show up at court before the grand jury, they appeared haggard, beaten and bruised. Captain E. Duran Ayres testified “Latinos were descended from the Aztecs who were very cruel”; also testified that Anglo Saxons fight with their hands while Latinos and Indians liked weapons and had every intention to kill every time they fought. o Claimed Latinos were inherently violent and wanted to spill blood. o Suggested the boys either be put away for a long time or drafted into the army if they were so willing to fight and kill. st o All 17 gang members with charged with 1 degree murder The surgeon who did the autopsy was forced to testify that Diaz’s injuries were like being hit by a car Defendants weren’t allowed to clean up or sit next to their defendants nd 9 charged with 2 degree murder, 5 charged with assault, 3 let go. Carey McWilliams historian and journalist lead + Sleepy Lagoon defense committee + House on American Activities Committee. rd June 3 1943 sailors out on the town o Sailors jumped claimed it was 3 to 1 o LA cops responded to squeal over police radio + off duty cops called “the Vengeance Squad” o The next night, 200 servicemen called up 20 taxicabs and created the “Taxicab Brigade” when they saw a latino kid, they beat him up. o Cops were called but supposedly they couldn’t find the brigade. o Sailors went back to base and had a press conference + claimed “we’re gonna do what the cops haven’t been able to do.” June 5th, scores of sailors went out + beat up latino kids in zoot suits. o Latinos arrested on suspicion of intent of assault. June 6th cops and servicemen worked out informal agreement. o Servicemen went out and beat up young latino men and arrested the young latinos June 7 gang members/ latinos were out to get the servicemen. o Media said the Latinos were going to make an army etc. o That night the biggest race riot erupted that was ever seen. People sided with the servicemen and ganged up and targeted people of color Latinos, blacks, Filipinos NO ARRESTS MADE THAT NIGHT. o Press had a field day. o Enemies of the US were ridiculing the US. word came that the riots should stop and they stopped. June 8 order restored to LA Ronald Reagan asked about segregation in the military. Asked about segregation in the military. o US military segregated until 1948 but the US navy integrated June of 1945 1 military branch to do so because the Port of Chicago (in the Bay Area) ammunition loading port o Problems at Port Chicago personnel on active duty vs re-service (backups) Black unlisted men had no training loading ammunition Captain Nelson Goss did not want blacks and Filipinos b/c they don’t compare favorably with white men had a “chip on their shoulder” , resentful Blacks had been trained to fight and for battle but were assigned to do back breaking work loading ships had little opportunity for promotion, had to constantly deal with risk. Some men complained to officers about not having the proper training handling ammunition. Officers usually said “don’t worry because the bombs aren’t live and weren’t usually dangerous. June 17 1944 at 10pm, a giant explosion goes off Lots of cooperation 350 people killed, 220 African Americans Lots of people injured by flying glass Joe Small ( and his friend Alex) survived African Americans went out to help 5 received medals for their coolness and bravery. After tragedy, there was a list of disturbing events. $5,000 in survival benefits and life insurance policies given but cut down to $3,000 African Americans were reassigned to go back to work immediately after but white officers got time off to “recuperate” Court of inquiry never found out why there was an explosion but it said African American men didn’t know what they were doing and couldn’t follow the directions given to them. Joe Small natural born leader would step out of ranks and complained to the officers about not having the proper training Small was a spokesman 328 men from Port Chicago refused to load ammunition and stayed on a prison barge for 3 days refusing to work; August 11, 1944 were marched out to baseball field and were given a speech by Admiral Wright. Men didn’t know they were committing mutiny and were in shock Men split up 50 men charged with mutiny charged with mutiny – biggest mutiny trial in US. Trial on Treasure Island o Men were refusing orders BUT did not want to take over the port etc. o Men were mainly respectful and pleaded not guilty Black press were the only ones to cover the trial. Joe Small testified and no one directly ordered them to load the ammunition. Oct 1944 all 50 men found guilty and sentenced to 15 years in jail. June 1945 segregation banned in the navy Jan 1946 secretary of the Navy said the Port Chicago men were to be freed. Joe Small was a sailor aboard a destroyer ship and is the only black sailor, sits in the kitchen and eat his meals. o Asked to eat meal with the crew because it was an integrated navy but whites did not want to sit with him. o Joe and Alex become friends after a fight in the mess hall “integration does wonders” –Professor Sigmon
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