Class Notes from World Geography FHSU
Class Notes from World Geography FHSU 110
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World Geography Notes Introduction Geography is the science of special organization – will be on test The geographic method o Not always made explicit, but always practiced 1. Spatial location –where is it? Often involves maps and mapping Types of Locations: Absolute location = location of a phenomenon with regard to fixed references – example: latitude / longitude or other coordinate systems – sometimes called “site” – mostly does not change Relative location = where something is with regard to other things – can change quickly as technology, politics, and communications change – changes often – often referred to as situation o 2. Underlying special order – why is it there? Super structure indicated substructure Like in earthquakes we can know what’s going on down there without actually being there o 3. Significance of what we have learned – who cares? How does it change how we see the world Absolute Location and The Geographic grid o Most common system of indicating absolute location is the geographic grid Has many names – we refer to it as longitude / longitude coordinates or Graticule (European term) These are a set of fixed references that enable absolute location to be established 2 components 1. Latitude = an indication of absolute location north or south o Fixed references are lines and points Equator = line running around the middle of the Earth that perfectly bisects it 0 degrees latitude The north geographic pole “The North Pole”= this is a point 90 degrees north The south geographic pole = this is a point 90 degrees south Lines of constant latitude are called parallels Each degree of latitude is about 69.11 miles long We divide each degree of latitude into 60 sub-units These are called minutes Each minutes it divided into 60 sub-units These are called seconds Example: I am at 43 degrees north, 2 minutes, 3 seconds All latitudes will be between 0 - 90 degrees, 0-59 minutes, 0-59 seconds, north or south 2. Longitude = an indication of location east or west o This is harder to determine o Longitude is measured from a line that runs from the north pole through Greenwich, Great Britain to the south pole – this is the Prime Meridian Set at 0 degrees longitude A line on the opposite side of the Earth was assigned a value of 180 degrees longitude – this is the international date line Everyone agreed on this line – this is also when time zones were creates o All longitude lines are between 0-180 degrees, 0-59 minutes, and 0-59 seconds, east or west o Combined these latitude and longitude lines form a net that covers the entire Earth o Lines of constant longitude are called meridians o Almost all countries on Earth use this system Realms, regions, and culture o Regions = a part of the Earth’s surface that displays a degree of sameness or commonality with regard to an activity or phenomenon Formal region = commonality is a phenomenon spread across the surface and its often visible (ex. A rainforest) Functional region = commonality is an activity or movement pattern that occurs within that area (ex. Service area for an airline, or political region) A place can be both formal and function (ex. Farm land) Culture Regions = Most of the regions we will be looking at Culture region = that part of the Earth’s surface where a given human culture predominates Largest culture regions are called realms o Culture = the sum total of a people’s beliefs, attitudes, and technology Can be tied up with religion, philosophy, language, ethnicity, etc. Culture is a learned behavior – any human being can learn any culture if they start young and if they are accepted Culture regions can expand, contract, merge (produce a hybrid), or even disappear Global population and the demographic transition o Total global population is around 7 billion o There are 5 major areas that host a majority of the people East Asia, Europe and Western Russia, Eastern United States, 1 more? o Different parts of the world have dramatically different growth rates in terms of population TFR (Total Fertility Rate) How many children average woman in a society has “Breakeven” is 2.1 children (not gaining or losing) Examples: TFR in Spain is 1.1, Nigeria 6.0 Why do these change? Theory of the demographic transitions o This explains how the development of a society affects its TFR o TFR is the product of millions individual decisions o Four states of the demographic transition – these are theories – 4 so far – can be more later 1. Pre-industrial Poverty is general (by today’s standards) Population is overall static (not shrinking or growing) Birth rate is high however the population is static because the death rate is high –mostly from infant mortality Men outnumber women by about 45-55% - caused by the deaths of young women in child birth – women have a 1 out of 3 chance of dying in child birth 2. Early industrial Beginnings of machine production and scientific agriculture The death rate along with the infant mortality starts to fall Birth rate remains high and may even increase – sudden surge in the population that is called “population explosion” Bigger families are richer – more for everyone – kids work Wealth hasn’t spread through the society yet – higher differences in wealth Children are surviving not because of medical care but because of cleaner living 3. Late industrial Prosperity starts to spread through society People can buy cars, washing machines, etc. The death rate continues to fall but by now the birth rate also starts to fall Population starts to level off Numbers of men and women equalize Medical care starts to help people not harm them Education becomes more important Women leave the work force 4. Post industrial Sometimes called “affluence” – prosperity is general Jobs are no longer industrial Idea is that everyone should be fairly prosperous Retirement plans come about Death rate is low – birth rate is low = population stabilizes Children are an investment Education is very important Women slightly outnumber men by about 51-49% 5. ? – Starting to see lower birth rates and TFR is under 2 Europe Significance of Europe – be able to name 3 of them The importance of the realm to people who do not live there o 1. It is the area of origin of western culture The most influential culture in the world o 2. Area of origin of the industrial revolution Started in Britain then expanded to USA and Germany – then spread all over the world o 3. From about 1500 AD until about 1960 European countries directly ruled much of the world Referred to this as colonial empires These spread people, religions, languages, political institutions, infrastructure, etc. Colonial Empires were rivals between countries The big 4 colonial empires Portugal o Controlled a lot of Africa and Brazil Spanish o Controlled Mexico and a lot of South America French o Controlled parts of Canada and some Africa British o Controlled 1/4 of the Earth’s surface o US, Australia, Etc. o 4. Area of origin of the 2 world wars Both WWI and WWII started in Europe 2 of the bloodiest conflicts in human history WWI – 12 – 16 million dead WWII – 50-60 million dead When these wars were over – the 2 top countries were US and Soviet union – not European countries This is why they lost a lot of their colonial empires o 5. Europe still has significant economic, military, and political power Economic power - The EU (European Union) has the second largest economy union in the world (2 nd to the US) Military power – Britain and France both has nuclear weapons Political power – still exercises very large political influence Physical Geography and Climate of Europe o 3 important facts of geography Europe is a huge peninsula surrounded on 3 sides by water Has a rough coastline with lots of natural harbors The mountains run east/west and divide the continent into northern and southern zones Traditionally people traveled east/west but not north/south o Physiographic regions North European lowland (or plain) Low in elevation Rolling in topography – many low hills Best agricultural land in Europe Large concentrations of population It is easy to travel on, trade, or invade Poland and Belgium have seem a lot of warfare on their land Central Uplands Rough broken country Many small but significant mountain ranges, valleys, and forests Sometimes called the roots of an old mountain range o Tend to be rich in minerals Similar to the Ozarks in terrain Beautiful scenery Tourism is very important here Alpine System Series of mountain ranges that dominate southern Europe Includes the Alps = highest mountains in Europe Divides northern from southern Europe Western Uplands Rough country Lots of lakes Poor soils Good harbors Recently glaciated o This was the last part of Europe to come out from under the ice from glaciers Fiords = glaciated valleys that are filled with sea water – very good harbors Not huge populations of people – agriculture isn’t that great Peat bogs = cool weather swampsery acidic – things tend to be reserved in these o Theses produce Peat = vegetable materials – first stage of coal Climate of Europe – name where each is found and its influence o Europe tends to have milder climates than does the US or Canada (or Russia) o Reason? Continental Maritime Effect This means water heats up and cools down more slowly than land does Areas close to large bodies of water have milder seasons than inland areas do Inland areas have more extreme seasons o Climate Zones of Europe 1. Marine west coast climate (light green) Moderate seasons, lots of rainfall – 40-75” per year Primary influence is the Atlantic ocean – especially a warm ocean current called the gulf stream 2. Mediterranean Climate (brown) Hot summers, cool winters, about 20-35” rain per year Almost all of the rain falls in the winter Primary influence is the hot summer air from the Sahara Desert Subtropical highs Mediterranean agriculture: citrus fruits, figs, wheat, olives, wine grapes 3. Humid Continental (teal) Found primarily in Eastern Europe Hot summers, cold winters, around 30-60” of rain per year Significant amount of snow Major influence is continentally = farther from an ocean, the more extreme the seasons Greatest climate extremes in Europe – not huge Languages of Europe Europe has a significant degree of linguistic diversity o There are over 60 languages spoken in Europe o Language can be very difficult to study and its study if often controversial o We study languages and their relationships by sound shifts o The largest groups of related languages are called language families o Standard languages The version of a language as it spoken or taught at elite levels o Dialects Variations of a standard language – often involve accents, different words, speech patterns, often regional Mutually intelligible – can understand them still as the same language o There are 2 major language families in Europe 1. Indo-European family = largest language family on Earth 3 major groups in this family o 1. Romance languages These languages came from the Roman empire Found primarily in southern Europe The root is Latin Latin is considered a dead language – not still developing Languages coming from this = French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Romanian o 2. Germanic Languages Mostly found in North Western Europe Root is Gothic Their written alphabet is very strange = called Runes Languages that come from this = German (and all dialects), Dutch, English, and Scandinavian languages = Swedish, Norwegian, Finnish English is the world’s largest second language o 3. Slavic Group Found in Eastern Europe Root language is old Slavonic Languages = Russian, Ukrainian, Byelorussian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Bulgarian, Serbo-Croatian Their alphabet is Cyrillic – different letters o Relict Languages – Indo-European, still living, but once they were much more widespread Languages = Gaelick-Celtic Spoken in Scotland, Ireland, Brittany, Wales Greek – spoken in Greece and a few other areas 2. Uralic-Altaic Family Languages that originally came from Asia, Russia They are not closely related to Indo-European languages Found primarily in eastern Europe Uralic Group o Finnish, Hungarians, Lapps Largest of these languages is Hungarian (Hungary), and a few surrounding areas – this language is called Magyar Finnish – spoken in Finland, Estonia, and a few parts of Russia o They call this language Suomi Lapps (Lapplanders) – spoken in far north Scandinavia (Finland, Sweden, Russia, and Norway) o They call themselves Saami Altaic o Farther south in Europe o Turkish – spoken in Turkey, few surrounding areas o There are many more speakers of these languages in Asia o Basques Spoken in a small part of Northern Spain, and a small section of southern France Don’t fit into either of the 2 big families of languages This is a linguistic outlier – does not seem to be related to any other language on Earth Sometimes it is called Europe’s mystery language The Basques call their language Euskara Regions of Europe 5 different regions 1. Western Europe o Core region of Europe o It is the most European o Few outside influences o The economic heart of Europe o The center of support for the European Union o The main area of NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) o Countries are Germany, France, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxemburg, Switzerland, Austria, (Czech Republic?-still controversial) 2. The British Isles o “Special relationship” with the United States o Significant economic, political, and military influence o Countries are Great Britain, Ireland 3. Southern Europe o Typified by Mediterranean climates, political instability, and some economic problems o Very distinctive cultures o Has had significant influences from Africa and the Middle East o Countries are Portugal, Spain, Italy, and Greece 4. Eastern Europe o Influences from Asia and Russia o Eastern Europe had a difficult 20 century Between Nazi Germany and Stalin Russia o Since 1989 Eastern Europe has been trying to create prosperous free countries o Countries are Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Slovakia, etc. 5. Northern Europe o Been typified by colder climates, some isolation, and the sea has been important in Northern Europe o Countries are Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Iceland Western Europe Economic core of Europe – most productive economies Cultural core of Europe – most “European” with fewest outside influences Most economically productive nation in western Europe is Germany o Ruhr – in Germany – Europe’s largest industrial area Primary area of NATO – (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) o This is a military alliance between European countries and the US and Canada o Involved in preventing WWIII o An attack on 1 is an attack on all All the countries stood together – stating to dictators that if you attack a small country don’t think you can get away wit it – would have to deal with all the other countries France o The most productive and successful agricultural country in Europe o But it industrialized slowly – lagged behind many other countries o Today France is a significant industrial power o Most important city is its capital city – Paris Good example – France’s primate city Primate city = a city that contains all the most important things in a country o They have a very centralized government – they have a democracy o Pursues an independent foreign policy Switzerland (Why is it unusual?) o Not a member of the EU o It is traditionally neutral o Major banking center – especially the city of Zurich Aside from being neutral – they were also one of the first countries to have banking secrecy laws o Has a strong tradition of direct democracy and local government They call this the Canton system – like little states/counties o Very influential to US founders – didn’t have a king o They have 4 official languages German, French, Italian, and Romansh This is unusual – most countries only have 1 o Have a unique defense system “Armed Populace” Every male over 18 – and some women They each are required to have a rifle and 500 rounds of ammunition – the general population becomes the military if they are invaded The Benelux Countries o These are three countries that tend to act as a unit – especially economically o Stand for Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxemburg o Sometimes called the low countries – tend to have very low elevations o They are not rich in resources but have become wealthy through trade and good use of human capital Austria o Sometimes called a remnant state – what is left of a once much larger political unit o It used to be a big country called the Austro-Hungarian Empire o They have a very large primate city = Vienna – ¼ of Austrians live in Vienna o Austria was one of the first countries to cash in on the tourist economy Eastern Europe Significant influence from Russia and Asia Much greater diversity than most of Europe o This is ethnic, religious, linguistic, political Good example of a “shatterbelt” o This means it is a part of the world where cultures, religions, and political systems collide and sometimes violently Ethnic diversity o Eastern Europe is fairly monoracial – but there are many different ethnicities o Lots of proud and vibrant cultures – also conflict Linguistic diversity o Uralic – Altaic languages – and lots of linguistic mixing Religious diversity o A lot of Islamic believers o Used to be several Judaism believers Hitler targeted eastern Europe – 4.5 million Jews in this area were killed in WWII (out of the 6 million total that were killed) Balkanization o When a country divides into hostile enclaves based on language, ethnicity, or religion o People stop feeling loyal to their country and more loyal to their group From about 1938-1989 – most of eastern Europe was under totalitarian domination o State demands total control over the people From about 1938-1945 – German Nazis – there were a totalitarian group – they though they were the ultimate race After that eastern Europe was occupied by Soviet Communists = Marxism-Leninism – this was based on class and economics 1989 – “Velvet Revolution” o Bloodless (in most places) collapse of communism – Berlin wall came down Transition from totalitarianism to free market democracy while avoiding balkanization and civil war Countries doing well o Poland Totalitarianism was not able to break Catholicism in Poland o Czech Republic Had a great first president o Hungary Big battle victory Countries doing so-so o Romania o Bulgaria o Slovakia o Moldova Countries not doing good o Ukraine o Former Yugoslavia o Belarus o Albania Challenges Facing Europe 1. Challenge of supranationalism, devolution, and economics Supranationalism = the transfer of power from national governments to multinational organizations o Examples: the European Union, NATO, United Nations Devolution = transfer of power from national governments to smaller local entities o Example: the government of Great Britain has been really decreased – because they have transferred some power up to the E.U. and also down to regions like Scotland, England, Wales, etc. – this has left government unprepared and too weak to deal with economic crisis o Countries tend to have a large amount of debt after this – examples include Portugal, Italy, Ireland, Greece, Spain – “PIIGS” o These countries cant declare bankruptcy because they’ll bring all the other countries down with them 2. Challenge of demographics Almost all European countries have a TFR (total fertility rate) of below 2 This means that Europe has a slowly shrinking and aging population o The average age in Europe is early 40’s o This is contributing to the financial crisis in Europe due to retirement pensions 3. Challenge of Immigration Allowing more immigration was an attempt to solve the problem of an aging population Getting younger people from other countries – looks good on paper Most European countries have not had a history of mass immigration The source of immigration – primarily = Africa and Middle East Started to lead to terrorism They are not used to mass immigration – has been 700-800 years since this has happened in Europe Half multiple choice Some True false Some Matching Some short answer No Essays Some extra credit – current events World Geography Notes – Test 2 Monsoon Asia Consists of three realms, related by culture, history, climate, geography, religion, and philosophy These realms of Monsoon Asia are: East Asia o Chinese, Japanese, Korean cultures South Asia o Indian culture South-East Asia o Asia’s “shatter belt” – many cultures colliding – very diverse and complex Significance of Monsoon Asia (be able to name 3) Population o 52% of the worlds population lives in Asia o Contains the worlds 2 largest countries: China and India o Other large countries: Pakistan, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Vietnam Each of these countries have populations over 70 million o Does NOT have a high TFR (total fertility rate) – they are not growing very rapidly China = 2.28 Cultures o Very influential cultures o China, India have been influential for thousands of years – not just in the Asian area o Japanese culture has been increasingly influential – especially since the 1960’s o “Korean Wave” – cultural phenomenon – last 15 years – increasing influence of South Korean culture “K-Pop” – popular Korean music Korean Drama TV is becoming increasingly popular o Indian movie industry – India makes 10 times as many movies as the US – sometimes called “Bollywood” – it is the most productive on Earth Economy o Economy has been rapidly growing o Except for Japan, this has been since 1980 – new trend o Today China has the 2 ndlargest economy on Earth o Japan is 3 largest economy th th o India is somewhere between 6 -8 o South Korean, Taiwan, Singapore, and the territory of Hong Kong experience very rapid growth in the 1980’s – these were called “The 4 tigers” o Asia shows that with good leaders and good policies countries can be turned around Military Power o Area of significant military power o China, India, Pakistan, North Korea, all have nuclear weapons o South Korea, Japan, Taiwan could have them very quickly o China has the worlds largest army – PLA (People Liberation Army) o There are many good militaries in Asia Including: Japan, South Korea, North Korea, Taiwan, Vietnam, India, Pakistan, Indonesia, Philippines “Flashpoints” o There are a large number of flashpoints that could lead to war (places that could suddenly break into war) o North Korea vs. South Korea Their war from the 1950’s never really ended o India vs. Pakistan Have already fought 3 wars Both have nuclear weapons o China vs. Taiwan There was a civil war in China a long time ago and one side of the war receded to Taiwan o Lots of smaller disputes – “China vs. Japan” over islands Physical Geography of Asia Asia is the largest land mass on Earth Physical regions are also large Has an unusually large number of islands off shore Large physical regions 1. Inner Asia a. High in elevation, dry in climate, low population density b. Highest mountain range in the world = Himalaya’s i. 2 highest mountains in the world 1. Mount Everest – 6 miles high 2. K2 c. Significant deserts – Gobi, Takla Makan d. Politically sensitive i. Lop Nor – weapons testing area ii. Tibet, Sinkiang – ethnically different from Chinese – potential breakaway region iii. A lot of oil e. Has one of the oldest trade routes on it – Silk Road – trade between Asia and Europe 2. River Hills and Plains a. Has many large rivers, hills, plains, and some mountains b. Best agricultural land in Asia, - Contains, the majority of the population c. China, India – largest countries on Earth d. Huge important rivers make it able to sustain so much life (name 2) i. Huango Ho (Yellow River) – China ii. Yang-Tse (Long) - China iii. Ganges - India iv. Indus – Pakistan e. Wet rice is very common, along with wheat, millet, dry rice f. Also has lots of big cities – 50% of the population lives in big cities 3. Off Shore Islands a. 3 major Archipelagoes – large group of islands (name 2) i. 1. Indonesia Archipelago 1. Largest archipelago on Earth 2. Country of Indonesia 3. US Ally ii. 2. Philippian Archipelago 1. Country of the Philippines 2. Many small islands 3. US ally 4. Catholic – some Spanish is spoken iii. 3. Japanese Archipelago 1. Country of Japan 2. 3 largest economy on Earth b. 3 isolated islands (name 2) i. 1. Taiwan (formerly Formosa) 1. Home to the Republic of China ii. 2. Hainan 1. Part of the peoples Republic of China iii. 3. Sri Lanka 1. Independent country 2. Had a bad civil war – Sinhalese vs. Tamils Climates of Asia Most important climatic fact in Asia is the monsoon Monsoon = a cyclic wind pattern driven by the differential heating and cooling of land and water o More like seasons, not a big storm The Asian land mass is so large it actually creates its own climate Land heats up and cools down more rapidly than water In the summer, solar radiation hits the Earth – land warms up quickly – Earth heats the air – air rises up – causes low pressure – this causes moist air off the ocean to come over the land – causes heavy precipitation – this process is called the summer monsoon – it is the wet season for most of Asia In the winter, both water and land cool off but the land cools more rapidly – this cools the air over Asia, and produces high pressure – wind blows down and out off the land – cool dry air – this process is called the winter monsoon – it is the dry season for most of Asia Wet summers, dry winters The monsoon may be the most important wind system on Earth Heavy monsoon rains support intensive agriculture – and the huge Asian population Monsoon has had huge impacts on Asia – agriculture, culture, military, religion? 1. Monsoon Climate – affects around ½ - 2/3 of Asia 2. Tropical rainforest Climate – warm and wet all year round – affects the area near the equator especially Indonesia, Philippines, and some of Malaysia – most important influence is a system of low pressure near the equator that is called the ITCZ (Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone) 3. Humid Continental Climate – hot summers, cold winters, and some snow – found primarily in North America, South China, Both Koreas, Central and Northern Japan, Mongolia 4. Highland Climate – altitude not latitude, is the most important – gets colder as you go up – altitude cools the climate – mountains cut inner Asia off from the monsoon winds – leads to much dryer climate Religion in Asia Universal Religion o Claims to be true for all people, not just some o Example: Christianity, Islam, Buddhism National Religion o Claims to be true for one group of people o Example: Hinduism (India) , Shintoism (Japan) Codes of Ethics o Concerned with behavior in this world, don’t teach anything about supernatural things o Example: Confucianism, Taoism Can be more than one religion Universal religions-purple National religions-orange Outside Religions Christianity o Philippines – only majority Christian country in Asia o There are large Christian minorities in South Korea, China, India, Vietnam Islam o Mostly in southern Asia o Majority Islamic: Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan Indonesia is the largest Islamic country on Earth o There are also large Islamic minorities in India, Philippines, Western China, Parts of Thailand Started in Asia Buddhism o Founded in India, spread all over Asia o Common in China, Taiwan, Japan, South Korea, most of South East Asia o 2 kinds of Buddhism Mahayana – common in China, Japan, Tibet Theravada – common in south east Asia o The Dalai Lama is important to Mahayana Buddhists Hinduism o Worlds largest national religion – 700 million believers o Found primarily in India and a few surrounding areas o Varna (caste) – inborn social roles o Reincarnation – have multiple births and deaths Nirvana – nothingness – no pain – no problems left – “end” of reincarnation for certain soul o Polytheistic – believe in many gods Maybe – depends on who you talk to All the different gods can be different versions of the same god Shintoism o National religion of Japan o Very complex form of animism = honoring nature spirits o Nature spirits = Kami o Kami kaze – divine wind – they believe that the natural spirits can keep them safe o State Shinto – worshiping the country – got rid of it after WWII o Sine the 1970’s Shintoism has been making a comeback in Japan Confucianism o Started in China but has influenced many Asian countries o Started as a code of ethics o Founded by Kung-Fu-Tse around 800-600 B.C. o Taught “Filial Piety” – means loyalty up, loyalty down Basic unit of life is the family o Should show respect to your parents (loyalty up) parents should respect their children (loyalty down) – this leads to happy families o Believe this in work and businesses too o Believe this in the country too – kings/queens/leaders o Also believed in the “doctrine of names” – everything should be properly named Example: if parents are doing something bad – they aren’t a parent, they are a rapist, etc. – call things as they are o Confucius is referred to as “The Sage” o This philosophy influenced Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Vietnam o Confucian democracy = stresses duties as well as rights Taoism o Another code of Ethics Languages of Asia Asia has the greatest amount of linguistic diversity on Earth There are 9 language families in Asia (know 3) 1. Indo-European Family o Not just located in Europe – also in Asia o Spoken in Northern India, most of Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka o Languages: Hindi (400 million), Urdu (200 million), Benghali (200 million) = total 800 million people speak these languages 2. Dravidian Family o Spoken primarily in Southern India (150 million) o Languages: Tamil (30 million), Telagu (50 million) 3. Uralic-Altaic Family o Found mostly in northern Asia o Are about 270 million people who speak these languages o Languages: Turkish, Mongolian, Tungus, Manchu o Some people put Korean and Japanese in this family – still controversy 4. Paleo-Siberian Family o Spoken near the Chukchi Kamchatka Peninsula o Far northeastern Asia o 23,000 speakers – small language family o Indigenous people – Siberian equivalent of the Native Americans o Number of speakers is slowly growing o These languages may be related to some native American Indian languages 5. Sino-Tibetan Family o 2 ndlargest family on Earth o Contains the worlds largest single language = Mandarin Chinese o Lots of dialects in Chinese – some are almost separate languages o Chinese has a unique writing system called characters – not alphabetic o Some of these languages are tonal = the way you pronounce the word changed the word o Languages: Tibetan, Burmese, Karen Southeast Asia has the greatest amount of linguistic diversity in Asia 3 language families from this area 6. Daic Family o Spoken in Thailand, Parts of Laos, Vietnam o 60 million speakers – most commonly Thai 7. Austro-Asiatic Family o Languages: Vietnamese, Khmer, Mon, Munda o 70 million speakers 8. Meo-Yao Family o 7 million speakers o These are the people who live in the mountains o “Montagnards” – mountains people from the French – they call themselves Hmong 9. Austronesian Family o Spoken in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Pacific Islands, Madagascar, Philippines o Most widespread Asian Language family o 250 million speakers o Languages: Tagalog, Malay, Lunda Realms of Asia – East Asia (name 3) East Asia is the economic core of Asia China has the world’s second largest economy, Japan #3, South Korea has also experienced rapid economic growth along with Taiwan Chinese, Japanese, and Korean cultures are also very significant 1. People’s Republic of China (Communist China, or Mainland China) o Population - world’s largest country – 1.3 billion o Not a huge growth rate – left over from a previous era o Second largest economy on Earth – rapid growth rate o 3 greatest military power on Earth – huge army – biggest employer on Earth o They also have nuclear weapons o Not a democracy – ruled by Chinese communist party o China is much more free than 40 years ago o Much more prosperous than 40 years ago but significant problems remain o They have an export based model – selling things to other countries o Chinese and American economies are closely tied together – sometimes called “Chimerca” 2. Japan o 3 largest economy on Earth o Japanese founded the export based model o The Japanese auto industry is the second largest on Earth o It is a democracy since the late 1940’s o Longest continuous democracy in Asia o Also a close US ally o In recent years Japanese culture has become more influential o Significant military power thanks the to the self-defense forces o Not popular in much of Asia due to WWII 3. South Korea o Significant economic power o Has become more culturally influential in the last 15 years – “Korean Wave” or “K-Pop” o Has been a democracy since the early 1980’s o Close US ally o South Korea was almost destroyed in the Korean War – fought when Communist North Korea invaded South Korea – (1950-1953) o Still significant tensions with North Korea 4. North Korea o One of the poorest and most repressive countries on Earth o Some people consider this one of the most unfree countries on Earth o It is a dictatorship – ruled by Kim Jong-Un o Extensive prison camp system o Also has a huge military and nuclear weapons o Famine conditions in some parts of the country o A lot of South Koreans think there will eventually be reunification 5. Taiwan o Refers to itself as the Republic of China o Taiwan is a result of the Chinese civil war that lasted from 1946-1949 o Communists vs. Nationalists – in 1949 the nationalists lost control of the country and they all fled to Taiwan o Taiwan acts like an independent country but technically its not o Taiwan is now a democracy – since 1980s o Has had a rapid economic growth rate 6. Mongolia o Lightly populated, primarily grass land, very rich in minerals o It was once a close ally of the USSR (Russia) o Today they are a democracy o No sea coast, stuck right between China and Russia o Because they are a democracy – they would like closer relations with other countries including the US o Very ecologically important – lots of grassland for cattle – lots of lake too o Produced one of the greatest military generals in history = Genghis Khan Other possible countries? o Outlying areas controlled by China o Xinjiang – the primary population is not Chinese – they are Uighurs – related to the Turks There has been fighting and terrorism involved in this issue o Xizang – more traditionally called Tibet – occupied by Tibetans – ethnically distinct from the Chinese Tibetan Buddhist leader = Dalai Lama Realms of Asia – South East Asia Often referred to as Asia’s “shatter belt” – where cultures, religions, political systems collide – often violently Greatest amount of diversity in Asia – in terms of language, ethnicity, religion, politics, and culture Very complex history and geography Southeast Asia’s complex cultural mosaic o Started with local indigenous cultures – long human occupancy, many complex local cultures – Funan, Champa, Thai, Khmer, Mon, Burmese, Karen o Then there was influence from India – traders from India – they brought alphabets, religions (Hinduism, Buddhism), political ideas o Later there was influence from China – Confucianism, Scholarship, Political Domination Used to be called “Indo-China” – because of the influences from those countries o Islam, Arabic, Persian culture influences too Brought religion of Islam and many cultural practices o European colonialists – came for the spices – established political control – dominated by Dutch, English, French, Spanish, Portuguese Brought political ideas, Christianity, and increased trade o Finally there is American influence – starts around 1900 – but rapidly increased after WWII in 1945 – brought ideas of democracy, consumer economy, military alliances, popular culture Basic divisions in S.E Asia o Insular = island countries Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Brunei, Singapore More Islamic and European influence o Mainland = inland countries Vietnam, Cambodia, Louse, Thailand, Burma More Chinese and Indian influence 2ndMajor divisions in S.E Asia o Highlands Low population density, diverse crops, very independent, lots of ethnic diversity, and low levels of outside influence o Lowland Plains Tend to be around the river valleys, higher population density, wet rice for crop, politically centralized, lower ethnic diversity, higher levels of outside influence, tend to be wealthier Mainland region – strong Indian, Chinese influence 1. Burma (Myanmar) o Very ethnically diverse, rich in resources, but poor due to economic policies – military dictatorship o Produces most of the worlds rubies o They have tried to create Autarchy = totally self-sufficient o Has seen some increase in freedom in the last few years 2. Thailand (“Land of the Free” o Once called “Siam” o Tradition of independence o The one country in SE Asia that was never conquered by another country o Has increasing prosperity, especially in manufacturing – Bangkok – important economic and banking center o Because it has never been conquered – it is a constitutional monarchy 3. Laos o Primarily highland, it is landlocked, tends to be rural, not really developed, very Buddhist o More democratic today o Eco-tourism – lots of beautiful country here o “Plain of Jars” – major archeological site – lots of jars – some very large 4. Cambodia o Between 1975-1978 = communist take over by a group called the Khmer Rouge o This was referred to as the “Killing fields” o Between 1.5-2 million people were killed o Today there are a democracy – still recovering from the mass killing o Angkor Wat – massive ruins of Buddhist temples 5. Vietnam o Once a divided country – North Vietnam (Communist) and South Vietnam (not communist) o In 1975 North Vietnam occupied and united the country o Between 1945 and 1980 there were 3 Vietnam wars US was involved in the 2 nd These 3 wars killed 2-3 million o Today Vietnam is still communist but it is much freer than it was Insular S.E. Asia 1. Indonesia o Largest, in terms of population, Islamic country on Earth o Centered around the island of Java o This country is a huge archipelago (group of islands) o Close US ally o In the late 1980’s they became a democracy o It is very rich in minerals 2. Malaysia o Part peninsula and part Island o Predominantly Islamic o Democracy since 1980’s o Very rich in minerals – especially tin, rubber, bauxite 3. Philippines o Close US ally o Only predominantly Christian country in Asia o Has been a democracy since 1986 o Rich in minerals, but not as rich as Indonesia or Malaysia o Typhoon Haiyan caused terrible devastation in the Philippines “Microstates”= Group of small countries in Insular S.E Asia –(name one) Singapore o Small but very prosperous Brunei o A Sultanate o Lots of oil wealth Challenges Facing Asia 1. The Challenge of war’s conflict o 1914-1982 – “General Crisis of Asia” – a period of war, civil war, famine, and extreme political repression o First Chinese civil war killed 1 million people, second Chinese civil war killed 2 million people, third Chinese civil war killed 2 million people o Japanese invasion of China - (one of the things that led to WWII)– 10-15 million deaths o WWII – 5 million deaths o India – Bengal famine – 1.5 million people killed o Communist take over in China killed 2.5 million o Korean war – killed 3 million o Vietnam war – killed 3 million o “Great Leap Forward” – great famine – killed 20-40 million people o “Killing Fields” in Cambodia – 1.5-2 million people killed o Throughout this period – 75 million people died o Worst dangers right now: North Korea vs. South Korea India vs. Pakistan China vs. Taiwan Chinese claim to various islands 2. The Challenge of Income Inequality o Uneven development – some parts of countries are becoming wealthy much faster than others Particular problem in China, and India Rich 30% and poor 70% o Produces political instability 3. Challenge of Demographics o After drastic measures by the government to control population they are left with uneven gender o Both India and China have huge gender imbalances in the younger age brackets o China: 120 men for 100 women o India: 116 men for 100 women o Chinese refer to this as the “Bare Branches Generation” World Geography Test 3 Latin America Can be defined as those parts of the America’s with strong Iberian and native Indian influence – this makes this area culturally distinct Iberian is used as a combination of the countries of Spain and Portugal Many different native Indian cultures – Aztec, Mixtec, Maya, Chibcha, Yaqui, Inca, Yanemamo, Gunani Called Latin America because the languages are Romance languages 2 realms o Middle America Mexico, Central America, and The Caribbean Islands o South America South American continent Significance of Latin America o 1. Largest area of hybrid cultures on Earth A hybrid culture occurs when 2 or more cultures combine to form a new culture Most of these cultures occur when there is a combination of Spanish or Portuguese culture with one or more of the many native cultures In some places there is also a strong African influence – many slaves Why hybrid cultures? – There were many more native people in Latin America They estimate that in North America (US, Canada) there were 5 to 20 million natives However in South and Central America there were 40 to 120 million The Spanish and the Portuguese did not bring wives with them So the conquistadors tended to marry the native women – so the children grow up multicultural Both groups (Iberians and natives) were less racist than usual for the time They were a lot more focused on religion not race o 2. The largest single concentration of tropical rainforest on Earth Amazon Basin Very important Ecologically Huge biodiversity Very valuable economic resource Very valuable medical resource also o 3. It is very rich in natural resources Minerals – gold, silver, iron ore, bauxite (aluminum), uranium, diamonds, copper, tin Oil resources in Mexico, Venezuela, Brazil Tropical crops Cattle and wheat in Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay o 4. Next superpower? Brazil – rapidly increasing in power Also Argentina, Mexico, Chile o 5. Worlds largest source of narcotics Some to Europe but mostly to the US Physical Geography of Latin America 2 reams 1. Middle America o 4 major physical regions o 1. Interior highlands Primarily in the interior of Mexico and Central America Referred to as the “Sierra Madre” These areas are volcanic - significant number of volcanoes Produces good volcanic soils – good agriculture – because it is a highland area it has cooler climates Large concentrations of population Largest population concentration population in this area is called the Mexico City Conurbation – 40-45 million people in this concentration o 2. Coastal Plains (Tropical Plains) Low lying, close to the ocean, and secondary population concentrations Significant number of ports in this area Can grow tropical crops – many Bananas Until after WWII – population tended to be limited by tropical diseases These are sometimes called Vectored diseases They are spread mostly by biting insects – especially mosquitos Biggest were yellow fever and malaria o 3. Greater Antilles These are the large Caribbean islands Big islands are Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola (Haiti and The Dominican Republic), Puerto Rico, The Bahamas (group of islands) These islands are made of limestone – called limestone platforms – this means they have good soils, many caves and sinkholes Many of these islands are famous for agriculture – especially sugar and tobacco Jamaica is famous for making coffee also o 4. Lesser Antilles These islands are small and very volcanic 2 groups of islands here – Windward Islands and the Leeward Islands Known for good soils (volcanic soils) – these were once called the “Sugar Islands” They brought in lots of African slaves to work on these sugar plantations Strong African influence here Some of these islands have very dangerous volcanoes on them Very Beautiful and prime tourist destinations Many ships were filled with gold from Mexico and they would head for Spain – this developed “The Pirates of The Caribbean” – they would take control these ships and steal the gold 2. South America 4 Physical Regions o 1. Andes Mountains Longest mountain range on Earth – second highest Significant altitude Many volcanoes Rich in minerals --- gold, silver, tin (Bolivia), copper (Chile) Significant number of people living in this area Many of these people are of native Indian Center of the Inca civilization – they called this the four corners of the Earth Altiplano = a high plateau Lake Titicaca is here – one of the highest large lakes o 2. Amazon Basil (Or Amazon Lowland) Largest area of tropical rainforests on Earth Contains the worlds largest river = Amazon River Tends to have a low population density – this whole area = less than 1 million Only large city is in Brazil Very large amount of biodiversity Slash and burn agriculture – cut down trees, and burn the area, plant crops in the ashes – lets sun and rain in, ashes enrich the soil o 3. Interior Plateaus Higher in elevation, hills and elevated flatlands Brazilian Plateau = south Guianan Plateau = north Rich in minerals – gold, diamonds Good agricultural land Brazil is a major agricultural producer They moved the capital inland and called it Brasilia – encouraged people to move there – this is called a “Forward Capital” --- today the capital has over a million people o 4. Southern Plains Flat, low lying Gran Chaco – semi tropical – hasn’t been very explored for minerals Pampas – southern part – very agricultural – wheat and cattle Gaucho = Brazilian version of the cowboy Has a small desert – Patagonian Desert Climates of Latin America Latin America has great latitudinal extension so there are LOTS of climates Most important factors = ITCZ and altitude – belt of low pressure Gives this area great agricultural diversity - Lots of different crops here 1. Tropical Wet Climate o At the equator and within about 10 degrees of latitude north and south o Primary influence is the ITCZ (Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone) o Belt of rain and low pressure associated with the equator o Warm and wet all year round o Up to 180 inches of rain per year o This climate produces tropical rainforest o Not heavily populated 2. Tropical Wet and Dry Climate o Warm all year round but with a dry season – usually in Winter o Major influence is the movement of the ITCZ – moves with the sun o This area gets about 80-90 inches – very seasonal o It produces a vegetation complex that is called tropical jungle o More undergrowth here than the tropical wet climate – the trees don’t grow together so sun can get down to the ground 3. Tropical Savanna o Further away from the ITCZ o Warm most of the year but there is limited rainfall – 30-60 inches per year o Mixed grass and trees – “parkland” o Tends to produce good soils – can be good for cattle and agriculture o Beef Jerky - In the north, called the Llanos – South, called Mato Grosso 4. Humid Subtropical Climate o Found only in Southern South America – parts of Argentina, Southern Brazil, and Uruguay o Warm summers, cool winters, and about 30-40 inches of rain per year (slightly dryer than the American southwest) o One of the best agricultural land on Earth = the Pampas – this is naturally a tall grass prairie – humans have changed this a little – great for wheat growing – cattle are also important here 5. Desert Climates o Continental climates – hot in summer, cold in winter and dry all year round o Less than 12 inches of rain per year o Patagonian Desert (Argentina) – Sonoran Desert (Northern Mexico) – West Coast Desert (Along Pacific Coast) The worst part of the West Coast Desert is the Atacama Desert – may be the driest place on Earth – no recorded precipitation in 200 years 6. The Specialty Climates o Not very big but still important o Chile – a Mediterranean Climate and also a Marine West coast Climate Produces a lot of Wine 7. The Highland Climates o Altitude is more important than latitude o Temperature cools by 3.5 degrees F for every 1000 Ft – cools off fast as you go up o Found in much of Mexico, Central America, and in the Andes o This creates a very diverse agriculture o Between 0 Ft altitude and 3000 Ft altitude = called “Tierra Caliente” Can grow lots of bananas and Cocoa here – also rubber and corn o Between 3000 Ft – 6000 Ft = “Tierra Templada” Produces lots of coffee and wheat and Coca (Cocaine) o Between 6000 Ft – 1000 Ft = “Tierra Fria” Cold– potatoes do well here Grasses also grow well – used to feed
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