All Class Notes from Ancient Art History with Erica Bittel FHSU
All Class Notes from Ancient Art History with Erica Bittel FHSU 481
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The Etruscans th In the 7 century BCE, the Etruscans gained control of northern and central Italy o The area under the control of the Etruscans was called Etruria o The Etruscans reached the height of their power in the sixth century BCE o Etruscan prosperity came from fertile land and wealth of metal ore o Etruscan artists were inspired by Greek and Near Eastern art Porta Augusta, 3 -2 ndcentury BCE, Pergia, Italy o - best example of architecture - important because its not a tomb o This is important because it predates the Roman arch Vitruvius = Roman architect – compiled descriptions of the nature of their art o Uses the term Tuscan Order (Etruscan variation of the Doric column) Unfluted shaft, addition of a base, and a simplified capital and entablature Apollo, Master Sculptor Vulca, ca. 510-500 BCE, painted terra cotta o Dancers and Diners, from the tomb of the Triclinium, ca. 480-470 BCE, Tarquinia, Italy o A painted frieze – men and women are dancing – some are enjoying a dinner - The ceiling is decorated with a geometric pattern Burial Chamber, from the Tomb of the Reliefs, 3 century BCE, Cerveteri, Italy o Reclining Couple on a Sarcophagus, ca. 520 BCE, terra cotta, from Cervateri, Italy o Upper class women were treated very fairly – they participated in the same things men did – same size, shes not subordinate, shes not cowering next to him – together in life and death The Ficoroni Cista, Novios Plautios, 350-300 BCE, bronze o - This was used to hold toiletry item by upper-class women Head of a Man, (traditionally known as Brutus), ca. 300 BCE, bronze o Capitoline She-Wolf, ca. 500 BCE, children underneath added later, bronze o - Boys = Romulus and Remus – this is the story of how Rome was founded The Romans Latin Speaking In 509 BCE, the Romans established a republic centered in Rome o The Etruscans were absorbed into the Roman Republic near the end of the 3 century BCE nd o At its peak in the 2 century CE, the Roman empire stretched from the Euphrates River in southwest Asia to Scotland The Romans assimilated Greek gods, myths, and religious beliefs and practices into their state religion o During the Imperial Period, they also deified some of the emperors after their deaths The Republic 509-27 BCE Early Rome was ruled by kings and an advisory body of leading citizens, known as the Senate The population of Roman citizens was divided into two classes: o The wealthy and powerful upper class, called the patricians o And the lower class, the plebeians During the Republic period, Roman art was rooted in its Etruscan foundation o The Romans were inspired and influenced by Greek art o The Romans used Greek designs and the Greek orders in their architecture, imported Greek art, and even employed Greek artists Portrait Head of an Elder from Scoppito, 1 century BCE, marble o o Veristic = comes from Latin word meaning truth – this portrait uses harsh and severe realism – facial features are the best conveyers of wisdom and they valued the elderly Aulus Metellus (artist) The Orator (common name), ca. 80 BCE, bronze, Perugia o - patrician = he is upperclass st Pont du Gard, late 1 century BCE, Nimes, France o -Romans were not the first to use the rounded arch, but the were the first ones to utilize it o This is an aqueduct = roman invention to supply water – helped the city thrive o Arcade = linear succession of arches Temple of Portunus, late 2 ndcentury BCE, Forum Boarium (Cattle Market) Rome o Portunus is the God of keys and locks and harbors Engaged Column = half column set into the wall – no structural purpose – only decorative Greek Temples encourage viewers to walk around it and observe from all angels – Roman temples have one entrance, they want you to come inside and focus on the interior space The Early Empire, 27 BCE – 96 CE Octavian – the first Roman emperor o Great-nephew of Julius Caesar o Successful politician, statesman, and general who eliminated warring internal factions and brought peace to restless provinces o The Roman Senate gave him the title “Augustus” o Laid the foundation for an extended period of stability, domestic peace, and economic prosperity known as the Pax Romana (this means Roman Peace – lasted 200 years) Art in the age of Augustus o A new form of idealism that was still rooted in the appearance of the everyday world, but also heavily inspired by Greek Classicism Portraiture Documentation of contemporary events on public monuments Roman imperial propaganda Augustus of Primaporta, early 1 century CE, (copy of a bronze statue dating to ca. 20 BCE) marble, originally colored o Tiberius commissioned this copy – he made some changes to the chest plate – he created a war scene of the Romans winning – used it as propaganda = idealized – story on the breastplate Ara Pacis Augustae (Altar of Augustan Peace) 13-9 BCE, marble o Work of propaganda – promoting Augustus’ war victories that caused so much Roman peace – motifs of prosperity o One side of the friezes has the senate elders – the other is his Imperial family and his potential heirs to the throne – purpose= celebration of Pax Romana and of Augustus’ military victories o This was later placed near his mausoleum (monumental tomb) after his death The Julio-Claudians – 14-68 CE After his death in 14 CE, Augustus was deified by order of the Roman Senate, and his rule was succeeded by his stepson, Tiberius In reference to the lineage of both rulers – Augustus from Julius Caesar and Tiberius from his father, Tiberius Claudius Nero – the dynasty is referred to as Julio-Claudian o The dynasty ended with the death (by suicide) of Nero in 68 CE o Insulae = brick apartment blocks – primary form of Roman housing Mount Vesuvius erupted and covered the city in a blanket of ash and preserved everything st Peristyle Garden, House of the Vettii, mid-1 century CE, Pompeii o st Priapus Weighing His Phallus, mid-1 century CE, from house of Vettii o Wall Painting in the “Ixion Room”, From the house of the Vettii, reconstructed 62-79 CE, Pompeii Initiation Rite of the Cult of Bacchus, Villa of the Mysteries, ca. 60-50 BCE, Pompeii o - this is Pompeian red, very vibrant Still Life, House of the Stags, before 79 CE, Herculaneum, Italy o Portrait of a Married Couple, mid 1 century CE, wall painting from Pompeii o - He is holding his diploma and she is holding a writing stylus The Flavians, 69-96 CE After the death of Nero in 68 CE, the empire experienced a brief period of civil war The military general Vespasian took control of the government in the year 69 CE o Founded a new dynasty known as the Flavian Restored Imperial finances Stabilized the borders of the empire In the arts, a return to individualism and the effects of old age Arch of Titus, ca. 81 CE, concrete and white marble, Rome Italy o o Purpose = to celebrate the capture of Jeruselum Spoils from the Temple in Jerusalem, relief in the passageway of the Arch of Titus, ca. 81 CE, marble o Flavian Amphitheater (Coliseum), 70-80 CE, Rome, Italy o Sports were very important to them o The outer wall consists of 3 levels of arcades surmounted by a wall like upper story o They are framed by decorative columns – entablature friezes above the columns o Each level employs a different architectural order Increases in complexity from bottom to top Tuscan (Doric) style on the bottom, Ionic in the middle, Corinthian on the top Cartouches = a shield shaped plaque – normally had inscriptions – these would have been between the windows on the top level for decoration – gilded in bronze Much of this was dismantled in the middle ages for its marble and metals Named coliseum because there was a colossal statue of someone near this Many people died for the entertainment of others – sea-battles, animals, warriors, acrobats Young Flavian Woman, ca. 90 CE, marble o - It idealized a little bit but this is a portrait o Drillwork = a technique used for rapidly cutting deep grooves Middle-Aged Flavian Woman, late 1 century CE, marble o - a lot more idealized with the wrinkles and bags under her eyes High Imperial Art of Trajan and Hadrian Each emperor designated a capable administrator as successor, essentially adopting the next heir to the empire o Nerva Trajan Hadrian Antoninus Pius Marcus Aurelius o This method of selection was very effective and they were very prosperous during this time Trajan, born in Spain, was a military general who had commanded Roman troops in Germany o Under Trajan, the Roman empire reached its largest territorial expanse Hadrian consolidated the empire’s borders and enforced widespread social, military, and governmental reforms o Hadrian was well-educated and well-traveled, and had great appreciation for Greek culture Plan of Trajan’s Forum and Market, ca. 110-117 CE o - Basilica = large rectangular building with an expansive interior space o Nave = the wide rectangular area – large central area o Apses = the rounded extensions at the end Column of Trajan, 113-116 CE (or after 117 CE), Rome, Italy o - Imperial Propaganda, trying to make-Trajan look badass – depicts a series of campaigns that Trajan undertook, contains 2500 figures – spirals up – scenes get bigger Romans Crossing the Danube and Building a Fort – Detail of the lowest part of the Column of Trajan, 113-116 CE o Pantheon, ca. 110-128 CE, Rome Italy (Pan=all Theon=Gods) – so this is for all gods o - Constructed during the rule of Hadrian o The current view of this is different from what it originally looked like – the street has been raised – originally there would have been a staircase leading up to it – there also would have been a courtyard around it to hide parts of the round back part o There is a giant rotunda on the inside o Oculus = a circular opening at the top of the rotunda o Coffered = the square recessed areas of the rotunda – sunken ceiling panels – made the dome weigh less o Exedrae = a niche on a large scale – recessed part of the walls along the floor Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius, ca. 176 CE, bronze, originally gilded o - We know he is a successful general but here he is dressed in everyday clothes not in armor – imperial propaganda – this tells us that he is triumphant there divine will Commodus as Hercules, ca. 191-192 CE, marble o - he is crazy Caracalla, early 3 century CE, marble o Diocletian – restored stability within the empire – military commander – good politician o He rules over the East by the name “Augustus” o Then he hired Maximian (also called Augustus) to rule the west o Then there were men under these guys called “Caesar” (one from west, one from east) The Tetrarchs, ca. 300 CE, porphyry o Augustus’ have beards, subordinates are clean shaven o They are embracing each other in unity o Constantine = he became to recognize Christianity – sees it as a lawful religion (by issuing the Edict of Milan) – ended persecution, freedom of all religions o Arch of Constantine, 312-315 CE, Rome, Italy - also imperial propaganda Commemorates Constantine’s victory – he borrows parts of other monuments to create his own monument – he wanted to align himself with their accomplishments Hadrian/Constantine Hunting Boar and Sacrificing to Apollo Constantine Addressing the Roman People in the Roman Forum, from the Arch of Constantine Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine (Basilica Nova), 303-313 CE, Rome, Italy o o The directional focus when walking into a church is important to Christians – Apse Constantine the Great, from the Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine, 325-326 CE, marble, Rome, Italy o - This is like a votive statue – stood in for him when he was gone – head alone is 8 feet all – this would have been in a basilica (used for commerce, trade, NOT worship) Ancient Art History - Exam 2 Aegean Bronze Age Reliance on a system of relative dating 3 primary cultures found in the ancient Aegean world: o Cycladic Located in the Cyclades Ca. 2500-1900 BCE o Minoan Found on the islands of Thera and Crete Ca. 2000-1400 BCE o Helladic (Including the Mycenaean) Found on mainland Greece, but also encompasses regions that had ben the center of the two earlier cultures Ca. 1600-1100 BCE Figure of a Woman, ca. 2600-2400 BCE, marble, Cyclades o Cycladic Figures, ca. 2600-2400 BCE, marble, Cyclades o The Minoan Civilization on Crete Economically independent and self-sufficient, and eventually became a wealthy sea power Between ca. 1900 and 1375 BCE, a distinctive culture emerged on the island The British archeologist *Sir Arthur Evans* named the culture Minoan after the legend of King Minos o Minoan chronology is separated into two main periods: Old Palace period – ca. 1900-1700 BCE New Palace period – ca. 1700-1450 BCE Kamares Ware Jug, Old palace period, ca. 2000-1900 BCE, ceramic, from Phaistos, Crete o Drawing of the Palace Complex Knossos, Crete – Built during the New Palace Period o Example of Double-axe motif in Minoan art and architecture, ca. 1700-1450 BCE o Throne Room from the “Palace” Complex, New Period, ca. 1700-1450 BCE, Knossos, Crete o True Fresco / Buon Fresco - Pigment would have been applied to a damp plaster surface o This is a process that chemically binds the pigment to the wall o Fresco Secco – Pigment that would have been applied to dry plaster Minoan Wall Murals (Notes from ppt) o Minoan wall murals were typically rendered in one of two types of fresco: Buon fresco – also known as true fresco, in which the pigment is applied to a damp plaster surface Binds the pigment to the wall through chemical reaction Forces the painter to work very quickly before the plaster dries Fresco secco – pigment is applied to a dry plaster surface Because the plaster is already dry, the artist can work at a more leisurely pace However, the pigment tends to flake off over time o Bull Leaping, Late Minoan period, ca. 1450-1375 BCE, wall painting with areas of modern reconstruction from the “Palace” Complex, Knossos, Crete o o The bull is charging in a “flying gallop” (all 4 feet are off the ground) The Bull-Leaper, Late Minoan period, ca. 1450-1375 BCE, ivory, from the “Palace” complex, Knossos Crete o Harvester Rhyton, New Palace period, ca. 1650-1450 BCE, steatite, from Hagia Triada, Crete o o Rhyton = a stone vessel used for ritual purposes or pouring liquid Octopus Flask, New palace period, ca. 1500-1450 BCE, ceramic, from Palaikastro, Crete o Aegean Metalworking Techniques o Inlay o Filigree = delicate decoration with fine wires o Granulation – the use of minute granules or balls of precious metal fused to underlying forms o Repousse = gently pushed up relief forms from the back of a thin sheet of gold o Niello – a black metallic substance used to fill incused designs to produce and ornamental effect on metal o Gilding Pendant of Gold Bees, Old Palace Period, ca. 1700-1550 BCE, Gold, from Chryssolakkos, Crete o o Filigree and Granulation Vapheio Cup, ca. 1650-1450 BCE, Gold, one of two cups found near Sparta, Greece o o Repousse Girl Gathering Saffron Crocus Flowers, before 1630 BCE, fresco, detail of wall painting from Room 3 of Xeste 3 Akrotiri, Thera, Cyclades o o This girl is coming of age The “Flotilla Fresco,” New Palace Period, ca. 1650 BCE fresco, detail of the left part of a mural from Room 5 of West House Akrotiri, Thera o The Mycenaean (Helladic) Culture The term Helladic is used to describe the Aegean Bronze Age on mainland Greece o The Helladic period lasted from ca. 3000-1000 BCE o Concurrent with the Cycladic and Moan cultures o Sophisticated techniques for ceramics, metal working, and architecture Citadel at Mycenae, site occupied ca. 1600-1200 BCE, walls built ca. 1340-1250, 1200 BCE Peloponnese, Greece o o Megaron = basic architectural axial in plan consisted of a large room entered from a columned porch o Cyclopean = unworked bounders that formed the citadel wall – the only creature strong enough to move these stones was Cyclops Lion Gate, Citadel at Mycenae, ca. 1250 BCE, Peloponnese, Greece o o They are missing their heads – most likely lions – could be something else though Mask of Agamemnon, ca. 1600-1550 BCE, gold, Mycenae, Greece o Solid gold, would have been placed over the face of a corpse o Mycenaean Tombs Tombs were given greater significance during the Helladic culture of the mainland than they were by the Minoans o Shaft graves Earliest type of burial Vertical pits ranging from 20-25 feet deep o Tholos Tombs Built by members of the elite classes Above ground burial chamber surmounted by a corbeled vault Aka: Beehive Tomb Treasury of Atreus, passage way leading to the Tholos Tomb, ca. 1300-1200 BCE, limestone, Mycenae, Greece o (Corbeled vault) o Courses = layers o Ashlar = precisely cut blocks of stone Warrior Krater, ca. 1300-1100 BCE, Ceramic, from Mycenae, Greece o Krater = veseel with mixing water and wine (feasts) o Also used as a burial marker o Ancient Greece – Historical Background In the 8 and 9 centuries BCE, the Greeks began to form independently governed city-states o Each city-state had its own economy and government o Each managed its own domestic and foreign affairs Sparta Corinth One of the oldest and most powerful city-states Located along major land and sea trade routes Athens Established a representative government in which every community had its own assembly and magistrates Citizens had an equal right to own private property, to exercise freedom of speech, to vote, to hold public office, and to serve in the army or navy Religious Beliefs o The Greek people viewed their gods as immortal and bestowed with supernatural powers Their gods were also represented in human form, and were characterized by human weaknesses and emotions o Sanctuaries, or sites deemed sacred to one or more gods, were located throughout Greece o Greek and Roman Deities The five children of the Earth and Sky: Zues (Jupiter) – supreme Olympian deity Hera (Juno) – goddess of marriage; sister/wife of Zues Hestia (Vesta) – goddess of the hearth Poseidon (Neptune) – god of the sea Hades (Pluto) – god of the underworld and the dead The Sky Gods (offspring of the first five) Ares (Mars) – god of war Hephaistos (Vulcan) – god of the forge, fire, and metal Apollo (Phoebus) – god of the sun, light, truth, music, archery, and healing Artemis (Diana) – goddess of the hunt, wild animals, and the moon Athena (Minerva) – goddess of wisdom, war, victory, and the city of Athens Aphrodite (Venus) – goddess of love Hermes (Mercury) – Messenger of the gods; god of fertility and luck Demeter (Ceres) - goddess of grain and agriculture Persephone (Proserpina) – goddess of fertility and queen of the underworld Dionysos (Bacchus) – god of wine Eros (Cupid) – god of love Pan (Faunus) – protector of the shepherds god of the wilderness and music Nike (Victory) – goddess of victory The Geometric Period o The Geometric Period developed in Greece between 900 and 700 BCE Associated with the decoration of ceramic vessels with intricate linear designs, such as spirals, diamonds, chevron patterns, and cross hatching o Funerary Krater, Geometric Period, ca. 750-735 BCE, ceramic, from the Dipylon Cemetery, Athens Horror vacui = desire to cover every available space of a canvas – fear of empty space The Orientalizing Period o The Orientalizing Period dates from 700-600 BCE Originated in the port city of Corinth Featured open compositions constructed around large motifs, such as real and imaginary animals, abstracted plant forms, and human figures Such motifs were likely influenced by the arts of the Egypt, the Near East, and Asia Minor Olpe (Pitcher), Orientalizing Period, ca. 650-625 BCE, ceramic with black-figure decoration Rosettes – the little flower like things around the top Black-figure technique – dark shapes define the silhouettes against the background Archaic Period o Time of great achievements The Temple of Hera I, Poseidonia (Roman Paestum), Archaic Period, ca. 550-540 BCE, Southern Italty Doric temple Peristyle = rows of columns Cella = the inner chamber of a temple Entasis = as the columns rise they are not uniform in width all the way to the top – they swell in the middle and get thinner at the top o 2 Temple designs emerged during the archaic period Doric = tops of the columns (capitals) are very plain – don’t have a base, column sit directly on the floor Ionic = scroll capital – slightly more intricate Then the last order: Corinthian = most intricate – has leafy tops Column-Shaft & Capital Entablature – consists of 3 elements: o Architrave o Frieze o Cornice Volute = spiral scrolled capital on an Ionic column Acanthus Pediment = triangular space at the top of a temple Dying Warrior, archaic period, ca. 500-470 BCE, marble, from the west pediment of the Temple Aphaia, Aegina o o Anavysos Kouros, Archaic Period, ca. 530 BCE, marble with remnants of paint, from the cemetery at Anavysos, near Athens o o Kouros = Greek for young man – almost always nude – gods warriors and athletes o He is a funerary statue – not a portrait “Peplos” Kore, Archaic period, ca. 530 BCE, marble, from Acropolis, Athens o o Kore = Greek for young woman – always clothed, represented gods, priestesses and nymphs o This would be like a votive figure Dionysos with Maenads, Amasis Painter, ca. 540 BCE, ceramics o o Amphora = a large all purpose storage container Ajax and Achilles Playing a Game, Exekias, ca. 540-530 BCE, ceramic o The Death of Sarpedon, Euphronios (painter), ca. 515 BCE, ceramic o Early Classical Period Ca. 480-450 BCE Scholars have associated Greek Classical art with three general concepts: o Humanism o Rationalism o Idealism The period began with the defeat of the Persians around 480-479 BCE an alliance of city-states organized by Athens and Sparta The early classical period moved away from elegant stylization and toward a greater sense of faithfulness to the appearance of the human being Kritios Boy, ca. 475 BCE, marble, from the Akropolis, Athens o o Contrapposto = counter poised – a lifelike way to render the human figure – there is a slight curve to the body o This is the middle part of a movement. The first is Kouros. The last are very active. Warrior, ca. 460-450 BCE, bronze with bone and glass eyes, silver teeth, copper lips and nipples found in the sea off Riace, Italy o High Classical Period Ca. 450-400 BCE This period is often considered the epitome of artistic refinement (the Greek Golden Age) The high Classical Period was also characterized by war and destruction o Peloponnesian War o Perikles – political and military leader of Athens The peak of Greek democracy The Akropolis, Athens, ca. 447-432 BCE – Akropolis = City on the hill o The Parthenon, from the Akropolis, Athens, Kallikrates and Iktinos, 447-432 BCE, marble o Lapith Fighting a Centaur, ca. 447-432 BCE, marble, metope relief from the Doric frieze on the south side of the Parthenon o Porch of the Maidens, south porch of the Erechtheion, ca. 420-410 BCE, Akropolis, Athens o o Caryatids = a sculpture of a draped female figure acting as a column Nike (Victory) Adjusting her Sandal, ca. 410-405 BCE, marble, fragment of relief decoration form the Temple of Athena Nike, Akropolis, Athens o MISSED CLASS Hellenistic Period Ca. 323-30 BCE When Alexander the Great died unexpectedly, he left a vast empire with no administrative structure and no widely accepted successor Artists of the Hellenistic period developed visions and ideas quite distinct form those of their classical Greek Predecessors o Focused on the individual and the specific o Moved away from the heroic to the everyday, from gods to mortals, from stoicism to individual emotion Altar from Pergamon (reconstructed), ca. 175-150 BCE, marble o o This is not a temple – probably connected to a temple but this is just an altar Athena Attacking the Giants, detail of the frieze from the east front of the Altar of Pergamon, ca. 175-150 BCE, marble **** o Lacocoon and His Sons Rhodes Sculptors, 1 century BCE, marble o Nike (Victory) of Samothrace, ca. 180 BCE, marble, from the sanctuary of the Great Gods o Aphrodite of Melos (Venus de Milo), Alexandros from Antioch-on-the-Orontes, ca. 150-100 BCE, marble o Ancient Art History Notes Exam 1 Introduction The term “prehistory” includes all of human existence before the emergence of writing and recorded history The oldest non-representational ornamentation, a collection of nassarius snail shells, was found in Morocco and dates back 82,000 years o These shells are pierced and covered with red ochre o The wear patterns on the shells suggest that they may have been strung as beads 82,000 years ago, humans were not creating “art” in the sense that we know is today o Rather, our ancestors were creating tools and fashioning weapons – basically, objects used for human survival, not visual appeal So, what can we rally know about the creators of these ancient artifacts? o If can be both intriguing and dangerous to assume meaning for ancient works of “art” o It is important to realize that the conclusions and interpretations drawn from such artifacts are only hypotheses The species known as Homo sapiens appeared approximately 400,000 years ago o The sub-species to which we belong, homo sapiens sapiens (typically referred to as modern humans) evolved as early as 120,000 years ago o Modern humans spread from Africa across Asia, into Europe, and then to Australia and the Americas Occurred between 100,000 and 135,000 years ago BCE = before common era CE = common era The Stone Age The stone age, names for the abundance of stone tools, weapons, and figurines found at ancient sites, is divided into two parts o 1. Paleolithic o 2. Neolithic Paleolithic o From the Greek paleo= old --- and lithos= stone o Divided into three phases Lower (oldest) Middle Upper (the most recent) Neolithic o The the Greek neo= new o In some areas, archeologists have even identified a transitional or Mesolithic period (from the Greek meso= middle) Paleolithic Hand Axe, 60,000 years ago, stone, from Isimila Korongo, Tanzania o o There were many of these found in specific areas o This could mean that they were functional AND representational for ones social status or skills During the late Middle Paleolithic Period, a homo sapiens subspecies called the Neanderthals inhabited Europe o The Neanderthals created a more varied range of tools o Survived for thousands of years and overlapped with the modern human subspecies The homo sapiens sapiens evolved and replaced the Neanderthals circa 38,000- 33,000 BCE o Critical cognitive abilities: The ability to recognize and benefit from variation of the natural environment Improved communication skills and the formation of alliances – both of which enabled and organized hunting The capacity to think symbolically ***Lion-Human, ca. 30,000-26,000 BCE, Mammoth ivory o o Sculpture in the Round = can be viewed from all angels, can walk all the way around it o Relief sculpture = surrounding material is carved, the sculpture depends on the background High and Low (Bas) – know the difference Woman from Willendorf, ca 24,000 BCE, limestone o o Found in Austria in 1909 o It was originally colored with red ochre o Scholars believe the artist was displaying health and fertility – wide hips, full figure o Its possible that these were used as non-verbal forms of communication Telling other tribes that they were open to mating and that their women were fertile and the tribe had food o We cant call her a Venus (as many have named her) because we don’t know that it is religious or symbolic of anything In the year 24,000 BC the person that carved it didn’t call it Venus, that was the name given to her by the people who found her – Venus did not even exist yet Woman from Brassempouy, ca 30,000 BCE, ivory o o When she was found, the people didn’t report her location – so not much else is known about this or if there is more to her somewhere else Prehistoric Cave Painting The first prehistoric cave painting was discovered in 1879 in Altamira, Spain Since the discovery of the cave at Altamira, a number of hypotheses devised to explain and rationalize the existence of cave art have emerged Ancient people were believed to paint caves so they could be surrounded by beauty In the early 20 century, scholars proposed that the cave paintings might be related to rituals used to strengthen the bonds of the clan, as well as ceremonies intended to increase the fertility of animals used for food Another hypothesis suggested that the cave paintings were expressions of “sympathetic magic” o This theory was taken a step further with the assertion that the caves were used as spaces for worship and clan initiation rituals o Teaching tool – commemorate a specific hunt – shamanistic purposes During the second half of the 20 century, these ideas were rejected, as interpretations became grounded in scientific methods and current social theories o When caves are found, more theories come about and change the existing ones In the 1980’s a study of the Altamira Cave led anthropologists to the conclusion that prehistoric artists had faithfully represented a herd of bison during the mating season o Earlier scholars believed, incorrectly, that the animals were dead, asleep, or even disabled o It was established that the bison were “dust-wallowing”, a common behavior during the mating season Other archeologists have asserted that cave imagery was used as sort of text to teach inexperienced hunters about the seasonal appearance and behavior of the animals they hunted A different theory proposed that Upper Paleolithic cave painting is best understood in terms of shamanism o Shamanism = the belief that certain people (Shamans) posses the ability to travel outside their bodies and mediate between the world of the living and the spiritual world o Believed that the shamans would travel under the floors of the cave and within the walls and allowed them to have hallucinations It is believed that homo sapiens sapiens artists utilized three painting techniques o The spraying technique o Drawing with fingers or blocks of charcoal or ocher o Painting with a brush created from hair or moss Wall Painting with Horses, Rhinoceroses, and Aurochs, ca. 32,000-30,000 BCE, paint on limestone, Chauvet Cave, France o Hall of Bulls, ca. 15,000 BCE, paint on limestone, Lascaux Cave, Dordogne, France o Composite Pose = the composition of different view points in a single presentation – multiple perspectives Bird-Headed Man with Bison, ca. 15,000 BCE, paint on limestone, shaft scene in Lascaux Cave, Dordogne, France o Bison, ca. 12,500 BCE, pain on limestone, Altamira, Spain o o This is unique because they used the natural curves and shapes of the cave to form animal figures. o They used blowing, chewing, spraying, and painting Dating Ancient Works of Art Today, there are 2 principal approaches to dating ancient works of art: o Relative Dating Relies on chronological relationships among objects – objects that are near it if it’s buried o Absolute dating Aims to establish a precise span of calendar years in which an artifact was created The most accurate method of absolute dating is called radiometric dating Calculates the degree of how much radioactive materials have disintegrated It is not a reliable method for dating works of art It is good for dating organic material Good for dating objects 30,000 – 40,000 years old The Neolithic Period In the 10 millennium BCE, our modern climate was already taking shape o As a result, the distribution, density, and stability of plant and animal life, and even marine life, was affected o One of the most important changes that occurred in our prehistoric past was the relationship people had with their environment Communities adopted and modified new sets of technologies, skills, and animal and plant species that allowed them to produce food o The fundamental change was the origin of plant and animal domestication o Barley and wheat were grown - sheep, goats, and pigs, and cattle were bred o Hunting, gathering, farming, and animal breeding were all balanced in order to maintain a steady food supply People also began to create stronger, more permanent connections to places within their environment o The beginnings of architecture in Europe are marked by the building of simple, yet durable structures constructed from mud, clay, animal waste, and straw interwoven among wooden posts o Some of these buildings would have been used for no more than a season at a time Reconstruction drawing of Lepenski Vir house/shrine, ca. 6000 BCE o Marked by simple yet durable structures that are made with waste, straw, etc. o Good for one season at a time o The structures at Lepenski Vir were placed along a river o **Human-Fish Sculpture, ca. 6,300 – 5500 BCE, from Lepenski Vir, Serbia o o Scholars argue if it’s a human or a fish Other examples of early architecture were quite long-lasting, with the repeated building- sometimes over the span of 1,000 or more years – of house upon house, which resulted in great mounds of villages know as “tells” or “mound settlements” o Chatal Huyuk, (mound settlement) dates to 7,400 BCE, population of 3,000 inhabitants The settlement of Chatal Huyuk is important to the history of art for two primary reasons: o The example is provides of early architecture o The remarkable art that has been found within the structures o Many bodies were found here – mostly beneath the floors of their individual houses – some had up to 60 bodies The house was the primary component for the people – for their worldly view o Each home was a symbol of each families history – lasted beyond 1 humans lifetime Man Taunting a Deer, ca. 6,000 BCE, detail of wall painting from Chatal Huyuk, Turkey o The Neolithic Period – Ceremonial and Tomb Architecture o Ancient humans assembled huge stones in order to create ceremonial structures and tombs Megalithic architecture (greek roots – mega=huge lithic=stone) First emerged during the Neolithic period Disagreement among scholars regarding the nature of the societies that created these monuments – multiple hypotheses o Example of a dolmen = built on the post-and-lintel principle Posts = vertical --- lintel = horizontal Most popular tomb architecture There were covered with dirt and rocks – they formed artificial hills called Cairn o Passage Graves Tomb interior with corbeling and engraved stones – underground passageways for keeping dead - narrow o Stonehenge, ca. 2,900- 1,500 BCE, Salisbury Plain, Wiltshire, England Henge = Circle of stones or posts – typically surrounded by a ditch with raised embankments Believed that this was a burial site for the cremated, many burials here Blue and sarsen stones are used here Mortise and Tenon Joints Joints made by an upright projection at the top of each stone – that fit like a peg into a hole in the lentil o Carhenge, Jim Reinders, 1987, Alliance, Nebraska o Example of early pottery from Japan’s Jomon Culture 12,000 BCE o Early Pottery from the Franchthi Cave, Greece, 6500 BCE o Figures of a Woman and a Man, ca. 4,500 BCE, ceramic from Cernavoda Romania o Human Figure, 6,500 BCE, fired lime plaster with cowrie shell, bitumen and paint from Ain Ghazal, Jordan o Gold-Adorned Face Mask from Tomb 3, Varna I, 3,800 BCE, terra cotta and gold Bulgaria The Bronze Age The period that followed the emergence of metalworking is known as the Bronze Age Copper is too soft to make weapons o Near East: ca. 3,600-1,200 BCE o Europe: ca. 3,200-600 BCE o Bronze is an alloy, a combination of copper and tin o Shift in power structures o Increase in trade throughout Europe and into the Near East Rock Art: Boat and Sea Battle, Bronze Age, ca. 1,500-500 BCE, Sweden o The Fertile Crescent and Mesopotamia Mesopotamia – “land between the rivers” o Located in present-day Iraq Agricultural villages developed into cities in both northern and southern Mesopotamia o Cities merged with surrounding territories to create city-states Each city-state had its own government and gods Social hierarchies Architectural complexes as centers of ritual, worship, and government Mesopotamia’s lack of natural defenses left it susceptible to political upheaval o The balance of power in the area shifted between the north and the south and among local powers and foreign invaders Sumerians Akkadians Amorites Then Assyrians Neo Babylonia Persians The Sumerians The Sumerians are credited with a number of important cultural and technological advances, including the wheel and the plow o Their most notable contribution to civilization was the invention of the first form of written script Invented around 3,400-3,200 BCE The writing symbols began as pictures and eventually evolved into phonograms – or representations of syllable sounds These symbols, known as cuneiform (meaning wedge-shaped) were pressed into clay tablets with a stylus Cuneiform = invented by Sumerians o Sumerian cuneiform tablet listing herders and cows o Ziggurat = big stepped structures with a temple of a shrine on top Temple was dedicated to the god of the city – they would stand as a monument to the city – people would put votive statues here and make offerings Social function = would get food here They received physical and spiritual nourishment here o Ruins of the Anu Ziggurat and White Temple, ca. 3,400-3,200 BCE, Uruk o Head of a Woman, marble, ca. 3,300 – 3,000 BCE from Uruk (present-day Warka. Iraq) This is a temple goddess – it would have also had wood (body), shells, paints and other décor o Carved Vessel, ca. 3,300 – 3,000 BCE, Alabaster, from Uruk (present day Warka, Iraq) o Twelve Votive Figures, ca. 2,900-2,600 BCE, limestone, alabaster, and gypsum from the square temple, Eshnunna (present day Tell Asmar, Iraq) Votive Figure = image dedicated to the gods Used as a stand in at the Ziggurats Sometimes they had inscriptions on the bottoms that would talk about the good things that the person has done for the city The worshipers were instructed to view there gods with an attentive gaze (that’s why the have big eyes) Artistic Conventions = traditional methods used to represent forms o The Great Lyre with Bull’s Head, ca. 2,600-2,500 BCE, wood with gold, silver, lapis lazuli, bitumen, and shell from Royal Tomb, Ur Epic of Gilgamesh (related) Ancient Sumerian poem – deals with questions of immortality and meanings to life It has a very specific function related to a burial – the images relate burial o Cylinder Seal, ca. 2,600-2,500 BCE, Lapis lazuli, from the tomb of Queen Puabi, Ur (present-day Iraq) The Akkadians The Akkadians inhabited an area located north or Uruk During the Sumerian period, the Akkadians adopted Sumerian culture o However they spoke a Semitic language Under the reign of Sargon I, the Akkadians conquered most of Mesopotamia o Capital city was Akkad Head of a Man, (AKA Akkadian Ruler), 2,300-2,200 BCE, copper alloy, from Nineveh (Iraq) o Stele of Naram-Sin, ca. 2254-2218 BCE, limestone, from Sippar; found at Susa (present-day Shush, Iran) o o This is known as STELE = an upright stone slab They depict important events or laws (like Hammurabi’s) o This one demonstrated the visual language Hierarchic scale = relative size equals relative importance Naram-Sin is the biggest guy on this rock – he is by far the most important – he is bigger, closer to the gods, and highest above everyone Nanna Ziggurat, ca. 2100-2050 BCE, Ur (present day Iraq) o The purpose is political, social, religious o Nothing else specific is necessary o Votive Statue of Gudea, ca. 2090 BCE, diorite, from Girsu (present-day Telloh, Iraq) o o Gudea is a ruler of a city-state o Votives serve as stand-ins for a temple at worship o Eyes are wide and open because they are to approach the gods with attentive eyes Stele of Hammurabi, ca. 1792-1750 BCE, basalt, found at Susa (Iran) o Descried laws – Hammurabi is being given the laws as a divine right to rule o This god of justice is depicted o Gives the laws as well as their punishments (eye for an eye) o Assurnasirpal II Killing Lions (The Lion Hunt), ca. 875-860 BCE, alabaster, from the palace complex of Assurnasirpal II Kalhu (Iraq) o Enemies Crossing the Euphrates to Escape Assyrian Archers, ca. 875-860 BCE, alabaster, from the palace complex of Assurnasirpal II (Iraq) --- Know this, but not that much detail o Assyrians have bows, their enemies are swimming away on their floatation devices o Assurnbanipal and his Queen in the Garden, ca. 647 BCE, alabaster, from the palace at Nineveh (Iraq) o Neo-Babylonia Neo-Babylonians – named as such because they evoked the majesty and splendor that had characterized Babylon 12 centuries earlier under the rule of Hammurabi The mot well-known Neo-Babylonian ruler was Nebuchadnezzar II, who ruled from 605-562 BCE o A great patron of architecture o Capital city of Babylon Ishtar Gate and Throne Room Wall (reconstructions), ca. 575 BCE, glazed brick, originally from Babylon (Iraq) o o Crenellated Tower = notched walls for military defense o The gate symbolized the power and glory of Babylonians o Has lions, bulls, dragon/lion/bird of prey creature (Marduk) Ishtar Gate and Throne Room Wall, ca. 575 BCE, glazed brick (detail) o o Ishtar = god of wisdom, sexuality, war Persia In the 6 century BCE the Persians began to seize power in Mesopotamia, and they eventually established a massive empire under Achaemenes The dramatic expansion tof the empire began in 559 BCE with the rise of Cyrus the Great, who ruled until 530 BCE o By the time of his death, the Persian empire included Babylonia, Media and several Aegean islands in the west Darius I became emperor in 521 and ruled until 486 BCE o Structured the Persian territories into 20 tax-paying entities, overseen by Persian governors o Acceptance of diverse native customs and religions o Commissioned the construction of palaces and citadels as visable representation of his authority and influence Susa Parsa (Persepolis) Apadana of Darius and Xerxes, ca. 518-460 BCE, from the Ceremonial Complex, Persepolis o Darius and Xerxes Receiving Tribute, detail of a relief from the stairway leading to the Apadana, ca. 492-486 BCE, limestone, from the Ceremonial Complex, Persepolis o At the height of the Persian empire, the territory extended from Africa to India From the capital at Persepolis, both Darius (in 490 BCE) and Xerxes (in 480 BCE) sent their troops westward in attempts to overpower Greece o The Persian army was unsuccessful o Ultimately it was a Greek who put an end to the Persian Empire Alexander the Great of Macedonia Persepolis = raised platform (associate Apadana) o An audience hall = apadana Pre-dynastic Egypt Egypt has been called “the gift of the nile” By around 8,000 BCE, the people of the Nile River valley had become relatively sedentary, depending upon on the abundance of fish, game and wild plants found in the region It was not until approximately 5,000 BCE that the inhabitants embraced agricultural life o At this time, the climate of northern Africa became progressively dry o Basin irrigation A way to direct flood waters The pre-dynastic period (ca. 5,000-2950 BCE) o A time of significant social and political change o By 3,500 BCE there existed several larger states, known as chiefdoms, in the lower Nile Valley, and a centralized system of leadership had developed o The art that survives from the pre-dynastic period consists of decorated pottery, ceramic figures, and relief sculpture carved on stone plaques and pieces of ivory o Painted tomb of Hierakonpolis, ca. 3,500-3,200 BCE Early Dynastic Egypt (ca. 2950-2575 BCE) Around 3,000 BCE upper and lower Egypt became a consolidated unified state o Upper Egypt is south and lower Egypt is north In the art of this period we see the development of fundamental and enduring ideas regarding kingship and the cosmic order The God-Kings o In the Egyptian worldview, the movements of celestial bodies, the working of the gods and even the most basic human activities were believed to be part of a balanced and harmonious grand design o They were honored as gods in human form – the population was to honor their king as a god By the early dynastic period, Egyptian kings were honored as gods in human form th o Heb sed (sed festival) = a royal celebration held in the 30 year by a living kings reign this was a renewal of a kings divine power o When kings died, they were believed to return to their father, the sun god Ra o To earn favor with the gods and guarantee their goodwill toward the state, kings built impressive temples and provided priests to maintain them Egyptian gods and goddesses were represented in a variety of different forms – Multiple choice questions* o Osiris, the god of the realm of the dead is often depicted in human form, wrapped in linen as a mummy o His son, Horus, is typically portrayed as a falcon, or falcon-headed man Over the course of ancient Egyptian history, the following became the principal national gods: o Amun (*chief god of Thebes*; blue in color, wears a plumed crown) o Ra (the sun god, of Heliopolis) o Ptah (of Memphis, an ancient Egyptian capital) Less important gods and their manifestations included: o Thoth (the god of writing, science, and the law, represented as an ibis) o Ma’at (the goddess of truth, order and justice, denoted by a feather) o Anubis (the god of embalming and cemeteries, portrayed as a jackal) o Bastet (the daughter of Ra, represented by a cat) Three distinct crowns symbolize kingship in early Egyptian art –combined crown symbolizes both – don’t need to identify all of these o They are known as the Upper Crown Hedjet, Lower Crown Deshret, and the Double Crown Pschent Nemes headdress – be familiar with what it looks like Nile River flow north Ureaus: Wadjet (Goddess) Eye of Horus - King of Earth o the eye signifies the rising sun and the moon Ankh - looped cross which symbolizes everlasting life Scarab Beetle - symbolizes resurrection, creation, and rising sun Conventions are traditional ways of representing things in a manner that is widely accepted by artist and patrons in a particular time and place In Egyptian art side profile is a standard convention Preserving the Dead Egyptians developed mummification techniques to ensure that the ka (soul or life source of a being) could continue living in the body in the afterlife removal of brains and organs typically stored in canopic jars use of natron (a naturally occurring salt) as a preservative torso of the body, along with limbs, would be wound with colts strips, and then the entire body would be wrapped in additional layers of cloth, resulting the the familiar ‘mummy shape' Early Dynastic Egypt ca. 2950-2575 BCE around 3000 BCE, Upper and Lower Egypt became a consolidated, unified state in the art of this period, we see the development of fundamental and enduring ideas regarding kingship and the cosmic order Palette of Narmer, Early Dynastic Period ca. 2950 BCE, green schist, from Hierkonopolis o Know art conventions of this – and describe Side profile Hierarchy of scale Multiple view points o It is generally understood as depicting the unification of Egypt This palette is a little over 2 feet and was not meant to be carried around because it is a commemorative object The hieroglyphics at the top name the king (Nar). An illustration of the royal palace as seen from above it at the top center. This encompasses Narmer’s name to identify him as a king. Narmer is in a composite pose holding a mace Composite Pose: this is a conceptualized composite of multiple viewpoints More Egytian Death Canopic Jars, from left to right: Imsety Hapy, Duamutef – Qebehsenuef o Would have been placed in the burial chamber Interior components of the Egyptian Mastaba, including the serdab o Mastaba = the most common tomb structure in early Dynastic Egypt – flat top, one story, slanted walls – constructed above and underground burial chamber o Serdab = sealed room that would house the Ka statue of the dead o Mastabas were clustered together in a Necropolis (city of the dead) Imhotep = first architect in history to be known by name o He designed Djoser’s Funerary Complex, Saqqara, 3 dynasty, ca. 2630-2575 BCE o There are several false doors and passageways to deter grave robbers Step pyramid – built by stacking mastaba forms of decreasing size The Old Kingdom Ca. 2575-2150 BCE A period of social and political stability The prosperity of the ruling families of the period is reflected in the massive and grandiose tomb complexes that they commissioned for themselves and for their families The Great Pyramids at Giza The three great pyramids were built by three successive fourth-dynasty kings: just know that they were kings, no dates o Khufu – reigned ca. 2551-2528 BCE – biggest pyramid o Khafre – reigned 2520-2494 BCE o Menkaure – reigned ca. 2490-2472 BCE – smallest pyramid They were very accurate and pointed to the cardinal directions The great pyramid was built with such exactness to keep it from collapsing – didn’t want it to end up like the Bent Pyramid The pyramidal shape helped the deceased have a stairway to heaven and quickly meet the sun god Ra Great Sphinx, Funerary Complex of Khafre, old kingdom, ca. 2520-2494 BCE, limestone, Giza, Egypt o o Lion/Cat morphed with King Khafre – Lion symbolizes power, royalty, strength Morphing these qualities with the powers of man – merging human intelligence with animals strength Old kingdom enough for image ID date Khafre, Fourth Dynasty, ca. 2520-2494 BCE, diorite-gabbro Gneiss from the Valley Temple of Khafre, Giza, Egypt o He is ridged, powerful, clothes of a ruler o Horus is behind his head, protecting him o Menkaure and a Queen, fourth dynasty, 2490-2472 BCE, greywacke with traces of red and black paint, Giza, Egypt o Seated Scribe, fifth dynasty, ca. 2450-2325 BCE, painted limestone with inlaid eyes of rock crystal, calcite, magnesite, mounted in copper, found near the tomb of Kai, Saqqara o Had a sedentary lifestyle so his body type reflects that – intelligent upper- class person o The Middle Kingdom The old kingdom was followed by roughly 150 years of political upheaval, division, and warfare o This period is known as the first intermediate period (ca. 2125-1975) Around 2010 BCE the country was reunited under Nebhepetre Mentuhotep, who reasserted royal power and founded the middle kingdom Writing and the arts flourished in the 12th dynasty (1938-1756 BCE) Middle kingdom rulers also expanded and guarded the country’s borders o By the 13 dynasty the government was destabilized by a series of short- lived kings and inflow of foreigners Portico = a projecting porch – found in Egyptian architecture Beni Hasan, 12 dynasty, 1938-1756 BCE o th Stele of the Sculptor Userwer, 12 dynasty, 1850 BCE, limestone red and black ink o Cannon of proportions - represents ideal system standard in pictorial relief sculpture o Each body part has a specific place within the grid – or size that it took up on the grid The New Kingdom Thutmose III An 18 dynasty king who ruled from 1479-1425 BCE Expanded Egypt’s political and economic power “Buffer empire” The first ruler to title himself “Pharaoh” a term that literally meant “great house” Pylon = a massive gateway with tapering walls Peristyle Court = courtyard surrounded by columns Hypostyle Hall = spacious hall filled with columns (forest of columns) th Hatshepsut Kneeling, 18 dynasty, ca. 1473-1458, red granite, from Deir el- Bahri o th Funerary Temple of Hatshepsut, 18 dynasty, ca. 1473-1458, red granite, from Deir el-Bahri o o This is remarkable because she is a female – represented sometimes as a male – she co-ruled with her son – built a massive temple complex – she is not buried here – this is just a funerary temple Colonnade = A row of columns supporting a lentil or series of arches Akhenaten and the Amarna Period short answer question o Amenhotep IV reigned from approximately 1353-1336 BCE o Transformed the political spiritual and dcultural life of Egypt o Developed a new religion honoring a single, supreme deity, the sun god Aten o In about 1348 BCE, Amenhotep IV changed his own name to Akhenaten meaning “One who is effective on behalf of the Aten” o Moved the Egyptian capital Thebes to a newly built capital located much farther north, appropriately named Akhenaten (“Horizon of the Aten”) Colossal Figure of Akhenaten, 18 dynasty, ca. 1353-1336 BCE, sandstone with traces of polychrome o Akhenaten and his family, 18 dynasty, ca. 1353-1336
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