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Psychology 1100H Notes before midterm 2

by: Paige Anderson

Psychology 1100H Notes before midterm 2 Psych 1100H

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Paige Anderson
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These notes were taken in Dr. Scott's class. They contain definitions, and important concepts covered in the class and in the textbook. I hope they are useful!
Honors Introduction to Psychology
Prof. Betrina Scott
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This 21 page Bundle was uploaded by Paige Anderson on Monday January 18, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Psych 1100H at Ohio State University taught by Prof. Betrina Scott in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Honors Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Ohio State University.


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Date Created: 01/18/16
9/24/2015 S&Poverview&pain.ppt Sense: a system that receives a particular kind of physical stimulation and translates it into an electrochemical message to transmit to the brain Sensation: receiving physical/stimulus energy from the external environment; stimulation of the sense organs Sensory receptors: specialized cells that detect particular kinds of energy  Photoreceptors– detection of light  Mechanoreceptors – detection of pressure, vibration and movement  Chemoreceptors –detection of chemical stimuli Transduction – conversion of energy from the environment into a form of energy that is meaningful to the nervous system Sensory coding – communication of a range of information about stimuli to the nervous system (intensity & quali y)  reception, transduction, coding, and awareness Sensory coding is a type of information processing that occurs in nervous  systems and can be thought of as four separate yet related phenomena: 1 Reception, whereby specialized sensory receptors absorb physical energy from sensory stimuli. 2 Transduction, which involves the conversion of this physical energy into  electrical energy in the form of neuronal firing. 3 Coding, which is the correspondence between specific parameters of the  stimulus and specific parameters of the neuronal firing that represents it. Awareness, the possible conscious perception of encoded sensory  stimuli. Sensory adaptation – diminishing sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus(i.e. not noticing a bad smell after smelling it for a while) Perception- Process of organizing and interpreting incoming sensory information to give it meaning  Absolute threshold – minimum amount of energy that a person can detect ○ Subliminal perceptions: detecting stimuli below conscious awareness Difference threshold (just noticeable difference)  Describes the degree of difference that must exist between two stimuli before the difference is detected  Increases with the magnitude of the stimulus  Weber’s Law: two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage to be perceived as different Factors Affecting Perception of Stimuli  Signal detection theory: detection of sensory stimuli depend on factors other than the intensity of the stimulus o Attention o Psychological state (how fatigued/alert you are) o Perceptual set (readiness to perceive something in a particular way) Pain  Body’s warning system o Protection  Prevention o Healing  Rest  Relieve pain in some way  Nociceptors-sensory neurons designed to detect pain o located throughout the body (skin, within muscles, bones, joints, membranes surrounding internal organs) o can specialize to better detect certain types of pain How Do We Feel Pain?  Pain signals are collected by nociceptors, transmitted to spinal cord, then to the brain  Cerebral cortex o Instructs the body to react appropriately o Alerts autonomic nervous system  bloodflow o Directs release of endorphins  Limbic system initiates emotional response Gate Control Theory of Pain (Wall & Melzack, 1965): spinal column contains a neural gate that can be opened (allowing the perception of pain) or closed (blocking the perception of pain) Factors That Affect Pain Perception  Expectations  Personality o Neurotic people will be more affected by pain  Mood o Good mood: less pain o Irritable: more pain  Gender o Men have a higher tolerance to pain  Their heartrate does not increase as much as women’s do when hurt Treating Pain  Analgesics (painkillers) o Over-the-counter tend to target site of pain by preventing pain signal o Prescription drugs tend to target neural gates in spinal chord to inhibit pain signal transmissions  They also act on dopamine centers to release more  Physical stimuli to override pain signals o Rubbing, scratching, ice, heat, pressure, etc. o The other stimuli slightly overrides pain sensation  Mental distractions o Listening to music, reading, hypnosis Stress-induced analgesia- an emotionally intense experience that allows for less focus on the pain, so the painful sensation is not registered Congenital Insensitivity to Pain  Autosomal recessive disorder which is characterized by a lack of pain perception  Nervous systems are not equipped to detect painful stimuli  Individuals do not know how to avoid activities that harm them and to report when they are not feeling well 10/1/15 Motivationpart1.ppx Motivation- processes that give behavior its energy and direction; the reason one has for behaving in a particular way Motive- an impulse, desire, or need that leads to an action Why do we have motivation?  Evolutionary: o Natural selection favors motives that provide a reproductive or survival advantage o Instinct motivates our behavior  Instinct- an innate (unlearned) biological pattern of behavior that is assumed to be universal throughout a species  Examples of instincts:  Aggression  Dominance  Affiliation o Safety in numbers  Sexual drive o Women look for powerful men, for protection o Men look for beautiful/fertile women  Drive Reduction Theory: o Drive: an uncomfortable internal state of tension that motivates an organism to engage in activities that should reduce this tension  i.e. eat to reduce hunger o Clark Hull: humans have basic physiological needs and in order to survive, we have to satisfy these needs o Goal of drive reduction: homeostasis o Good theory for physiologically-based activities  Incentive Theory o External stimuli regulate motivational states o Incentive: an external goal that has the capacity to motivate behavior o Emphasis on environmental factors and downplays the biological bases of human motivation  Central State Theory of Drives: different drives correspond to neural activity in different sets of neurons in the brain o Central drive system: set of neurons in which activity constitutes a drive  Hypothalamus is likely the “hub” of this system o Biological theory, most contemporary, most well-supported Intrinsic motivation- involves a motivation to do an act for its own sake  Cognitive approach Extrinsic motivation- involves the reinforcements and punishments that the act may bring  Cognitive approach Motivations are frequently a combination of both Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs:  Human behavior is influenced by needs or motives that can be ranked  Physiological o Drive reduction, eating, drinking, etc.  Safety o Need to be safe  Love and belonging o Want to be loved/accepted, want to feel part of something  Esteem needs o Need to be admired, be held in high regard  Self-actualization o Need to reach fullest potential as a human being Hunger:  One of our most basic motives  Eating and digestion supply the body with the fuel it needs to function and survive  Stomach plays some role in hunger regulation  We start to feel hunger when the stomach is roughly 60% empty The Hypothalamus as Appetite Control Center  Arcuate nucleus: located in the hypothalamus; contains neurons that regulate appetite and weight o Appetite-stimulating neurons: promotes effects associated with being hungry o Appetite-suppressing neurons: promotes effects associated with cessation of eating  Glucostatic Hypothesis: levels of glucose in the blood signal the body regarding the need for food o Insulin: a hormone secreted by the pancreas that helps cells to extract glucose from the blood  Lipostatic Hypothesis: levels of lipids (fats) in the blood signal the body regarding the need for food o Leptin: a hormone produced by fat cells that provides information to the hypothalamus about fat stores  Provides info on whether or not we should eat Environmental Factors in the Regulation of Hunger  Availability of food and related cues o i.e. eat more at a buffet  Learned preferences/habits o Wanting to eat can be based on time, and habits  Stress & eating o Many people change eating habits when stressed  Other o Dining with others  Usually eat more, because you’re paying attention to the conversation, not the meal o Cultural norms o Social occasions  Thanksgiving, wedding, etc. 10/6/15 MotivationPart2 Regulatory drives- the goal of fulfilling the drive is to achieve homeostasis Nonregulatory drive- the goal of fulfilling the drive doesn’t affect our homeostasis Proprioceptivity- the motivation to seek out sexual activity Reproductive motive Biological roots  Hypothalamus o stimulates the pituary gland which releases hormones that increase sex drive  Hormones o Important in our desire to participate in sexual activity o Androgens  any natural or synthetic compound, usually a steroid hormone, that stimulates or controls the  development and maintenance of male  characteristics o Testosterone  Directly influences sex drive o Progesterone/estrogen(different hormones): fluctuate during menstrual cycle, we want to have sex when we’re fertile  Dopamine: responsible for the experience of pleasure, when we have sex there is more dopamine being released  Cognitive influence o Sexual scripts: stereotyped patterns of expectancies for how people should behave sexually  When  Where  With who  How often  Cultural factors o Restrictive  The values of sexuality tie to/ are similar to religious beliefs (i.e. no sex before marriage)  Low teenage pregancies o Permissive  Sex is a normal part of human behavior  People can openly talk about sex  Contraception readily available  Scandinavian countries are often like this  Low teenage preganancies o Semi-restrictive  Have conflicting messages about sexuality  Shouldn’t have sex before marriage  Sex is everywhere (i.e. movies, radio, etc.)  Our country is like this  Highest rates of S.T.D.s and teenage pregnancies Sexual Orientation- A person’s preference for emotional and sexual relationships with individuals of the same sex (homosexual), the other sex (heterosexual), or either sex (bisexual(want both men and women)) Kinsey Scale (1948) 0- Exclusively heterosexual with no homosexual 1-Predominantly heterosexual, only incidentally homosexual 2-Predominantly heterosexual, but more than incidentally homosexual 3-Equally heterosexual and homosexual 4-Predominantly homosexual, but more than incidentally homosexual 5-Predominantly homosexual, only incidentally heterosexual 6-Exclusively homosexual Origins of differing sexual orientation  Genetics o Fifty percent (50%) of identical twin siblings of homosexual men and women are also homosexual (vs. 15% for same sex fraternal twins and non-twin siblings) o Concordance rate of 52% for identical twins; 22% for fraternal twins Concordance- the proportion of twins who exhibit a characteristic when the other twin exhibits that characteristic; the inheritance by two  related individuals (especially twins) of the same genetic characteristic,  such as susceptibility to a disease Polygenic inheritance- The determination of a particular characteristic, e.g. height or skin colour, by many genes (polygenes), each having a small effect individually. Characteristics controlled in this way show continuous variation  Brain differences o Hypothalmic cell cluster is smaller in gay men o Gay men’s brains responded to like a woman’s when exposed to chemicals from male sex hormones o Lesbian’s brains respond similarly to heterosexual men’s when exposed to chemicals from female sex hormones  Prenatal (for some people) o Abnormal levels of prenatal hormone exposure o Fraternal birth order effect (very well supported)  The more male siblings a boy has, the more likely he will be gay  With enough male children, the immune response against the kid becomes stronger per pregnancy, and this may be strong enough to change the organization of the fetus’ brain  (theory)  No environmental factor has received conclusive support o Environment may affect women’s life experiences  Sexual orientation is likely influenced by a combination of factors  Weight of each factor varies  Paths for men and women differ for discovering their orientation Can sexual orientation be changed? Nope. “There is no scientifically adequate research to show that therapy aimed at changing sexual orientation is safe or effective. Furthermore, it seems likely that the promotion of change therapies reinforces stereotypes and contributes to a negative climate for lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons.” ◦ American Psychiatric Association  Conversion/reparative therapy: designed to change the sexual orientation of homosexuals  Significant risks to patients have been noted  Three states (California, New Jersey, and Oregon) have outlawed conversion therapy for individuals under 18 Emotions:  Subjective feeling states that involve a pattern of cognitive, physiological, and behavioral reactions to events o Adaptive o Social communication  Triggered by external or internal stimuli  Result from our interpretation/appraisals of these stimuli  Jame’s Peripheral Theory of Emotion: According to this theory, witnessing an external stimulus leads to a physiological reaction. Your emotional reaction depends upon how you interpret those physical reactions Schachter’s Cognition-Plus-Feedback Theory: perception of stimulus influences the type of emotion felt and sensory feedback about degree of bodily arousal influence the intensity felt  Body responds physiologically o Sympathetic nervous system  (this is the system that initiates fight or flight) o Amygdala  primary role in the processing of memory, decision­ making, and emotional reactions o Prefrontal cortex  Initiates responses to emotions (i.e. run away)  Include behavioral tendencies o Basic emotions: happiness, disgust, surprise, sadness, anger, fear  This theory is very similar to the Jame’s Peripheral Theory of Emotion, except it also adds assessing the situation to the theory Cultural display rules- guidelines that dictate how and when particular emotions are to be expressed Discrete emotion theory- basic emotions are innate and associated with distinctive bodily and facial reactions Lie detectors Polygraphs- monitor indicators of sympathetic nervous system arousal while an individual is being questioned  Heart rate, blood pressure, respiration rate, skin conductance(sweat)  Attempt to detect lying accompanied by heightened emotional arousal  Problematic: innocent people can appear guilty AND guilty people can appear innocent 10/8/15 MemoryPart1.ppt Memory- the process by which past experience and learning can be used in the present 1,2,3: If there’s a failure in one, there will be failures in the other two; they work together. 1. How does information get into memory? Encoding- process by which an input is transformed into a representation that can be stored in memory  Attention is necessary for encoding o Attention- focusing awareness on a narrow range of stimuli or events 2. How is the information maintained?  Storage- moving encoded information into a memory store and maintenance of the information Multi Store Model of Memory (Atkinson & Schiffrin, 1968)  Information passes through two temporary storage buffers before it is transferred into a long-term store o Sensory  Preserves information in its original sensory form for a brief time (a few seconds ish)  Immediate initial recording of sensory information (i.e. a face of a person you just met)  Multiple types of sensory memory  iconic- visual  echoic-auditory o Short term memory (STM)  A limited capacity store that can maintain information for approximately 30 seconds  George Miller (1956): memory span is for 7+2 items  Decreases in old age  Strategies to increase STM:  Maintenance rehearsal- repeatedly verbalizing, or thinking about whatever you’re trying to remember  Elaborative rehearsal- connect new information to old information o One of most effective ways to study  Chunking o When to remember long pieces of information, you break it down into manageable parts  STM is more complex and allows for the organization and integration of information  Phonological rehearsal loop  Visuospatial Sketchpad o Temporary storage place that allows us to hold and manipulate visual information  Central executive o Coordinates mind’s activities  What should we focus on  What should we ignore o Controls visuospatial sketchpad and phonological rehearsal loop  Active/working memory system  Without it, we wouldn’t be able to understand language o We briefly remember words we just read/heard as we go on to read/hear more  Helps with decision making o Long term  Memory that can theoretically hold unlimited information for an indefinite period of time  Chunking is also helpful in long term memory  Implicit/Nondeclarative: does not require much conscious processing  Procedural: “knowing how” o i.e. biking o walking  Classical conditioning  Explicit/Declarative: conscious, intentional recollection  Semantic: general knowledge o facts  Episodic: personal experiences o Autobiographic 3. How do we get information out of memory?  Retrieval: recovery of information from memory stores and bringing it into awareness for cognitive processing  Information taken out of storage involve o Recall- retrieve previously learned information o Recognition- identifying learned information  Serial position effect: location of information in a sequence influences its retrieval o Primacy-first items are most likely to be remembered o Recency- most recent items are most likely to be remembered o We’ll remember the first and last pieces of information given best  Retrieval cues: anything that can help gain access to memories o Best ones are ones that recreate situation you were in when you encoded information  Encoding specificity principle: retrieval cues are effective when they help re-create the specific way in which information was initially encoded o Context-dependent memory- enhanced retrieval due to the “rememberer” being in the same setting in which they learned the information o State-dependent memory: retrieval is enhanced because internal states of the “rememberer” are similar at encoding and retrieval  If you’re drunk and meet someone, you might not remember them until you are drunk again  If you’re sad, you remember all the sad things Why do we forget?  Ineffective encoding: info may have never been inserted into memory  Decay theory: memory traces fade with time  Replacement: new information wipes out old information  Interference: similar items compete with one another in either storage or retrieval o Proactive interference- old information causes interference with new information o Retroactive interference- new information causes interference with old information  Lack of retrieval cues  Organic/biological problems o Something’s wrong with ya! Amnesia  Loss of explicit memory  Anterograde – inability to explicitly recall events that occurred after trauma caused the memory loss  Retrograde – inability to explicitly recall events that occurred before the trauma that caused the memory loss  Childhood/Infantile amnesia- the inability of older children and adults to recall events that happened in the first few years of life Why do we have childhood amnesia? (theories)  Immature brain areas  Simplistic encoding o When we are children we don’t encode as complexly as we do when we are adults.  Incomplete language development in very young children o Part of how we recall memories is by using language o When under 3 or 4ish our language base is not there yet o Maybe we can’t record memories in a sophisticated fashion because we can’t use words to do it 10/13/15 MemoryPart2#2 Seven Memory Flaws: Omission (forgetting)  Transience: memory fades over time  Absent-Mindedness: lapses of attention while encoding memory  Blocking: temporary inaccessibility of stored information o “tip of the tongue” phenomenon o we know we know it, but we can’t remember it at the moment o most likely happens with words/people’s names we don’t use often Commission (memory is present, but distorted in some way)  Misattribution: assigning memories to incorrect sources o Did you dream it? See it? Hear it? Etc.  Suggestibility: incorporation of misinformation due to leading questions, deception, and other causes  Bias: retrospective distortions produced by current knowledge and beliefs o What we know now may change past memories  Persistence: unwanted recollections that people cannot forget o Usually involves negative emotional experience o Isn’t necessarily accurate Eyewitness Memory • Used for 77,000 arrests in the US yearly • Powerful determinant that sways decisions of judges and jurors about whether or not to convict • Single greatest cause of wrongful convictions nationwide Distortion of Eyewitness Memory (Elizabeth Loftus) • Memories are more prone to error than people realize • Memories easily modified with the passage of time • Each retelling makes the memory less accurate • Research supports the ability for memory to be distorted • Specifics of crime may be lost over time (Transience) • Difficulty figuring out if details are from crime or elsewhere (Misattribution) • Imagination inflation • If you relive a memory a few times, looking for something specific, the specific thing may become part of the memory even if it wasn’t there originally • Talking to fellow witnesses and/or leading questions can change memory (Suggestibility) • Can lead to a “recollection” of an event that did not actually occur • Cross-race effect- the difficulty that people have in identifying people of another race • We spend lots of time with people our own race when we are young, so it is more easy to distinguish between people of our own race than between people of other races because we have more practice • Can be overcome if we spend time around different races with multiple people so we can make distinctions between them • Insufficient attention to minor details • Identification is poor under stressful conditions • We think about survival, not about how to identify them • Subtle cues from law enforcement • Desire to make an identification Children and Eyewitness Memory • Children are prone to make more eyewitness errors than adults are • The McMartin Preschool Case • They were questioned in ways that changed their memories • Under the right conditions, children can be quite accurate How to increase eyewitness reliability • Avoid using leading questions • Present line up participants one at a time • Use cautionary instructions • i.e. “if you don’t see a person in a line-up, we will continue the search” • Use “fillers” more effectively • Don’t put black guy in line-up if original description was short white guy • Double blind administration • Like in experiments; cop should not be investigating officer 10/20/15 Intelligence1100H.pptx Intelligence- the ability to learn from experience, acquire knowledge, act purposefully, to solve problems, and to adapt to changes in the environment Factor Theories of Intelligence • Two Factor Theory (Charles Spearman): • General intelligence (g factor): broad reasoning and problem solving abilities • Contemporary intelligence tests often measure this • Specific abilities (s factor): account for specific mental skills • Raymond Cattell: general intelligence consists of 2 factors: • Fluid intelligence: the ability to perceive relationships between stimuli independently of previous practice or instruction • Crystallized intelligence: mental ability that occurs as the result of previous experience Howard Gardner: Theory of Multiple Intelligences (1993) • Multiple intelligences exist(9 types): • Language • logical mathematical • naturalist(flora/fauna relationships) • spatial • musical • intrapersonal(knowledge of inner feelings) • interpersonal(between different people) • existential(moral/ethical issues) • body-kinesthetic(body awareness) • Each kind of intelligence has a neurological base • Con: are these intelligences or skills? Robert Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence (1988) • Analytical (academic ability) • Creative (insight in novel ways) • i.e. inventions • Practical (street smarts) Intelligence Test Criteria • Validity: extent to which a test measures what it is intended to measure • Reliability: extent to which a test yields a consistent, reproducible measure of performance • Standardization: developing uniform procedures for administering and scoring a test Stanford Binet Intelligence Scales • Commissioned by the French minister of education, identify which children should be in which classes, and if they need help or not • Originally called the Binet-Simon Scale constructed by Alfred Binet and Theophile Simon in France (1905) • Assessed cognitive ability of children • Developed concept of mental age (MA) • If MA(mental age) > CA(chronological age), then “bright” • If MA < CA, then “dull” • Adapted for use in the US by Lewis Terman • Mental age used to calculate intelligence quotient (IQ) • IQ = MA/CA x100 • Now in its 5 revision • Can be used for individuals from to 2 to 85+ Wechsler Scales • David Wechsler (1939) developed different versions of intelligence test depending on age of individual • WAIS-IV (16+)(Wechsler adult intelligence scale) • WISC-IV (7-16)(Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children) • WPPSI-IV (2-7)(Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence) • Normal distribution – a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that represents he pattern in which many characteristics are dispersed in a population • There is both a verbal and a nonverbal scale in these tests because he believed that children’s language isn’t always fully developed Intelligence extremes: below 70: have intellectual deficiency, mentally retarded; there are divisions, mildly intellectually deficient:55-70 above 130: gifted: 130 or above, and a special/above average ability in a specific area standard deviation is 15 points 10/22/15 The Nature of Intelligence: • Family Studies: examine the similarities among relatives • Twin studies: compares identical to fraternal twins • Tend to be similar, 0.86ish correlation (similar to variation if same person takes test multiple times) • If reared apart, there’s a 0.73 correlation • 0.6 correlation for siblings • short answer: describe what twin studies tell us about the nature of intelligence • Adoption Studies: adopted children compared to adoptive and biological parents • Adopted children were more similar to their biological parents than to their adoptive parents The Nurture of Intelligence: • There are certain risk factors that can deplete a child’s intelligence scores • For each factor present, 4points can be deducted from their IQ • Examples are: Poor prenatal care, malnutrition, exposure to toxins, large family size(can’t spend as much time individually raising the kids), stressful family circumstances(i.e. divided home, single parent, unemployed head of house), etc reduced scores (Plomin, Sameroff, et al) • Impoverished environments(not having necessary stimulation) • Every year a child doesn’t attend school, their intelligence score drops 6 points • School teaches problem solving • Enriched environments • Children in a previously deprived environment then put in enriched environment showed increased intelligence scores • Had higher grades • Less likely to be held back • More likely to go on to college • Less discipline problems • Flynn effect: gradual increase in scores on intelligence tests over the last few decades (since 1930s) • 3-4points per decade • genes can’t change that fast to account for increase in intelligence scores since 1930’s • difference could be more widespread schooling • technology • widespread access to information • better healthcare/nutrition • more aware of better ways to parent • Heritability (H) – the percentage of the variance in any trait that is accounted for by genetic differences among the individuals in a population • The more individual differences on a trait are due to genetic differences, the closer the heritability is to 100% Heritability estimates for intelligence = .40 to .70  Ethnic Group Differences in Intelligence Scores o Average intelligence score for many of the larger ethnic minority groups in the US is lower than the average for Caucasians o Heritability explanation  Arthur Jensen (1969): cultural differences in IQ are largely due to heredity (80%)  Herrnstein & Murray (1994) – minority groups doomed because of heredity o Socioeconomic disadvantage explanation  Ethnic children tend to live in low income households  Less mental simulation  Less access to technology/books  Parents may not be able to help with homework if not educated o Culturally biased testing  Differences in experiences and vocabulary o Social designation of minority (Ogbu)  People who are targeted minorities tend to score lower  This especially applied to minorities who didn’t choose to be minorities, but were conquered o Stereotype threat (Steele, 1997) (applies to involuntary minorities)  There’s an anxiety for minorities when they take the test because they are afraid of living up to the stereotype because the stereotype is inferior  Anxiety interferes with working memory  Ethnic Differences in Intelligence Scores: Asian Achievement o Asians have consistently scored higher tests of academic ability than Americans o Possible factors:  Beliefs about intelligence  If you work hard to be intelligent, then you can be  Parental Standards  Asians: anything other than an a is unacceptable  Americans: just try and pass  Levels of stress and conflict  Asians: don’t report a lot of stress that interfere with school  American children: report social stress that interferes with school  Value of education  Americans don’t value education as much as Asians do o In US, education is a right o In many parts of Asia, education is a privilege  The more Americanized Asians become the more similar their scores become to American’s scores  Gender differences in intelligence o No significant overall differences in g (general intelligence) o Differences may exist in specific mental abilities(s) o Males have greater variance in distribution of scores o Culture can influence performance Biggest difference between exams is that this one will be more term heavy, especially in the memory chapter REM sleep: rapid eye movement sleep: similar brain waves to awake NonREM; more of a deep sleep state EEG waves (electroencephography waves): measures gross brain wave activity, the summary of electrical activity from one area of the brain : sleeping waves Eye definitions are in chapters 6, 7, 9, and 10


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