American Government Class Notes
American Government Class Notes 101
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American Government Political Science 101:A Spring 2013 Dr. Joseph Romance For Exam: 25 Multiple Choice Questions – know bolded terms from the book 4-6 Short Answer Questions – answer with one short paragraph 1-22-13 Themes: approach the study of politics 1. How Democratic is America? a. America is a Republic b. What is a democracy? Are we a democracy? i. We represent a kind of democracy 2. How to approach the study of politics. a. Cultural i. The unwritten rules ii. The things we accept or believe as a nation iii. A collection of beliefs or values that a people hold b. Institutional i. Official Rules ii. Constitution has official rules What does equality mean to me? (one paragraph answer) I think equality means everyone is equal. No one person is better than another person. Some people might think they are better than others but that is not true. Equality is a goal that America has been working towards since the beginning and we will need to work towards it for years to come. I don’t know that we will ever see complete equality but that would be a great thing for America to accomplish. 1-24-13 1. How to study politics a. Cultural i. The unwritten rules ii. The things we accept or believe as a nation iii. A collection of beliefs or values that a people hold b. Institutional i. Official Rules ii. Constitution has official rules 2. What is political culture? a. Customs, traditions, values b. Examples: i. Super Bowl ii. Going to Church iii. Thanksgiving 3. Why is political culture important to politics? a. Our values influence our laws b. If a politician doesn’t agree with the majority of Americans he won’t get many votes or get very far in politics if he doesn’t reflect our customs or values. c. It sets the parameters of what is acceptable. i. If a politician does something outside of what is acceptable he will be removed. 4. What shapes it? a. History of past events i. Example: 1. Revolutionary War 2. Civil War b. Capitalism i. Open market c. Land i. Farmers d. Immigrants i. Cultures brought in from other countries Culture does change 5. What key concepts define American political culture? Question on Midterm a. Freedom i. Ability to follow ones path with some interference from the government ii. Believe in what we want to believe in iii. Right to express yourself iv. Live and work where you want to b. Equality i. Definitions: 1. Equal distribution of rights regardless of race, religion, or other cultural differences 2. Same chances as the next person 3. Same restrictions as the next person 4. No discrimination ii. Equality before the Law 1. Everyone follows the same laws iii. Equality of opportunity 1. Everyone has a chance to succeed iv. Equality of Outcome 1. Everyone should have the same outcome, no matter the effort they put in 2. No one agrees with this c. Patriotism i. Definitions: 1. Devoted to their country 2. Stand up for what their country believes in d. Exceptionalism i. An exception to the rule ii. We are different from other countries 1. Federalism a. The division of power from the national/central authority and give regional authority What is democracy? (one paragraph answer) Democracy is a form of government in which the people rule. There are two different forms of democracy. A direct democracy is where all the people make all the political decisions. An indirect democracy is where people elect individuals to represent them. This is also called a republic. In America, we practice indirect democracy. I think democracy is a great thing. Only the people know what is best for the people. In a dictatorship, the people have no say and that is not a free nation. I feel fortunate to live in a country where people can influence political decisions. Is the Electoral College a good thing? I think that the Electoral College has both good and bad points. The good things are that it represents the people in a way that is somewhat based on population. The majority of the people should have the majority of the say in politics. The bad things are that the electoral votes can contradict the popular vote. I think that the popular vote can represent the views of the people directly. I think that if getting rid of the electoral system can remove some confusion and controversy in American election system. I think that the number of popular votes for a candidate can truthfully reflect how popular that person is with the people. The people are choosing who they want to represent them. Not throw away their votes in the electoral system. Read the Constitution and Federalist Papers #10 (Pg. 56) 1. Democracy a. Our Definitions: i. The people run and operate the government ii. Direct democracy iii. Indirect democracy 1. The people have the power to elect governing officials iv. Power and decision making is shared equally by the people v. People have a say in the decisions that affect them vi. Majority rules b. Problems with democracy i. People are bad 1. Lying, stealing 2. Who is to judge good or bad? ii. People are ignorant 1. People are ignorant of their own interest iii. People are emotional 1. Emotional people will over-react iv. Tyranny of the majority 1. The majority terrorizes the minority c. Democracy i. Demos = the people ii. Krata = to rule d. Who are the people? i. Citizens ii. Open to discussion e. Do you think your views are represented in our government? 2. The U.S. Constitution a. Historical context i. After the revolution we started with the Articles of Confederation 1. The 13 states were very independent 2. Took all 13 states to pass a law ii. 3 problems at start 1. Financial Problems a. Debts to pay off 2. External Threats a. Other countries, Indians 3. Internal Threats a. Rebellion from within iii. Articles of Confederation were not working iv. 12 representatives of the 13 states came to Philadelphia to amend the Articles b. Goal of the Founding Fathers i. They did not all agree ii. The goal was to get a strong and effective federal government 1. More power in fewer hands 2. Didn’t want it to become tyrannical (robs us of freedom) c. Solutions 1. Elections a. Term limits 2. Process of removal or impeachment 3. Separation of powers a. Check and balances 4. Created a bill of rights a. Series of amendments saying “don’t do this” d. Creating the Document i.Legislative Branch – Article 1 All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives. 1. Created two houses of government 2. Senate a. 2 from each state b. Go up for election every 6 years i. 1/3 of the Senate at a time c. Ratifies treaties d. Appointment process i. Confirmation of members, justices of the supreme court, other positions 3. House of Representatives a. Based on population b. Go up for election every 2 years c. All money bills, taxes, or any bills involving money must start in the house i. “No taxation without representation.” ii. House members are voted on directly 4. Section 8 is powers given to all congress a. Law Making b. Taxing and Spending ii. Executive Branch - Article 2 The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. 1. Commander in chief of the military 2. Give state of the union address to recommend action 3. Can make treaties – can’t pass them alone iii. Why is Article 2 so vague? 1. Washington was first president a. They knew he wouldn’t abuse the powers and that he would set customs, traditions, or laws on how the presidents should rule b. We trusted him because he didn’t the power. iv. Federalist Papers and Ratification Possible essay question: What are they trying to explain? 1. Federalist papers were used to explain the constitution 2. Tried to convince states to ratify the constitution 3. #10 and #51 work together 4. Written by James Madison 5. “Big government is best” v. Republican / Republicanism 1. Classical Republicanism a. Should be small i. Commonality of a small set of people and trust b. Virtue is important i. You should be committed to the common good ii. Citizen first and private citizen second c. Corruption is to be greatly feared i. Must keep a watchful eye on corruption 1. This works best in a small republic 2. New Republicanism Idea comes from and is encouraged by James Madison a. Factions b. Vindication, repacion, greed c. Big government i. More diversity 1. One group won’t take over another ii. Representation is a good idea 1. Good people will be in charge d. Checks and balances i. Good because of time frames and constituencies e. Embraced diversity f. Its realistic g. Maintains freedom and stability vi. Amendments and Ratification 1. Bill of Rights sealed the deal for the constitution a. Wanted a further check on power 2. Ratified the constitution and then bill of rights were written and ratified 3. The skeptics didn’t want to sign without the bill of rights – once it was written they agreed and ratified it vii. Federalism 1. Average Americans thought of themselves as “New Yorkers” or “Pennsylvanians” – the state came first in their minds 2. Separation /division of powers between the states and federal government 3. States have certain power and we recognize that 4. Powers belonging only to the federal government a. Coining money b. Declare war 5. Powers belonging only to the state government a. Education b. Criminal law 6. Dual Federalism a. Implies that you are a citizen of the state and of the federal government you live in 7. Baron vs. Baltimore a. Baron owed a pier in Baltimore b. City of Baltimore wanted to do some construction and in doing such diverted the water away from his pier thus killing Baron’s business c. His rights were listed in the 5 amendment i. Citizens shall not be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process, nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation d. The amendments were your federal rights e. The states make their own laws i. The construction was being done by the state of Maryland and the court decided that Baron would have to turn to Maryland government and constitution ii. Dual Federalism says you have to abide by both laws 8. What is the advantage of federalism a. Democratic i. State governments are closer to the people ii. More responsive to the people b. States can recognize their own problems i. Different policies for different states viii. Civil Liberties 1. Tells the federal government what it can and cannot do a. Keeps us free 2. Constitution is the shield a. List of “Thou shall not” th 3. 14 Amendment says states cannot deny people life, liberty, or property without due process of the law 4. Incorporation a. Idea that the bill of rights applies to you as an American Citizen and citizen of the states b. 14 Amendment c. Comes with the civil rights movement 5. Griswold vs. Connecticut a. Court case about abortion b. Claims that people have privacy 6. Lawrence vs. Texas a. Court case about gay marriage ix. Civil Rights 1. 14 amendment states these again 2. Can’t discriminate against race or gender 3. Separate does not mean equal a. Ex. Separate schools for blacks and whites with the same amount of funding is not allowed x. Voting Rights Act 1. Tried to protect the right to vote 2. You can show the federal government that you have been discriminated against Amendment I Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. Amendment II A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed. Amendment III No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law. Amendment IV The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. Amendment V No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation. Amendment VI In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence. Amendment VII In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law. Amendment VIII Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. Amendment IX The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. Amendment X The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people. AMENDMENT XIV Passed by Congress June 13, 1866. Ratified July 9, 1868. Note: Article I, section 2, of the Constitution was modified by section 2 of the 14th amendment. Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twentyone years of age,* and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twentyone years of age in such State. Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and VicePresident, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of twothirds of each House, remove such disability. Section 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void. Section 5. The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article. 1. What is political culture and why is it important? Political culture is the customs, traditions, values of a country. Examples in America include the Super bowl and going to church. It is important because it influences our laws. If a politician doesn’t agree with the majority of Americans he won’t get many votes or get very far in politics if he doesn’t reflect our customer or values. It sets the parameters of what is acceptable. Political culture is shaped by a history of past events. Wars have shaped American political culture. Capitalism, land, and immigrants also change culture. Culture does change. Freedom, equality, patriotism, and exceptionalism are key concepts that define American political Freedom is the ability to follow ones path with some interference from the government. Equality is the equal distribution of rights regardless of race, religion, or other cultural differences. 2. Discuss how conceptions of equality and freedom can come into conflict in our political system. a. Conceptions of equality and freedom can come into conflict in our political system in several ways. Freedom and equality are key concepts that define American political culture. Freedom is the ability to follow ones path with some interference from the government. Freedom is also the ability to believe in what you want to believe in and express yourself how you want to. Also freedom allows one to live and work where they want to. Equality means the equal distribution of rights regardless of race, religion, or other cultural differences. Also equality means each person has the same chances and restrictions as the next person. Equality before the law means everyone follows the same laws. Equality of opportunity means everyone has a chance to succeed. Equality of outcome means everyone should have the same outcome no matter the effort they put it. Equality and freedom often come into conflict when someone tries to challenge those rights. Most times when there is conflict it involves someone of authority. The people usually will try to assert their rights and not let someone of authority take their rights of freedom and equality away. 3. Discuss the differences between representative and direct democracy. a. In America, we practice a representative democracy. Another type of democracy is direct. In a representative democracy the people elect officials to make decisions for them. The goal in a representative democracy is that the people will elect good and honest officials and those officials will go along with the views of the people who elected them. A direct democracy is where the people run the government and everyone votes on matters that are important to them. The majority rules in democracy. There are some problems with both types of democracy. The first is that people are bad. Who is to judge who is good and bad? Also people are ignorant. They don’t know what is in their best interests. People are emotional and they will over-react. Also there is a problem with tyranny of the majority. The majority could terrorize the minority. 4. Define the concept of checks and balances and explain why it is important. a. The system of checks and balances is used in the American government. The government is checked and balances by the different branches and departments. The good part of checks and balances is the time frames and constituencies. Congress has a certain amount of time they have to pass or veto bills. This is a good system to keep America the way the people want it. 5. What is the argument advanced in Federalist Paper #10? a. When James Madison wrote the federalist paper #10, he was trying to explain the constitution to the states. He wanted to write these papers to translate the constitution and its purpose to the states and to the people. These papers attempted to convince the states to ratify the constitution. Madison argued that factions should be avoided and that big government is better than small government. In a big government there is more diversity. He also thought that representation was a good idea. He believed that good people would be in charge. 6. Define and explain the concept of federalism. a. Federalism is a political concept in which a group of members are bound together by a covenant with a governing representative head. When America was founded, the people first thought of themselves as “New Yorkers” or “Pennsylvanians.” To them, they were state citizens first and then an American citizen. Federalism implies a division of powers between the states and the federal government. States have certain powers and the federal government recognizes that. Powers that belong only to the federal government include coining money and declaring war. Powers that belong only to the states include education and criminal law. Dual federalism implies that you are a citizen of both the state and the federal government that you live in. 7. What is the nullification doctrine and is it still relevant to politics today? a. The nullification doctrine is a legal theory that a state has the right to nullify or invalidate any federal law which the state has deemed unconstitutional. The theory of nullification has never been legally upheld. The theory of nullification has been rejected repeatedly by courts. The courts have found that under the supremacy clause, the federal law is superior to state law. The federal judiciary has the final power to interpret the constitution. Therefore the power to make final decisions about the constitutionality of federal laws lies with the federal courts, not the states. I feel that it is not relevant in politics today. 8. What are civil liberties? a. Civil liberties tell the federal government what it can and cannot do. They keep us a free nation. Thethonstitution is a “shield.” It is a list of “Thou shall not.” The 14 amendment says that states cannot deny people life, liberty, or property without due process of law. Incorporation is an idea that the bill of rights applies to you as an American Citizen. Griswold vs. Connecticut is a court case about abortion that involved civil liberties. It claimed that people have the right to privacy in their own lives. 9. What are civil rights? a. Civil rights express that the government cannot discriminate against a person based on their race, genderthsexual orientation, etc. These rights are also listed in the 14 Amendment. Also separate does not mean equal. For example separate schools for blacks and whites, even with the same amount of funding, is not allowed. The voting rights act was started to eliminate discrimination in voting. th 10. Explain the Importance of the 14 amendment to the U.S. Constitution. a. The 14 Amendment is very important to the American people. The 14 amendment guarantees rights to everyone. Section 1 states that all people born or naturalized in the US are US citizens. It also states that no person shall be deprived of liberty, property, without due process of the law. Section 2 explains how representatives are chosen and how many there should be per state. Section 3 states that if a senator or representative does something bad, then they should be removed from office. Section 4 states that the public debt is valid and that they should be paid if legitimate. Section 5 is more open to interpretation. It says that congress shall have the power to enforce appropriate legislation. All of these are important because they keep us free and they ensure that our leaders have the best interest of the majority of the people. 11. What is the argument made in federalist #51 a. When James Madison wrote the federalist paper # 51, he was addressing the system of checks and balances in the government. He advocates that a separation of powers within the national government is beneficial. One of the most important ideas is that “Ambition must be made to counteract ambition.” According to Madison, the purpose is to “form a more correct judgment of the principles and structure of the government planned by the constitutional convention.” He also states that maintaining the separation of branches of the government will protect the rights of the people. American Government Political Science 101:A Spring 2013 Dr. Joseph Romance Notes: Exam 2 1. Public Opinion a. What is public opinion? i. The combination of all the views that people have on political matters ii. Public opinion is powerful iii. Politicians fear public opinion 1. This is what votes them back into office iv. Obedient to authority – Stanley Milgram 1. He thought that Germans were obedient to authority 2. Tested Americans on their ability to question authority – they obeyed 3. This experiment shows obedience in people by making then shock other people b. Should it matter? i. People are ignorant 1. Even these people are powerful ii. People don’t know what they want iii. Lippman 1. Think that people can’t be politically informed 2. He thinks that politicians shouldn’t pay attention to the people’s opinion iv. V.O. Key 1. Wrote that people are fickle and ignorant about little policies 2. However he thought that people, dumb or not, have a big influence with their votes c. Where do your opinions come from? i. Propaganda 1. The attempt by an organization to control what people know ii. Demagogue 1. Person or leader who plays on people’s fears to manipulate them to influence what they think and believe iii. Political socialization 1. How we learn about politics, details, parties, and processes iv. Socializing Agents 1. Parents, family, friends a. Parents, mostly mothers, have the biggest influence 2. Church 3. School 4. Events a. In early adulthood, key events will have a lot of influence on the rest of your life i. Ex. Great Depression, changes in college experiences 5. Media 6. Organizations 7. Social class 8. Work relations v. Form = Specifics of politics d. Determining factors of parties i. It is easier for a younger person to change parties than an older person – the older person has more invested in their old party ii. Values 1. Basic set of beliefs of how people should act 2. Good moral character 3. Value life > pro-life >republican iii. Beliefs 1. Can be true or false 2. Can change more frequently and easier iv. Attitudes 1. Enduring orientations toward an object or situation e. Developing partnership and ideology i. Sense of belonging to a party ii. 7 different Parisian Identification Partnerships 1. Strong Republican 2. Weak Republican 3. Independent Republican 4. Independent 5. Independent Democrat 6. Weak Democrat 7. Strong Democrat iii. Ideology 1. A set of ideas that constitutes ones goals expectations and actions 2. Conservative a. Less government b. Think government is ill informed c. Believe in a free market d. Seek freedom 3. Liberal a. 4. Populists 5. Socialism 6. Libertarianism f. How do we measure? i. Polls 1. Representative Sample a. When getting predictions, diversity is needed – random people 2. Need to have a margin of error 3. Question of questions a. Questions need to be worded well and thoughtfully What is your earliest political memory? th My earliest political memory occurred on September 11 , 2001. I was a second grader at Victoria Elementary School when an airplane stuck the twin towers. I remember going to take a drink and bathroom break. To get to the bathrooms we had to pass the secretary’s office. Her TV was on and we all gathered around her desk to watch the news replay the horrific scene. I remember the story being on the news for weeks. I also remember seeing President George W. Bush on TV talking about going to war. Being so young, I don’t remember everything that happened with 9/11. However I remember it being a tragic accident that our country will never forget. 2. What is the mass media? a. Defined: media available to the masses i. Gets us information ii. Form of communication iii. We need technology to reach people iv. Means of communication that are technologically capable of reaching most people and economically affordable to most people b. Examples i. Newspapers - dying ii. Radio iii. Internet iv. Television v. Magazines c. Why is it important? i. It controls what the people know ii. Helps because we are a indirect democracy 1. Helps the officials understand the people d. Legal issues i. Libel / slander: creating lies about people and printing or saying it ii. National Security 1. Claim that someone cant publish information if it is a threat to national security 2. Had prior restraint –cant publish it before it could be filtered iii. Fairness Doctrine 1. Not valid anymore 2. A former federal policy requiring television and radio broadcasters that presented one side of a controversy to provide the opportunity for opposing points of view to be expressed at no charge e. What mass media does i. Surveillance 1. Report what is going on and brings it to the public 2. The challenge is choosing what to cover ii. Interpretation 1. We need context of what is going on 2. Tells us what it is going on 3. Try to be neutral iii. Socialization 1. The action of establishing on a socialist basis; social parties iv. Manipulation / investigation 1. Looking further info an event 2. Digging deeper to find the truth to report to the public f. How the medium affects the message i. Inflection when listening can affect the perception ii. Anger come through when you can hear iii. Gestures come through in TV and in person iv. Appearance matters of TV but not radio g. Who owns the media i. The main networks h. Main powers i. Agenda setting ii. Framing 3. Introduction to Participation Aristotle says man is a political animal. Name the most political thing I have done. When I think about the most political thing I have done, I think back to high school. When I was a junior at Victoria High School, I ran for student council president. In the spring we campaigned. We were allowed to hang posters, talk to people, and promote ourselves as we wanted. However we were not allowed to bribe people with snacks or candy. I won the election and became the student council president. For one year I was the leader at meetings, organized activities, and did many other things to improve or involve our school. Then my term was over and I helped with the election for the next year’s president. I learned a lot about the parliamentary procedure throughout that year. Another political thing I have done was vote. I turned 18 just a few months before the 2012 Presidential Election. I attempted to inform myself on the issues and where the candidates stood. I went to the Hays poll and cast my ballot. This made me feel like an American Citizen with an opinion that mattered. Notes from Professor Rackaway Political Participation 1. Voting 2. Attending debates Range of Participation 1. Most involved a. Running for office b. Work for a campaign c. Protesting d. Going to political rally e. Contacting representatives f. Getting information g. Political signs h. Voting 2. Least involved 3. Most involved people are called gladiators – they have something at stake 4. Least involved people are called spectators – they just watch the gladiators 5. Campaigning a. Time i. Usually 2 ½ to 3 years – 4 or more for president b. Fundraising i. Travel Rallies ii. TV advertising iii. Personnel c. Strategy i. Give people a reason to vote for you ii. Give people a reason to not vote for the opponent d. Communication i. What your slogans are ii. What you will do to convince people Electoral Process Stages of Election Pre-Primary Primary Convention General Stage Stage* Summer of Election 1-3½ years out January-June Election year Fall of the election year Sept. Oct. Nov. Presidential -Should I run? -Multiple -2 Audience -Electoral Election -Can I win? states have Theory= If you number come -Decide if you primaries at go to a from number can dedicate different convention and of get excited that much time times – NH is about your representativ for an election always first candidate then es + 2 -Build staff -Usually only you might work senators = -Get $ 3 “tickets” for that total of candidate or -Strategy out of NH tell your friendslectoral -Message -Some states to vote for themvotes per just hold -If you’re not state caucuses – excited from -270 to win Iowa is the the convention -Swing states then you won’t first caucus do those things are states -Delegates -1 audience is that go back are then in the and forth assigned convention between Rep. proportionally nd and Dem. -2 audience is to the watching on TV -If it goes to a candidates -This produces atie then it -3 M’s of nominee for the goes to the winning a party senate and nomination the house, in --Money the house --Momentum each state --Media votes for one president – in the senate each person votes from VP All other -Similar to the -Primary is -Similar to Elections presidential like a mini- the election election presidential -Less intense -It looks and election -Less money to feels like an raise election -Can wait -This longer to produces a decide things nominee of the certain party These are not rule mentioned in the constitution. These are procedures grown up over time. The development of parties has helped this grow into what it is today. The 3 Partisan Identifications 1. “The Times” a. Retrospective voters – they have no or little identification to a certain party i. They look back and see how the economy and the country was doing b. Prospective voters – they also have no or little identification to a certain party i. They look ahead and see how the candidate wants to handle the country 2. Issues a. These are single issue voters – they vote for the one issue that they care about a pick the one they agree with 3. Candidates a. Candidates and their history do matter b.Eisenhower won because he beat Hitler *=Types of primaries Closed primaries o Only members of the party can vote in the primary Semi-open primaries o Voters who are registered in that party or independents can vote Open primaries o Everyone can vote in the primary Short Answer Questions What is political socialization and who are the key socializing agents in our society? Political socialization is how we learn about politics, details, parties and processes. The two key socializing agents are parents and events. Our parents have the most influence on us because they are around us for the majority of our young lives. Particularly mothers have a big influence. In our early adulthood certain events will have a lot of influence on us and how we choose a party or values to believe in. Some examples of those events include the great depression, the war in Iraq, or joining a club in college. Other socializing agents include church, school, media, social class, and work relations. What factors characteristically make up a good poll? What should you look for in evaluating whether a poll is accurate? Characteristically, good polls have a representative sample, a margin of error, and have correctly worded questions. To get a representative sample, one must have diversity and have random people. You would want to have the opinion of all kinds of people not just one specific group. When publishing a poll you must provide your margin of error. The larger the margin of error the less confidence people will have in the poll to be truthfully accurate. In most polls, you can’t get the opinion of everyone you are trying to study. So you must get a sample size and then decide how much error can be involved in the size of the sample you are using. Then you must ask your questions in a way that won’t confuse your audience. They need to be worded well and thoughtfully and not give a certain favoring to a particular answer choice. What is civil disobedience? Why is it important in our society? Civil disobedience is the active professed refusal to obey certain laws, demands, and commands of a government. It is commonly, though not always, defined as being a nonviolent resistance. It is important in our society because it can be an effective way to change the laws and protect liberties. It also embodies an important moral concept that there are times when the law and justice to not coincide and that to obey the law at such times can be an abdication of ethical responsibility. What is a political primary and why is it important? A primary is like a mini-election. It looks and feels like an actual election. It is important because it produces a nominee of a certain party. It is most important for the political parties. It helps them decide who the best candidate is and who will get the most votes for their party. Multiple states have primaries at different times. New Hampshire is always first. They say there are only three tickets out of New Hampshire. That state shows which candidates have the most support and can pull ahead of the others. There are three M’s that come with winning a nomination. They are money, momentum, and media. These are all things that you want you need to win an election. Once someone wins, they are then proportionally assigned delegates. There are three types of primaries. The first is a closed primary. Only members of the party can vote in that primary. The second is a semi-open primary. Only voters who are registered in that party or independents can vote. The third is an open primary. Everyone can vote in an open primary. How does the Electoral College work? The Electoral College is a system used when electing the president. Each state has a certain number of electoral votes. It is a formula somewhat based on population. To figure the number per state you take the number of representatives plus two for the number of senators each state has. For example, Kansas has four representatives and two senators so we have six total electoral votes. Each candidate chooses electoral voters to represent them if they win that state. Then those chosen voters cast all of the electoral votes for their state for the candidate that they are loyal to. Occasionally there is a faithless voter who will cast their votes towards the other candidate that they are not “faithful” to. This has never affected the outcome of an election. A candidate needs 270 electoral votes to win an election. That number represents the majority. Explain how momentum, media, and money affect the electoral process. Once a candidate wins the first state in a primary they gain the three “M’s.” New Hampshire is always the first state to hold a primary. It is said that only three tickets go out of New Hampshire. That is because of the three “M’s.” When a candidate (or the top three) wins a primary, it shows that they have potential and have a good chance of winning the whole thing. Therefore a candidate gains momentum, media, and money. They gain momentum because people are affected by what other people think. If a candidate starts to win, they are most likely going to keep winning. They gain media attention because they win. That is free advertising and very good publicity for the candidate. They gain money because people think they have a good chance of winning and want to invest in that candidate. This affects the system because once a candidate gets these things they are more and more likely to win each week. Define the mass media and explain why it is important in our political system. Mass media is the media available to the masses. It gets us information and comes in many forms of communication. The best mass media is a form a communication that is capable of reaching most people and economically affordable to most people. Some examples are newspapers, radio, internet, television, and magazines. It is important because they control what the people know. It is also important because we are an indirect democracy. Mass media helps the officials understand the people. There are some legal issues attached to mass media. Libel and slander are two forms associated with mass media where people create lies about people and making it available to many people. It can pose a threat to national security. People aren’t allowed to publish anything that can threaten national security. Mass media does surveillance so they can publish information on events and brings it to the public. The challenge is choosing what events to cover. The interpretation is also something it does. We need to mass media to tell us what is going on and puts it so we can understand it. They also have to do this is a neutral way. Socialization is the action established on a socialist basis involving social parties. They also can manipulate or investigate. This means they look into something further and dig deeper to find the truth to report to the public. The medium can affect the message with inflection, gestures, and appearance. The main networks own the media. Their main powers are agenda setting and framing. What does the term prior restraint mean? Why is it important? The mass media has to deal with t. This means that they can’t publish something before it can be filtered. The government uses censorship to control what is produced by the mass media. Prior restraint prevents the censored material from being heard of distributed to everyone. It can be affected in a number of ways. For example, the exhibition of works of art or a movie may require a license from a government authority before it can be published. What happens in the pre-primary stage of the election process? In the pre-primary stage of an election, several things happen. It takes place one to three and a half years from the election. The candidate must decide if they should run. They must decide if they think they can win. They must decide if they can dedicate that much time for an election. They have to build a staff to help them campaign and assist them with issues. They must acquire money by fundraising or accepting donations. They must develop a strategy and decide how they are going to win. They must also decide on a message to broadcast to voters. In smaller elections this stage is less intense and they can wait longer to decide things. CHAPTER 6 Affective response Attitudes – enduring orientations toward an object or situation and predispositions to respond positively or negatively toward that object or situation Balanced response sets – desirable because they give no subtle cues that might lead the respondent Beliefs – propositions about what is true and false CATI system – Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing – it eliminates human errors in dialing phone numbers, recording issues – also faster Cognitive dissonance – the psychological discomfort or dissonance a person feels when trying to process contradictory feeling or thoughts Cognitive response Demagogue – when a politician arouses anger or action among the people by appealing to their fear hatred or greed Defining events – events that define the views a person has Double-barreled question – asking about two phenomena in one question – not valid or reliable Exit poll – particular species of survey to call elections within minutes after the polls have closed – the interview voters after the exit the poll Gender gap – differences in attitudes between men and women in voting Libertarian – one who is liberal on social issues but conservative on economic issues Nonresponse bias – those who respond to a survey may hold different opinions from those who do not Opinions – people’s preferences and judgments about public issues and political candidates Party identification – identify with a political part or consider themselves independents Political alienation – a feeling of distance from and hostility toward the political process Political efficacy – the feeling that one can make a difference in politics Political elite Political values – basic sets of feelings about what ought to be and how people ought to behave Pollsters – those who take polls Population – the group of people about whom an analyst wants to generalize Populist – one who is conservative on social issues but liberal on economic issues Priming – responses to any question can be biased by those questions asked previously Propaganda - Information, esp. of a biased or misleading nature, used to promote or publicize a particular political cause or point of view Public opinion Pundits – like polls Random-digit dialing – the last 4 digits in a phone number are randomly assigned to lists of telephone prefixes in a given area Random sample – a sample in which every member of the sampling frame has an equal chance of being selected Reliability – an indicator is reliable if it would produce the same response if it were asked again Sample – people whose opinions or attitudes are measured in any given attempt comprise the sample of the population Sampling frame – the list of potential respondents from which respondents are chosen Sampling plan – the method of choosing a subset of the sampling frame that is representative of that frame Social desirability bias – a question framed or phrased so that it seems to imply that a particular answer is preferred – a question is biased if it produces a response that is not a true indicator of the underlying opinion that it seeks to measure Straw poll – a survey in which the respondents decide whether to participate Systematic sample – sample in which every third, fourth, or fifth, or whatever member of the sampling frame is selected Validity – an indicator has validity if it measures what it should measure CHAPTER 7 Active and attentive class – people who are active in political parties, provide leadership in civic organizations, join interest groups, and attend public meetings Boycott – a collective refusal to purchase a particular good or service Charismatic leader – someone who galvanized people into actions to attract new adherents to bolster people’s faith and courage when things go badly Civil disobedience – refers to the intentional breaking of the law to make a political point General strike – a large segment of the population refuses to work for a day to dramatize opposition to the government Modern pluralist theory – this stresses interest group affiliation and activity Political activists – people who participate in depth in the political arena by contributing large amounts of time and money either to a single cause or across a variety of causes Political apathy – people who remove themselves from possible participation by failing to register to vote or registering but rarely if ever casting a ballot Political resources – the means of exercising influence that an individual or group can bring to bear in the political arena Social movement – refers to the purposeful, directed actions of a large number of people attempting to achieve some collective purpose Spectator activities – political activities that demand little effort, time, and political resources Strike – a collective decision by a large number of people to refuse work in order to dramatize the situation or force those who are adversely affected to make some concession Traditional democratic theory – considers voting, political party affiliation, working in campaigns, and even running for public office to be the proper means of political participation in a democracy Turnout – the number of people voting expressed as either a percentage of those registered to vote or a percentage of voting-age population CHAPTER 8 Bundling – well-connected supporters Candidate image – the reaction people have to a candidate Coattails – if they can bring several new party members into congress in a presidential election year they have strong coattails Consultants – people who include media relations experts, pollsters, advertising specialists, campaign strategists, and fundraising experts Expectations game – a matter of perception General election – voters make the final choice of who will hold office Incumbency advantage – the various factors contributing to the high rates of electoral success and low rates of turnover for members of congress Iowa caucus – the first major event of the nomination process Issue voting – takes place in two ways – retrospective voting and prospective voting New Hampshire primary – the second major test in the primaries – results are more important that Iowa because it is a primary with more citizens participating Nomination – a variety of methods to select the person to get their nomination Party image – the reaction people have toward a political party Photo opportunity – an event staged with the hope that it will be photographed or filmed by the news media – hopefully positively Primary election – political party selects one candidate from a field of contenders to run against the nominees of other parties in a general election Prospective voting – voters look forward and predict how each candidate will perform in the future Retrospective voting – voters loos back at how well a candidate has done Seed money – money obtained from individuals and groups that are already closely associated with the candidate Sound bite – a short clip that consists of a catchy phrase conveying a simple message Spin control – the candidate’s aides try to control the message that the media communicates to the voters Tracking polls – they are conducted by campaigns and the media to see how well the candidate performs over time and with different messages and the media look for the ability to predict the winner CHAPTER 9 Australian ballot – allows voters to vote in secret and to choose between individuals of each party for each office Candidate-centered campaigns Caucus – a meeting of all members of a legislature from a particular political party Closed primary – a person must be registered as a democrat or republican to participate in the election Coalition – a loose collection of groups who join together to accomplish some common goal Congressional caucus – when a group chooses their nominees for presidency Dealignment - a process whereby voters are moved toward nonpartisanship thus weakening the structure of political parties Direct primary – device to involve more people in the nomination process – party members vote for their preferred party nominee in a primary election that is held in the winter or spring before the party’s national convention Grassroots party politics – activities that originate at the local level and work their way up through the party Interest aggregation – the process of bringing together various interests under one umbrella Interest articulation – the process of speaking on behalf of these issue positions Linkage institutions – any intermediary organization that connects people with politics Loyal opposition – its role is to criticize the majority party, provide useful debate on legislation, and block the more extreme policies of the majority party Majority party – one party establishes clear dominance McGovern-Fraser commission – rules designed to open the democratic party to wider participation by women minorities and young people Minority party – the party that does not claim the allegiance of a majority of party identifiers Multiparty systems - A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties have the capacity to gain control of government separately or in coalition National conventions – held every 4 years in the summer before the election for president takes place – the only time the parties have a chance to present themselves to the American people Open primary – any voter can choose to participate in ether primary merely by declaring her intention after entering the voting place Partisan realignment – a massive long term shift occurs in voter allegiance from one party to another Party in congress - Party in government – consists of those officeholders from a particular party Party in the electorate Party machines - local party organizations that dominate elections in an area over a long period through a variety of both legal and illegal means Party out of power Party platform – a document that is developed at a party’s national convention establishes what the party stands for Progressive movement – this was a movement in effort to reform government by eliminating fraud, corruption, and inefficiency Realignment election – when voters shift their allegiance Secret ballot – a vote where ballots are cast in secret Single-issue politics - Single-issue politics involves political campaigning or political support based on one essential policy area or idea Soft money – finance law that permits parties to raise and spend money for general political activities sich as bumper stickers Spoils system – a system of staffing government that rewards supporters with jobs and contracts Superdelegate – certain number of delegate spots for elected party officials – can be members of congress, governors, or mayors – 2 main benefits for party – their presence brings media attention – support of a wide range of leaders for unity – more control over the party than they had before Super Tuesday - A day on which several US states hold primary elections Third-party candidate - A candidate who does not belong to one of the two main US political parties, the Republicans or the Democrats Two-party system - War chest – a sum of money for campaigning Winner-take-all – a party must capture the most votes in a district to obtain any representation in the government CHAPTER 11 Bloggers – those who create and maintain running commentaries about virtually any topic including politics and world affairs – bloggers provide immediacy to raw, unfiltered news events along with their own running commentary Chain ownership – not as much private ownership of the media newspapers, magazines, and radio and television stations Confidential source –
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