Psychology 1100H Notes before midterm 1
Psychology 1100H Notes before midterm 1 Psych 1100H
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Psych 1100H notes 8/25/2015 Chapter 1 book Psychology- the science of behavior and the mind Behavior- the observable actions of a person or animal Mind- 1. an individual’s sensations, perceptions, memories, thoughts, dreams, motives, emotions, and other subjective experiences 2. the unconscious knowledge and operating rules that are built into or stored in the brain and provide he foundation for organizing behavior and conscious experience science- all attempts to answer questions through the systematic collection and logical analysis of objectively observable data History of psychology: Wilhelm Wundt opened the first university-based psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany around the same time, Wundt also wrote the first psychology textbook and began mentoring psychology’s first official graduate students Fundamental Ideas of Psychology 1. behavior and mental experiences have physical causes that can be studied scientifically 2. the way people behave, think, and feel is modified over time by their experiences in their environment 3. the body’s machinery, which produces behavior and mental experiences, is a product of evolution by natural selection Ages 15 century: renaissance 18 century: enlightenment dualism- each human being consists of two distinct but intimately conjoined entities, a material body and an immaterial soul materialism- spirit or soul is a meaningless concept; nothing exists but matter and energy Famous psychologists: Wilhelm Wundt: o opened first university-based psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany o wrote first psychology textbook o began mentoring psychology’s first official grad students René Descartes: o Author of Treatise of man The passions of the soul o Challenged classic believe of dualism, and put more of an emphasis on the body’s importance to humans Thomas Hobbes o Author of Leviathan Human Nature o Thought of materialism o All human behavior, including the seemingly voluntary choices we make, can in theory be understood in terms of physical processes in the body, especially the brain François Magendie o Demonstrated that nerves have two pathways, carrying messages in/out I. M. Sechenov o Author: Reflexes of the Brain o Every human action can in theory be understood as a reflex Ivan Pavlov o Studied reflexes Johannes Müller o Proposed that the different qualities of sensory experience come about because the nerves from different sense organs excite different parts of the brain Pierre Flourens o Performed experiments with animals showing that damage to different parts of the brain produces different kinds of deficits in animals’ abilities to move Paul Broca o Published evidence that people who suffer injury to a very specific area of the brain’s left hemisphere lose the ability to speak but do not lose other mental abilities Reflexology- all human behavior occurs through reflexes Empiricism- the idea that human knowledge and thought derive ultimately from sensory experience Advocates o John Locke An Essay Concerning Human Understanding Children are born with no dispositions to make some types of learning easier than others o David Hartley o James Mill o John Stuart Mill Law of association by contiguity- if a person experiences two environmental events at the same time or one right after the other (contiguously) those two events will become associated in the person’s mind such that the thought of one event will tend to elicit the thought of the other 8/26/15 Book Notes (Chapter 1 cont.) Nativism- the view that the most basic form of human knowledge and the basic operating characteristics of the mind are inborn and do not have to be learned by experience Originated in Germany Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz Immanuel Kant o Critique of Pure Reason Priori knowledge- built into the human brain, does not have to be learned Posteriori knowledge- gained from the environment Charles Darwin Wrote o the Origin of Species o the expression of the emotions in Man and Animals basic forms of human emotional expressions, i.e. crying are inherited, as are those in other animals Hypothesized evolution by natural selection Level of Analysis- the level, or type of causal process that is studied Biological o Neural (brain as cause) Research specialty- behavioral neuroscience Study neurons o Physiological (internal chemical functions, such as hormones, as cause) Specialty: physiological psychology or biopsychology Study ways hormones and drugs act on brain to alter behavior and experience o Genetic (genes as cause) Behavioral genetics Studies psychological differences among individuals in terms of differences in their genes o Evolutionary (natural selection as cause) Evolutionary psychology Explains how or why universal human characteristics came about in the course of evolution Effects of experience and knowledge o Learning (prior experiences with environment) Learning/behavioral psychology Attempt to relate learning experiences directly to behavioral changes and are relatively unconcerned with the mental processes that mediate such relationships o Cognitive (knowledge or beliefs as cause) Cognitive psychology Experience in the environment leads to change in knowledge of beliefs, and that change leads to change in behavior o Social (other people) Social psychology The attempt to understand and explain how the thought, feeling, and behavior of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others Very closely related to cognitive psychology o Cultural (culture in which a person develops) Cultural psychology Characterizes entire cultures in terms of the typical ways that people within them feel, think, and act Often refers to unique history, economy, and religious or philosophical traditions of a culture to explain the values, norms, and habits of it’s people o Developmental (age-related changes) Developmental psychology Describes the sequence of changes that occur from infancy to adult-hood, for any given type of behavior or mental capacity These levels of analysis are not used separately, but are often used in conjunction with the others. Cognition- information in the mind Social pressure- social influences including conformity to social norms, obedience to authority, and living up to other’s expectations Psychology Professions Professors Medical doctors Supervision of elementary and secondary schools for more effective classroom techniques Business and government problem solving in the workplace 8/27/2015 1100HIntro (1) Foundations for the Study of Psychology Psychology- The scientific study of behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism’s physical state, mental state(upset, scared, etc.), and external environment (are we being watched?) Behavior: anything an organism does Mental processes: thoughts, emotions, planning Goals of Psychology: 1. Description: a. characterizes how organisms feel, think, or act in various situations 2. Explanation: a. try to understand why living beings think, feel, or act as they do 3. Prediction: a. attempt to anticipate how beings behave under certain conditions b. The future can be predicted by using the past 4. Control: a. seek to influence behavior through control of its causes b. i.e. preventing aggressive behavior in children by better educating the parents, and teaching them better parenting skills Three Branches that psychology overlaps with: Philosophy: o exploring and understanding the general nature of the world o Introspection- the examination or observation of one's own mental and emotional processes Natural Sciences: o study of physical world and its phenomena Medicine: o science of diagnosing, treating, and preventing diseases and other damage to the body and mind Important People for Psychology Hippocrates: o believed that the brain was the ultimate source of “our pleasures, joys, and laughter and just as well as our sorrows, pains, griefs and tears.” o Father of medicine Aristotle: o focused on how to describe, predict, understand, and modify behavior in order to add to human knowledge and increase human happiness Post-Renaissance Rene Descartes: dualistic nature of humans is what separates us from nonhuman animals Dualism: behavior was controlled by 2 distinct systems: soul and body Behavior is governed by mechanical means (body) Soul has one function: thought Nativism: ideas are innate to the human mind Men are born, not made Post-Renaissance John Locke: humans are born without knowledge; mind is a blank slate that environment writes upon (“tabula rasa”) Empiricism: anything we know, we have learned through experience Sensory experiences provide input Men are made, not born Early Psychological Approaches Structuralism: o Wilhelm Wundt: established the 1st psychology lab in 1879 (officially a science!) o Goal: understand mind by analyzing its elements/basic units of thought o Conscious experience can be broken down into underlying parts Functionalism: o William James: interested in how various actions help a person or animal adapt to the environment o Taught the first psychology course o Goal: understand the purpose/function of behavior Associationism o Hermann Ebbinghaus o Goal: to examine how events or ideas can become associated in the mind, resulting in learning and memory formation o Forgetting curve Initially have a high degree of recall Later have a lower degree of recall, and cannot remember things as easily Gestalt- an organized whole that is perceived as more than the sum of its parts o Max Wertheimer o Goal: to understand how people perceive information o Mental processes influence how we see things Our beliefs affect how we see things We won’t see certain things unless we are looking for them (dalmation) o He believes we see visual information as a whole (picture, not the dots) Levels of Analysis Biological: brain, nervous system, hormones, and genetics are all central to understanding human mental processes and behavior o Neural (brain) o Physiological (chemicals) o Genetic (genes) o Evolutionary (how specific skills and abilities present now contributed to ancestor’s survival, basically natural selection) Experience and Knowledge: responses related to changes in the environment o Learning (characteristics are influenced by past experiences) o Cognitive (how do we think? Motivations, intelligence, thoughts) o Social (influences by other people) o Cultural (beliefs, values, attitudes, gender, ethnicity, religion and their influences) o Developmental (how thoughts/behaviors mature over time) Professional activities: Teaching and/or doing research in colleges and universities Applied: Providing physical and/or mental health services (“psychological practice”) Conducting research or applying its findings in nonacademic settings Research/academic (~21%): finding new information to extend the scientific basis of psychology Developmental Social Educational Behavioral Neuroscience So you want to be a Psychologist? Applied (78%): use psychological principles to help people (and animals, too) solve problems Clinical (includes majority of psychologists) Counseling Industrial/Organizational (I/O) (help companies improve productivity) School Sports (help athletes mentally i.e. focus) Forensic (law meets psychology they assess people’s disorders and whether the disorder made actions acceptable) Mental Health Career Options Social worker (LCSW & MFCC(Marriage and Family Clinical Councilor)): deals with general problems in adjustment and family conflict rather than serious mental disturbance Mental health nurse: cares for people of all ages with mental illness or mental distress usually in a hospital setting Pastoral counselor: provides both psychological and spiritual guidance What are the differences between psychologists and psychiatrists? Psychiatrists have medical degrees (M.D.) and Psychologists have graduate degrees (Ph.D., Psy.D., or Ed.D.) 8/31/15 Book Notes correlational study- a study in which the researcher does not manipulate any variable, but observes or measures two or more already existing variables to find relationships between them descriptive study- any study that is not experimental, these usually just record observations laboratory study- any research study in which the subjects are brought to a specially designated area for an experiment, and variables can be controlled field study- any research study conducted in a setting in which the researcher does not have control of a subject’s environment hawthorne effect- the alteration of behavior by the subjects of a study due to their awareness of being observed descriptive statistics- the analysis of data that helps describe, show or summarize data in a meaningful way such that, for example, patterns might emerge from the data inferential statistics- makes inferences about populations using data drawn from the population. Instead of using the entire population to gather the data, the statistician will collect a sample or samples from the millions of residents and make inferences about the entire population using the sample. Correlation coefficient: Positive correlations show that an increase in one variable coincides with a tendency for the other variable to decrease Negative correlations do the opposite Absolute value of coefficient determines the strength of the correlation 9/1/15 Lecture Notes Psychology vs. “Psychobabble” Psychology is based on rigorous research and empirical evidence Empirical: evidence gathered by careful observation, experimentation, and measurement Psychobabble tends to rely on anecdotal evidence Example: Phrenology(Joseph Gall): the study of the structure of the skull to determine a person’s character and mental capacity Key Data Collection Techniques: Observation Lab (artificial setting) Naturalistic (field study, conducted in natural environment) Questionnaire/survey Interview Standardized test (universal procedures for administering and grading tests) Physiological recording- measuring a biological event and linking it to a psychological event (i.e. heart rate) Case study- gathering as much information from one subject as possible Research Methods: Correlational Research: Permits investigators to explore relationships between variables, variables are not manipulated Correlational coefficient: tells strength and direction of relationship (- 1.00 to 1.00) “Third variable problem” There may be another variable that is not foreseen that can affect the data Correlational Studies Example: Few books in a child’s home are associated with lower vocabulary scores at age 3 Time Span of Research Cross-sectional: studying people all at one time Longitudinal: studying the same individuals over a period of time Evaluating research Biases Placebo effect- a person’s expectations, not the treatment leads them to change Social desirability bias- bias when self-reporting, to make ourselves look good Hawthorne effect- the tendency for people to work harder when they are being observed Experimenter bias- researcher’s wants influence how they see their information Ethical Issues of Psychological Research ( with humans) Protection from Harm Informed Consent Debriefing The issue of deception o i.e. placebo effect, or faking a medical emergency and seeing the person’s reaction Privacy and Confidentiality Ethics of Studying Animals Usually animals are not harmed Confederate- a person that works for a research study, but the subjects do not realize, they’re kinda like an actor 9/8/15 1100HLearningPt(1) Learning- Any relatively permanent change in behavior, thoughts, and feelings of an organism, resulting from prior experience Conditioning- Learning process, an originally neutral stimulus becomes associated with a response that the stimulus did not originally produce Components of Classical Conditioning Unconditioned stimulus (US) – stimulus that produces a response without prior learning Unconditioned response (UR) - unlearned response automatically elicited by the UCS Conditioned stimulus (CS) - previously neutral stimulus that acquires capacity to evoke a CR Conditioned response (CR) – learned response that occurs after CS-US pairing Basic Processes in Classical Conditioning Acquisition – initial stage of learning something Extinction – gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency Spontaneous recovery – reappearance of an extinguished response Stimulus generalization – after conditioning, an organism often shows tendency to respond not only to exact stimulus used but to other similar stimuli Watson & Raynor – “Little Albert(loud noises and rats)” Stimulus discrimination – occurs when an organism has learned a response to a specific stimulus and does not respond in the same way to similar stimuli Examples of Classical Conditioning Taste aversion learning Conditioned emotional responses Advertising Classical Conditioning and Drug Tolerance Drug tolerance: the decline in physiological and behavioral effects that occur with some drugs when they are taken repeatedly • Can be partially explained as a result of conditioning CS + US => CR Context Drug Body’s compensatory response CS => CR Context Body’s compensatory response Operant Conditioning Learning occurs as result of stimuli that either strengthen or weaken the likelihood of a behavior’s reoccurrence Edward Thorndike’s Law of Effect – over time, actions that are rewarded are strengthened; actions that are punished tend to be weakened BF Skinner – Experimental analysis of behavior – all behavior should be studied and analyzed Reinforcement A stimulus that increases the probability that a given behavior associated with the stimulus will be repeated Positive – reward; pleasant stimulus that follows the behavior and strengthens the associated response Negative – unpleasant stimulus, removal increases probability that behavior will be repeated Punishment Process that decreases the probability of a response Positive – application of an unpleasant stimulus Negative – removal of a pleasant stimulus 9/10/15 Corporal Punishment- Bodily punishment of any kind as a form of discipline Spanking corporal punishment o Physically non-injurious o Intended to modify behavior o Administered with an open hand to the extremities or buttocks Don’t do it o May produce fear of person/context o Associated with aggressive behavior and lower cognitive skills in children o Increased risk for long term negative outcomes including, but not limited to, antisocial behavior, anxiety, adolescents assaulting parents Do it o Negative outcomes are more likely when parents hit in anger and have lost control spanking is the only form of punishment spanking is very frequent Characteristics of Effective Discipline Child knows why they are being punished Complement punishment by using positive reinforcement Implement punishment immediately Ensure that it is impossible to escape punishment Reinforcement: Continuous – reinforcement always and invariably follows a particular behavior Partial/intermittent – reinforcement occurs some of the time Ratio schedules o A proportion of responses are reinforced regardless of the amount of time o Fixed – reinforcement always occurs after a specific number of responses o Variable – reinforcement occurs, on average, after a certain number of responses Interval schedules o Reinforcement given after a certain amount of time has passed; regardless of the amount of responses that occurred during that time o Fixed – reinforcement always occurs after a certain amount of time o Variable – reinforcement occurs after the passage of an average interval of time Learned Helplessness Occurs when an individual is conditioned to emit no behavior to escape aversive conditions Seligman: dogs receiving shocks Learned helplessness as an explanation for Battered Women’s Syndrome Observational Learning Occurs by watching the behavior of others as well as the environmental outcomes of their behavior Also referred to as social (cognitive)learning Can occur in all stages of the lifespan, but it appears to be most influential during childhood “Bobo Doll Experiment” (Bandura) Goal: Demonstrate that if children were witnesses to adults’ aggressive display, then they would imitate aggressive behavior when they have the opportunity Results indicate that children can learn aggression through observational learning Required Conditions for Observational Learning Attention Retention Motivation (do you want to imitate that behavior?) Potential reproduction (can I do that?) Model characteristics (do you respect the person you might imitate? Is the person consistently in your life? Are they similar enough that they can be imitated?[same school, same major, etc.]) 9/15/15 Habituation- the loss of a response to a common stimuli, i.e. jump at loud noise, but when hearing it for a while, don’t jump as much Three Functions of the Nervous System 1. Receive sensory input from the world 2. Process information 3. Respond to information Major divisions of the Nervous System Central Nervous System (CNS) • Composed of the brain and spinal cord • Receives, processes, interprets, and stores incoming sensory information • Spinal cord = information superhighway • Ascending tracts • Information from body to brain • Descending tracts • Information from brain to body Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) • All neural structures that lie outside the CNS that connect brain and spinal cord to other parts of the body • Provides information to go to brain • Controls response from messages from brain • Handles CNS input/output • Further divided into somatic/skeletal nervous system & autonomic nervous system • Somatic/skeletal- voluntary • helps sense surroundings • helps control movements • Autonomic Nervous System- involuntary • Regulates glands and muscles of internal organs and involuntary functions (respiration, circulation, digestion) • Sympathetic – mobilize body for action • Fight or flight • Parasympathetic – operates during relaxed states Acute stress- influenced by demands and pressures of the recent past and anticipated demands and pressures of the near future Chronic stress- influenced by emotional pressure suffered for a prolonged period over which an individual perceives he or she has no control Neurons • Sensory o converting external stimuli into internal electrical impulses. • Motor o Forms part of a pathway along which impulses pass from the brain or spinal cord to a muscle or gland. • Interneurons o transmits impulses between other neurons, especially as part of a reflex arc reflex arc- the nerve pathway involved in a reflex action including at its simplest a sensory nerve and a motor nerve with a synapse between o Found in the central nervous system Common characteristics of neurons: • Soma – cell body • Dendrites – receive neural impulses • Axons – transmits messages to other neurons, glands, or muscles • Each axon branches out into fibers that end in structures called terminal buttons • Myelin sheath - insulates axon; allows for more efficient message transmittal Neuronal communication • Information moves along a neuron in the form of a neural impulse called an action potential • action potential – sudden, momentary inflow of sodium ions across the cell membrane, followed by the outflow of potassium ions • Process repeats along the axon until it reaches the terminal buttons Synapses- tiny spaces between neurons • Inside terminal buttons are synaptic vesicles which store neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters- a chemical that diffuses across the synaptic gap and stimulates the next neuron • Acetylcholine • Helps memory function • voluntary motor control • Dopamine • Responsible for attention • voluntary motor control • planning • depleted dopamine in brain associated with Parkinson’s • Serotonin • Circadian rhythm • Mood • Hunger regulation? • Norepinephrine • Responsible for alertness/awakeness • Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) • Inhibitory neurotransmittor • Endorphins • Endogenous morphine • Pain killer • Enhances sense of well-being (i.e. runner’s high) Neurotransmitter- a chemical substance that is released at the end of a nerve fiber by the arrival of a nerve impulse and, by diffusing across the synapse or junction, causes the transfer of the impulse to another nerve fiber, a muscle fiber, or some other structure Synaptic pruning- In neuroscience, synaptic pruning or axon pruning is the process of synapse elimination that occurs between early childhood and the onset of puberty in many mammals 9/17/2015 Techniques for neural studies: Brain damaged patients Lesion method o remove tissue, dissect parts of the brain Electrical recording o EEG (electroencephalography)- the measurement of electrical activity in different parts of the brain and the recording of such activity as a visual trace (on paper or on an oscilloscope screen). Neuroimaging o Structural Brain imaging: observation of basic structures of brain and any structural abnormalities that might exist CAT Scan (computerized axial tomography) Tomography- a technique for displaying a representation of a cross section through a human body or other solid object using X-rays or ultrasound. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) More specific than CAT scans o Functional brain imaging: gives information about activity of brain when performing cognitive tasks. PET Scan (positron emission tomography) PET Scan- a nuclear medicine, functional imaging technique that produces a three- dimensional image of functional processes in the body fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) a functional neuroimaging procedure using MRI technology that measures brain activity by detecting associated changes in blood flow Subcortical Regions • bottom of brain, located beneath the cerebral cortex/ cerebrum(the top most portion of the brain) • Brainstem: responsible for basic survival functions • Cerebellum: “little brain” responsible for proper motor function, and balance • Ataxia- the loss of full control of bodily movements The Limbic System and Related Structures • Thalamus: sensory relay station • Hypothalamus: regulator of biological needs • Influences most things in the human body, including temperature regulation • Responsible for: • Fighting • Fleeing • Feeding • Fucking • Amygdala: associates things in the world with emotion • Basal ganglia: voluntary movement • Works together with the cerebellum for motor movement • Important for imagination of voluntary movement, i.e. imagining dancing before learning a new dance • Hippocampus: memory formation and storage Cerebrum: Allows complex thought Divided into hemispheres, connected by a band of fibers called corpus callosum Cerebral Hemispheres: • Operate in a contralateral fashion • Contralateral- relating to or denoting the side of the body opposite to that on which a particular structure or condition occurs • The left hemisphere receives sensory information from and controls movements on the right side, while the right hemisphere receives sensory information from and controls movements on the left side • Lateralization – specialization of the two cerebral hemispheres for particular operations • Left – language; positive emotions • Right – nonverbal processing; negative emotions Aphasia- oss of ability to understand or express speech, caused by brain damage. Hemispheric Lobes: • Occipital – back of brain; visual cortex • First place to receive visual information • Parietal – top of brain; somatosensory cortex • Temporal – sides of the brain; auditory cortex • Information about sounds • Frontal – front of brain; voluntary movement • Prefrontal cortex (PFC) • Planning • Impulse control • Judgment Pre-frontal Cortex • Part of the frontal lobes • Makes up approximately 30% of the brain • Responsible for rational, goal-directed activity, reducing distractions • Plays a significant role in personality • People with ADHD have dysfunctions in their pre-frontal cortex Brain (neural) Plasticity Plasticity- the quality of being easily shaped or molded • Age dependent, the younger, the more flexible the brain • The ability of the brain to reorganize neural pathways based on experiences • Environment plays a key role in influencing plasticity • Occurs • During normal brain development • As an adaptive mechanism to compensate for injury Know how hormones affect behavior, but don’t have to know specific hormones Fill in blank Short answer Multiple choice Definitions Will have entire class period to take exam Exam is on Tuesday MIDTER M 1 HAPPENE D
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