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Psychology 1100H Notes before midterm 3

by: Paige Anderson

Psychology 1100H Notes before midterm 3 Psych 1100H

Marketplace > Ohio State University > Psychlogy > Psych 1100H > Psychology 1100H Notes before midterm 3
Paige Anderson
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About this Document

These notes have material covered in class as well as in the book. They were taken in Dr. Scott's class, and cover the material before the third midterm. I hope they are helpful!
Honors Introduction to Psychology
Prof. Betrina Scott
Psychology 1100H
75 ?




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This 27 page Bundle was uploaded by Paige Anderson on Monday January 18, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Psych 1100H at Ohio State University taught by Prof. Betrina Scott in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see Honors Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Ohio State University.


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Date Created: 01/18/16
Psych before midterm 3 10/29/15 prenatal&cogdev1100H Developmental Psychology- the study of changes that occur in people’s abilities and dispositions as they grow older Three Domains of Developmental Psychology  Physical: brain, nervous system, sensory capabilities, motor functions, needs for food, drink & sleep  Cognitive: mental abilities including learning, memory, language, problem solving, intelligence  Social: interactions with others, social relationships, enduring characteristics that differentiate one person from another(personality) Issues that Guide Developmental Research  Nature vs. Nurture  Critical/Sensitive Periods o Critical period- age range during which certain experiences must occur for development to proceed normally or along a certain path  Genie is a feral child. Her mother and her walked into the welfare office when she was 13. When she was 1-1.5 years, her father decided to isolate her from any interaction with other people. She was kept in a crib with mesh wire. She had no social interactions. She was messed up, and they tried to fix her. However, at some point, she could no longer improve in her grammer.  If we don’t receive linguistic stimulation in the first few years of our life we will not be able to develop entirely. o Sensitive period- optimal age range for certain experiences, but if these experiences occur at another time, normal development is still possible  It’s better to learn a second language early in development than later in development  Continuity vs. Discontinuity o Continuous- skills unfold gradually, there’s subtle changes  More quantitative  i.e. how tall are you?  Advancement in mathematical abilities o Discontinuous- development unfolds abruptly, changes are noticeable  More qualitative  Stability vs. Change Prenatal Development  Maturation- sequential unfolding of genetically influenced behavior and physical characteristics  3 Stages: o Zygotic – fertilization- 2 weeks  This period ends when implantation occurs  Implantation- baby bonds to the mother’s uterus o Embryonic – 3- 8 weeks  Organogenesis- organ development o Fetal – 9 weeks – birth  Growth and development  Age of viability (24 weeks) can live outside of mom’s body Teratogens- any substance that can lead to abnormal development  Any agent that can lead to abnormal development  Common prenatal teratogens: o Rubella (German measles) o X-rays/radiation/toxic chemicals o Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) o Cigarette smoking o Can lead to  Heart abnormalities  Limb deformities o Alcohol  Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: a severe group of abnormalities that results from prenatal exposure to alcohol  Facial abnormalities  Growth retardation  CNS abnormalities o Legal Drugs: includes OTC and prescription drugs o Illegal Drugs:  Marijuana  Cocaine  Heroin Neonatal abstinence syndrome- baby goes into withdrawal symptoms after birth because they were born addicted to a drug  Include irritability, muscle spasms, seizures, poor feeding, tremors 11/3/15 Prenatal&CogDev1100H Cognitive Development • Influenced by Swiss biologist Jean Piaget (1896-1980) • 2 schools of thought: 1. Cognitive development was result of innately determined sequence of growth and change independent of external events 2. Cognitive development was the result of learning processes Piagetian Terms Schemes(a.k.a. schemas): mental blueprints that are representations of how social and physical worlds operate (qualitative changes); a mental model of aspects of the world or of the self that is structured in such a way as to facilitate the processes of cognition and perception  Scheme development o Discontinuous o As we get older the way that we think changes, not how much we know o Culturally universal o Environmental factors may speed up or slow down stages but they always come in the same order  Growth of schemes are the result of o Assimilation: new experiences are incorporated into existing schemes o Accommodation: schemas change to allow for inclusion of new object or event Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development • Sensorimotor (0-2 years): experiencing the world through their actions and consequences of those actions • Object permanence: awareness that an object continues to exist even when it is not present • Preoperational (2-7 years): represent the world symbolically through words and mental images • Egocentrism- unaware of other’s perspectives • Lack the ability of conservation: the understanding that the quantity of an object does not change even when its form is changed • Example: pretend play • Concrete Operational (7- 11/12 years): achievement of conservation, beginning capacity for adult logic • Decentration- focus on more than one aspect of a situation • Formal operations (11/12 and beyond): thinking is abstract, systematic, form and test hypotheses • Adolescent Egocentrism- difficulty separating things that are of concern to others and those that are of concern only to themselves • Imaginary audience • Everybody’s gonna notice • Personal fable • You’re super special, people can’t relate to what’s happening to you Myth of invulnerability- adolescents take risks because bad things happen to other people, not to them Criticisms of Piaget • Underestimation of preschoolers’ and infants’ abilities • Preschoolers are not completely egocentric, because they can lie • Overestimation of adults’ abilities • He concluded that adults’ thinking is consistently logical • It’s not always logical • Cognitive development does not occur in discrete stages • Neglected to consider cultural environment Lev Vygotsky  His ideas are less-stage-like and more continuous  Highlights how sociocultural context interacts with brain’s biological maturation  Apprenticeship- guidance by more knowledgeable individuals  Zone of proximal development (ZPD)- range of tasks that a child can carry out with the help of someone who is more knowledgeable o Lower level: problem-solving alone o Upper level: problem-solving with help Cognitive Change in Old Age  Brain shrinkage occurs in the elderly especially in the frontal lobes o Loss of impulse control  Fluid intelligence: efficiency and speed of intellectual functioning (decline)  Crystallized intelligence: accumulated knowledge (stable)  Implicit memory – little or no decline (i.e. walking, brushing teeth)  Explicit memory- will probably decline, there’s lots of memories  Many maintain much of their cognitive capacity into their 60s and 70s  The extent of cognitive decline varies enormously from one person to the next o Biological factors o Health status  Need bloodflow  Glucose  oxygen o Lifestyle factors  The more stimulation, the better  Better not to overdrink  exercise 11/5/15 SocDev2 “Attachment is important” expect questions on attachment Attachment-Bond between infant and primary caregiver (usually the mother), believed to lay the foundations for all later relationships  this relationship is so important that it determines how the infant’s relationships will be later in life; it lays the foundation of future relationships internal working model- the schema we have for relationships  we form expectations about relationships Why do children become attached to their primary caregivers?  Sigmund Freud: “I love you because you feed me.” o Drive reduction sort of theory o Babies get upset when separated because they are afraid of not being fed  John Bowlby: “I was born to love you.” o Stranger anxiety (6-7 months)- the weariness/fear babies have when confronted with an unknown person  Not all babies experience this o Separation anxiety (peaks 12-16 months)- they experience fear when separated from the primary care giver  Not all babies experience this o It’s instinctual o It’s evolutionarily adaptive  The person will protect you Palmar reflex- anything you put in a baby’s hand, they will grasp As babies get older, they display attachment-related behaviors  Harry Harlow: “I love you because it’s comfortable.” o Came up with this theory to disprove Bowlby o We have guidelines for animal cruelty because of him o He scared baby monkeys and saw which fake mother they would run to  Food mother  Comfortable mother (towel-covered)  They always ran back to towel-covered mother Contact comfort- in times of stress, babies won’t go to get food, but they’ll go to be comforted There is an assumption that not all children have attachment relationships with their parents Attachment Types  Strange Situation Procedure (Ainsworth) o This procedure involved a series of separation and reunion episodes o Secure Attachment- they were elated when mother reentered the room  Occurred in the majority of American Babies (60% I think?) o Insecure Attachment  Avoidant(20% of babies)- characterized by upon mom’s return the baby avoids the mother  Even if baby was upset, the stranger and mom had equal chances of comforting the children  They reacted in the avoiding way because the mother was unavailable  Anxious(10% of babies)- when mom returned, there was a mixed reaction; some happiness, some upset, happy she’s back but resentful that she left  Thought that this is because mother sometimes displays caring behaviors toward baby but not always  Disorganized- mixed/inconsistent behaviors between mother and child  Stability of attachment classification o It’s pretty stable o Can be disrupted if there’s a major experience that interferes with how readily available the parent is to the child  Consequences of different attachment types o Securely attached infants tend to do well in life  Friendships are strong o Insecurely attached children tend to do worse in life  Possess hostile attribution bias- In ambiguous situations, they explain it in a more hostile way  Highly aggressive children tend to have this  Their friendships aren’t as strong What happens if babies are deprived of an attachment relationship? • Bucharest Early Intervention Project (Zeanah, et al): o Three groups of children:  institutionalized o spent majority of childhood in Romanian orphanages  formerly institutionalized o were in the orphanages for a little while, but were then adopted  never institutionalized • Institutionalized children had the most severe physical, cognitive, and social problems, they also had high levels of stress hormones in their body • Intelligence scores on average were 8 points lower than the formerly institutionalized and significantly lower than the non-institutionalized • Had a difficult time forming relationships • Could have reactive attachment disorder • Formerly institutionalized children had a sensitive period; they do better if institutionalized for two years or less Disruptions in Attachment: Child Maltreatment  Child maltreatment: any type of abuse or neglect of a child under the age of 18 by a parent, caregiver, or another person in a custodial role o Emotional o Physical o Neglect  Food, doctor, clothing, education  Most common form of child maltreatment  Victimized children have immediate and long term physical, cognitive, and social issues o Higher rate of criminal activity o Impaired brain development o Higher rates of delinquency  The unloved can often become the unloving o This is not necessarily the case o However, there is a higher rate of abuse in adults who were victimized when they were children  7% of nonabused adults will abuse their children  30% of formerly abused adults will abuse their children Does the attachment relationship suffer when children are put in non- parental child care?  National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) o High quality child care does not disrupt attachment o Poor quality impairs attachment o Combination of several negative factors does affect attachment Parenting Styles (Baumrind, 1971)  Two key dimensions of parental behavior: o Warmth: Extent of sensitivity to child and communication of love and caring o Control: the extent to which parents make and enforce rules, place demands on children and discipline children Four Parenting Styles  Authoritative: high levels of warmth; high levels of control  Authoritarian: low levels of warmth; high levels of control o May use harsh discipline methods  Permissive: high levels of warmth and low levels of control o Aka indulgent parenting o May have spoiled children  Uninvolved: low levels of warmth; low levels of control o Do parents love them? Care about them?  Parents may have issues of their own: depression, overworked, etc. o Associated with most negative outcomes Which parenting style works best?  Authoritative parenting is the style that is most consistently associated with positive outcomes in children and adolescents o Balance between control and autonomy o Engage in verbal give and take o Warmth and parental involvement  Makes adolescents more perceptive to the parent’s perspectives and wants o This is especially true in low-risk environments  These results or correlational, so child may affect parents and parents may affect child 11/10/15 Social Psychology- the study of how we view one another and how others affect our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, even if their presence is only implied or imagined The Self  Affected by culture, environment, and people with whom you associate  Self-concept: beliefs about who we are and how we characterize ourselves  Self-esteem: evaluations we make about ourselves  Sociometer theory (Leary): Judgments about ourselves come primarily from our perceptions of others’ attitudes towards us Social Comparison(theory, Festinger)- we get our idea of self esteem by comparing ourselves with other people • Reference groups: people to whom we compare ourselves • Self-esteem suffers when others perform better than we do • Relative deprivation- the feeling of inadequacy that occurs when we compare ourselves to a reference group who is doing better than us • Important to compare ourselves to people with whom we can make appropriate comparisons • To maintain self esteem: • Exaggerate abilities of those who outperform us • When we experience a reduction of self esteem, we’re almost making excuses for why they beat us • Engage in downward social comparison: compare ourselves to those who are substantially worse than we are • To improve our self esteem, we compare ourselves with someone doing much worse than ourselves, i.e. a meth addict on high street • If you do this consistently, you get an overly- accepting view of yourself Social Perceptions  How we interpret information, draw conclusions, and develop beliefs about others  Impression formation: process by which we develop conceptions about others based on inferences from information obtained directly or indirectly o A type of social perception o Directly  You observe them say certain things  You observe them act in a certain way o Indirectly  Gossip, heard it through the grapevine Impression Formation Heuristics  Heuristic- simple, efficient rules, learned or hard-coded by evolutionary processes, that have been proposed to explain how people make decisions, come to judgments, and solve problems typically when facing complex problems or incomplete information  Primacy effect- tendency to attach more importance to the initial information that we learn about a person o The first piece of information that we learn about a person must be what makes them unique  Confirmation bias- tendency to seek ways to confirm, rather than refute existing beliefs o Self-fulfilling prophecy  Beliefs about someone comes true but you don’t acknowledge your role in making it come true  Ex. Teacher’s beliefs about a child can influence their behavior Cognitive misers- we like to conserve as much of our cognitive energy as possible Attitudes  Learned, stable, and relatively enduring evaluations of a person, object, or idea, which can affect behavior o Cognitive Component: Beliefs o Emotional Component: Like/Dislike o Behavioral Component: Actions How do we form attitudes?  Classical conditioning: new stimulus is paired with a stimulus that already elicits a particular action  Operant conditioning: rewarded attitudes are likely to be maintained; punished ones are more likely to be changed or discarded o Being surrounded by people with similar attitudes is a reward  Observational Learning: acquire many attitudes by observing attitudes that are voiced and acted out  Mere exposure effect- repeated exposure of individual to a stimulus object can enhance attitude toward it o At first we aren’t sure about our attitude towards something o Ex. New music on the radio is repeated a lot to try and take advantage of this effect and make you like it o At a certain point, we hit our saturation point where the mere exposure effect doesn’t work anymore How do we change attitudes? (persuasion)  Characteristics of the recipient o Central vs. peripheral route  Central  People who want to know the facts  Peripheral route  People appealed by other factors, such as emotional appeal, attractiveness, fear, etc.  Elaboration likelihood model: individuals use more logical and thorough analysis for personally relevant messages  Characteristics of the message itself o Two-sided refutational approach  Present both negatives and positives, but change the positives into negatives  Ex. Take criticisms and show them why they are good; you’re old, yes, but I’m experienced  Characteristics of the source of the message o Credibility  Trustworthy?  Have some sort of expertise o Likability Stereotypes  Organized set of knowledge or beliefs that we have about a group of people  Can lead to a False impression that all group members have the same features o Stereotypes give us incorrect information; not all people are the same  Prejudice: negative stereotype and a strong, unreasonable dislike of a group or its individuals  Discrimination: differential treatment of people based on their membership to a group Targets of Prejudice  Race and ethnicity  Religion  Gender  Sexual orientation  Age, ability, and appearance Theories of Prejudice  Fairly universal experience  Authoritarian personality o People with this personality are most likely to be prejudiced because they are very rigid in their beliefs o They’re very arrogant o They’re anti-intellectual  They resist any logical explanation that counters their prejudices  Scapegoat theory o The group we are prejudiced against is an outlet for our upset o We assign blame o Ex. Germany used Jews as scapegoat for economic crisis  Social identity o It bonds/attaches us to the group that we belong to by hating another group (Don’t’ give a damn about Michigan)  Cultural theory o Learning theory o We aren’t born prejudiced o We learn it o We can make overgeneralizations o By or 5 ish you can learn stereotypes 4 o 7ish you can form prejudice  other o by not liking people you can like yourself better o you can change prejudices by having people who are different work together for a common goal Psych 1100H lecture notes – 11/12/15 Continued from 11/10/15 lecture Attributions  Our thoughts/self-reflection on someone else’s or our own motives for doing something; a claim about the cause of someone’s behavoir o Personal/dispositional – explains behavior as being caused internally (personality or another quality that is inherent to that individual) o Situational – explains behavior as being caused externally (the experience, situation, environment demanded it) Attributional Heuristics Short cuts are taken to try to make explanations for behavior o Person bias – we first assume a person behaved in a certain way because of their personality o Self-serving bias – we make our self look/feel good by giving our self the benefit of the doubt when explaining our own behavior Hypocritical o We take personal credit for our success but our failures are because of someone else’s short comings 11/12/15 lecture Social Norms  Norm – a rule/regulation o Every culture has a set of social norms in order to succeed in that culture o Norms can be dictated or observed Obedience  There are certain people around us who we should obey o Every culture has this norm to a certain degree o We’re taught this principal from a very young age o We’re reluctant to disobey for fear of consequences Stanley Milgram  Social psychologist  Nuremburg defense  Ran a study to test if people would harm others if they were told to o Tested effects of punishment on accuracy o Some teachers started to feel bad once the shocks became stronger  Experimenter urged them and they continued to deliver the shocks  Learners were confederates – people who work for the experimenter to test the subjects (the teachers) o Ethical issues/violations Why did the subjects obey? Norm of obedience o Early childhood conditioning to authority figures Scientists in white lab coat at Yale  When the study was repeated outside of Yale, rate of obedience decreased  Lack of an alternative o In a replication of the study when one teacher would quit the others would follow their example by quitting o The original experiment did not allow teachers to communicate  Proximity o It is harder to disobey someone who is very close to you physically  Victim was depersonalized o Teachers couldn’t see the effects on the victim in the original study  In later studies teachers could witness the pain inflicted  Participation decreased  Incremental increases in shock o Small increases in voltage don’t seem as cruel as large increases o Foot-in-the-door technique – example: a salesman will start with a small request in order to get the customer interested Conformity  We are profoundly influenced by others  We do things in groups that we wouldn’t normally do or individually do  Solomonash – wanted to know if people would follow the group in answering a question wrong even though they know it’s the wrong answer o Test subjects were the last to answer in a group of confederates  Confederates would answer questions wrong on purpose and the subject tended to conform and answer wrong as well  Only 20% would answer correctly and go against the group – many of them would apologize for not conforming  Conformity exists but varies within culture, era etc. o Collectivist cultures value togetherness  Regardless of culture we all conform sometimes Circumstances of conforming Normative – We want approval/to feel a part of the group/to be accepted Informative – group provides us with information Self-interest – you get something out of conforming o Such as a job or promotion Groupthink  Sometimes group decisions can lead to significant consequences  Easy to give in to groupthink when faced with hard decisions  Not all groups are equally vulnerable to groupthink Symptoms of groupthink  Illusions of invulnerability – group believes they can do no wrong  Self-censorship – group members who disagree don’t speak up or are ridiculed for doing so  Illusion of unanimity – group believes the decisions are unanimous but really people just aren’t speaking up  Belief in inherent group morality – belief that every choice they make is right because they are moral  Self-appointed – these people make sure people don’t speak up against the group viewpoints and they protect the group from viewpoints that are different than the group’s  Stereotyping – the belief that those who aren’t a part of the group don’t know what they’re talking about  Strong leader – pressures group to do something or to make a decision o When under pressure you’re less likely to rationalize and consider your own opinions The anonymous crowd  Bystander apathy o Kitty was attacked on her way home from work, someone shouted “stop!” but didn’t go check to see if she was ok so the attacker came back and proceeded to sexually assault and kill her  About 35 people said they heard the altercation but didn’t do anything because they assumed someone else probably heard and would go do something to help o Deletha was assaulted in Detroit while people just stood by o Jamie was a 4 year old boy who was abducted and nobody did anything o A 15 year old girl was sexually assaulted outside a school dance  Police only found out because a bystander went home from the dance early and told their parents what they saw when asked why they came home early and the family member called the police Why bystander apathy?  More people around = less likely to get help  Fear of making social blunders o If you aren’t sure if someone is screaming or laughing you might just walk by o If you aren’t sure if it’s a real emergency or they’re just joking around you might just walk by o Anonymity – if stopping to help involves sticking around with the victim, testifying etc. you may be less likely to reach out  Cost-benefit analysis – does stopping to help mean you lose or miss out on something? o If you’re rushed you’re less likely to stop and help


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