Image Identification, Class Notes, and Study Guides for Art History Since 1945 with Erica Bittel FHSU
Image Identification, Class Notes, and Study Guides for Art History Since 1945 with Erica Bittel FHSU 475
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Art History Since 1945 Notes – Exam 2 Existentialism = emphasized the existence of the individual person as a free and responsible agent determining his or her own development through acts of will o Happened after WWII o Free will o Isolation, alienation, anxiety, perception Theater of the Absurd = allied cultural movement with existentialism – focused on dramatic performance methods that overturned the conventional narrative features o Samuel Beckett = “Waiting for Godot” a play o Gave rise to an artistic movement without rules – expression of artists conscious’ Examples of Art o The Charnel House, Paris 1944-1945, Pablo Picasso, 1945, Oil and Charcoal on canvas Based off of a Spanish republican family that was killed in their kitchen o Head of a Man on a Rod, Alberto Giacometti, 1947, bronze Interests in perception, depression, anxiety o Chariot, Alberto Giacometti, 1950, bronze o Corps de Dames – Chateau d’Etoupe, Jean Dubuffet, 1950, oil on canvas Figuration and Abstraction in Italy and Spain o In postwar Italy A strong realist movement existed, particularly among communist artists, who used painting as a political or propagandistic weapon Younger artists used radical abstraction as an antidote to Italy’s time- honored classical tradition Art Formel = unformed art o In postwar Spain Spain was under the dictatorship of General Franco Abstraction became a powerful metaphorical tool Reliance on materials and suggestive organic forms Communication of respect and reverence for human endurance and resistance to oppression o Examples of Art Spatial Concept: The End of God, Lucio Fontana, 1963, oil on canvas Fontana develops “Buchi” = putting holes into the canvas Spatial concept #2, Lucio Fontana, 1960, oil on canvas Composition, Alberto Burri, 1953, oil, gold paint, and glue on canvas and burlap Sacchi = Sack CoBrA o A European avant-garde movement active from 1948-1951 o Paintings were known for their child-like imagery, strong primary colors, and expressive brushwork Closely related to the gesturalist tendencies of Art Informel Derived its style from the early expressionists movement in Germany Name comes from the artists home towns – Copenhagen, Brussels, Amsterdam o The most prominent members of CoBrA included the Danish painter Asger Jorn and Dutch artist Karel Appel o Examples of Art The Enigma of Frozen Water, Asger Jorn, 1970, oil on canvas Willem Sandberg, Karel Appel, 1956, oil on canvas Angry Landscape, Karel Appel, 1967, oil on canvas Reclining Figure, Henry Moore, 1957-1958, travertine marble Truth to materials = an idea close to Moore’s heart – idea that artist should respect the natural properties of the medium o Like with the marble or wood – letting the texture come through Painting, Francis Bacon, 1946, oil on canvas Head VI, Francis Bacon, 1949, oil on canvas Triptych—May—June 1973, Francis Bacon, 1973, oil on canvas Girl with White Dog, Lucian Freud, 1951-1952, oil on canvas Naked man, Back View, Lucian Freud, 1991-1992, oil on canvas Nouveau Realisme “Nouveau realism – refers to the European movement of contemporary art founded in 1990 by the painter Yves Klein o term was first coined by the group’s ideologists, art critic, Pierre Restany o the principal concern of the movement was how to respond to the changed role of tart within the new consumer society Their approach was the challenge traditional art forms and materials by focusing on new types of art, such as assemblage, conceptualism, collage and experimental poster art The Noeveau Realistes viewed the world as a source from which they could take parts and incorporate them into their art, as a way of bringing life and art closer together o They aimed for a “poetic recycling of urban industrial and advertising reality” o Preferred physical “reality” to abstraction The Nouveau Realistes pioneered the technique of decollage – the dismantling of an image o As opposed the collage – the construction of an image Artists include: Yves Klien, Jean Tinguely, Arman, and Christo and Jeanne-Claude Examples of Art o Blue Monochrome, Yves Klein, 1961, dry pigment in synthetic polymer medium on cotton over plywood Known for his use of one color – he developed the color “International Klein Blue” (IKB) o Leap into the Void, Yves Klein, 1960, photograph o Shroud Anthropometry 20 “Vampire”, Yves Klein, 1960, pigment on canvas o Homage to New York, Jean Tinguely, 1960, mixed media; self destructing installation in the garden of the Museum of Modern Art, New York Motion machines that work with chance and sound o Bluebeard’s Wife, Arman, 1969, mixed media in polyester resin Incorporation of mass produced objects into works of art o Long-Term Parking, Arman, 1982, 60 automobiles imbedded in cement o Wrapped Kunsthalle, Christo and Jeanne-Claude, 1968, Bern, Switzerland o Package, 1961, Christo, 1961, fabric and rope They didn’t accept donations, bribes, or payment – did art for arts sake Fluxus Fluxus derived from the Latin word meaning “flowing” Founded by the Lithuania-born, American art theorist George Maciunas o Opposed to conventional art, which he saw as elitist and remote Sought to bring life and art closer together Fluxus artists worked together in order to vlend different artistic genres into a number of “events” involving installation art, conceptualism, happenings, and photography as well as various types of performance art Happenings = unscripted performances usually in an ordinary open space in which artists encourage spontaneous participation of spectators John Cage – American avant-garde composer and conceptual artist Examples o Cut Piece, Yoko Ono, Performance at Carnegie Recital Hall, New York City, March 21, 1965 o How to Explain Pictures to a Dead Hare, Joseph Beuys, 1965, performance at the Galerie Schmela, Dusseldorf Famous for working with animal fat and felt o The Pack, Joseph Beuys, 1969, installation with Volkswagen bus and twenty sleds, each carrying felt, fat, and a flashlight o Art History Exam 3 Chapter 19 Taking Chances with Popular Culture Pop Art Beginnings o Independent group – a gathering of artists in London who met regularly to discuss topics such as mass culture’s place in fine art, the found object, and science, and technology Members included artists Edourdo Paolozzi and Richard Hamilton, as well as the critic Lawrence Alloway *The war is over but they are still dealing with struggles related to it – Europeans were effected worse from the war compared to Americans – so Europeans were aware of “pop” but they were cautiously enthusiastic o The term “Pop Art” has a number of possible origins The first use of the term in writing has been attributed to critic Lawrence Alloway Richard Hamilton also described “pop” in a letter The first artwork to incorporate the word “pop” was created by Eduardo Paolozzi o By the mid 1950’s artists working in New York City faced a critical juncture in modern art Follow the abstract expressionists? Or rebel against the strict formalism advocated by many schools of modernism? Jasper Johns – “things the mind already knows” Robert Rauschenberg – “combines” Fluxus and Neo-Dada pop art o Trompe L’oeil = looks so real that it fools the eye o Examples of Art I Was a Rich Man’s Plaything, Eduardo Paolozzi, 1947, collage on paper Just what is it that makes today’s home so different, so appealing?, Richard Hamilton, 1956, collage on paper Often sited as the very first work of pop art Modern interpretation of Adam and Eve A Bigger Splash, David Hockney, 1967, acrylic on canvas Bed, Robert Rauschenberg, 1955, combine painting; oil and pencil on pillow, quilt and sheet on wooden supports He is considered to be one of the most radical American artists Key artist of the neo-dada movement Less about individual and more about the collective Monogram, Robert Rauschenberg, 1959, combine painting, oil paint, paper, metal, wood, rubber, tire, goat, casters Bought the stuffed goat, found the tire in the trash Canyon, Robert Rauschenberg, 1959, combine painting, oil pencil, paper, metal, photograph, fabric, wood, canvas, buttons, mirror, taxidermy eagle, cardboard, paint, tube and other material Estate, Robert Rauschenberg, 1963, oil and silkscreen ink on canvas Flag, Jasper Johns, 1954-1955, encaustic, oil, and collage on fabric mounted on plywood Target with Plaster Casts, Jasper Johns, 1955, encaustic and collage on canvas with wood construction Painted Bronze, Jasper Johns, 1960, painted bronze Field Painting, Jasper Johns, 1964, oil and canvas on wood with objects o Neo-Dada o Assemblage-3D Collages Combining painting and sculpture into a 3D artwork o Semiotics = deals with signs and signified o Happenings = an unscripted performance usually in an ordinary open space in which one or more artists, using materials without fine art associations, encourage the spontaneous participation of the spectator No definitive or consistent style Varied greatly in terms of scale and intricacy Importance of the viewer and the element of chance Concept of the ephemeral – the performance was a temporary experience and could not be exhibited in a museum in the traditional sense Happenings were documented by photographs and oral histories NOTES FROM MONDAY Happeningan unscripted performance, usually in an ordinary open space in which one or more artists, using materials without fine art associations, encourage the spontaneous participation of the spectator no definitive or consistent style varied greatly in terms of scale and intricacy importance of the viewer and the element of chance concept of the ephemeral the performance was a temporary experience and could not be exhibited in a museum in the traditional sense Happenings were documented by photographs and oral histories Household Allan Kaprow 1964 happening featuring women licking strawberry jam off a car Detail of a poster for Fluids (with score) Allan Kaprow 1967 Fluids Allan Kaprow 1967 ice Ruckus Manhattan Red Grooms and the Ruckus construction Company 19751976 mixed media The Diner George Segal 19641966 plaster, wood, chrome, laminated plastic, Masonite, fluorescent lamp, glass and paper Examples of Art o The Diner, George Segal – Cold War Pop Art Subject matter strayed far from the traditional “high” art themes of morality, mythology, and classic history Rather pop art was celebration of common-place objects and people of everyday life o Desired to elevate popular culture to the level of fine art o Blurred the boundaries between “high art” and “low art” culture Pop artists embraced the post-WWII manufacturing and media boom o Was this an endorsement of the capitalist market and the goods that is circulated? o Or did it emphasize art’s place as a commodity? Lip Stick Ascending on Caterpillar – Odenburg Floor Cake (Giant Piece of Cake), Claes Oldenburg, 1962, Installation view, synthetic polymer paint and latex on canvas filled with foam rubber and cardboard boxes o He also made Giant Cone and Giant Burger Shuttlecocks, Claes Oldenburg and Cooshe van Bruggen, 1994, aluminum and fiber reinforced plastic, painted – Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Missouri Whaam!, Roy Lichtenstein, 1963, oil and Magna on two canvas panels Benday Dots – used by Lichtenstein – dots of color Big Painting No. 6, Roy Lichtenstein 1965, oil and Magna on canvas Campbell’s Soup Cans, Andy Warhol, 1962, synthetic polymer paint on canvas Orange Car Crash 14 Times, Andy Warhol, 1963, silkscreen ink on synthetic polymer paint on 2 canvases o Expressions of “compassion fatigue” = refers to the manner in which the public loses the ability to sympathize with events from which they feel removed This is done with “Orange Car Crash 14 times” and also Gold Marilyn Monroe (done after she died) Gold Marilyn Monroe, Andy Warhol, silkscreen ink on synthetic oil, acrylic and silkscreen enamel on canvas F-111, James Rosenquist, 1965, oil on canvas with aluminum Pie Counter, Wayne Thiebaud, 1963, oil on canvas Standard Station, Amarillo Texas, Edward Ruscha, 1963, oil on canvas Highlights Minimalism o Minimalist painters and sculptors avoided overt symbolism and emotional content o Emphasized anonymity over the expressive excess of abstract expressionism o Focused their attention on the materiality of the art object o The minimalists were influenced by Russian constructivism Approach led to the use of modular fabrication and industrial materials o Readymades of Marcel Duchamp Examples of the employment of prefabricated materials o Minimalist works tend to feature repeated geometric forms with the emphasis placed on the physical space of the artwork o Viewers were led to experience qualities of weight, height, gravity, agility, or even the appearance of light as a material presence Examples of work o Die Fahne Hoch (Raise high the flag), Frank Stella, 1959, enamel on canvas o Untitled, Donald Judd, 1965, Galvanized iron Conceptual Art o Conceptual art is a movement that prizes ideas over the formal or visual components of art works o Conceptual artists produced works and writings that completely rejected standard ideas of art o Believed concerns such as aesthetics, expression, skill, and marketability were all irrelevant standards by which art was usually judged o Conceptual artists link their work to the tradition of Marcel Duchamp, whose readymades challenged the definition of art o Also influenced by the simplicity of minimalism They reduced the material presence of the work to an absolute minimum – a tendency that some have referred to as the “dematerialization” of art o Believed that if the artist began the artwork, the museum or gallery and the audience in some way completed it This category of conceptual art is known as institutional critique A shift away from emphasizing the object-based work of art to pointedly expressing cultural values of society at large o Examples One and Three Chairs, Joseph Kosuth, 1965, wooden folding chair, photography copy of a chair, and a photographic enlargement of a dictionary definition of a chair He didn’t make anything – just assembled these items Self-Portrait as a fountain, Bruce Nauman, 1966-1970, color photograph Interior Scroll, Carolee Schneemann, 1975, photographs of performance and scroll text The Singing Sculpture (“Underneath the Arches”), Gilbert and George, 1969, performance --- living sculptures, metallic make up Feminist Art o Feminist artists sought to change the world around them through their art, focusing on intervening in the established art world, the art historical canon, as well as everyday social interactions No singular medium or style uniting feminist artists o Sought to create a dialogue between the viewer and the artwork through the women’s perspective Art used to incite the viewer to question the social and political landscape o Feminist artists often embraced alternative media, incorporative fabric, fiber, performance, and video These materials did not have the same historically male-dominated precedent as painting and sculpture o Examples The Dinner Party, Judy Chicago, 1974-1979, table with painted porcelain plates, and needlework Gnaw, Janine Antoni, 1992, 600 lb cube of chocolate and 600 lb cube of lard Lipstick Display, Janine Antoni, 1992, pigment, beeswax, lard and chocolate These are the spit out pieces from Gnaw that were then melted down and formed into these objects Disgusted by the desires of consumers for commercial goods Earthworks and Land Art o Refers to an art movement that emerged in the 1960’s in which landscape and the work kf art are inextricably linked o The term earthwork was coined by Robert Smithson, and refers to an art form that is created in nature using natural materials such as soil, rock, organic media, and water with introduced materials o Land art and earthworks are frequently located well away from civilization Left to change and erode under natural conditions o Many of the first works were ephemeral(not meant to last) in nature and now only exist as video recordings or photographic documents o Examples Double Negative, Michael Heizer, 1969-1970, 240,000 ton displacement in rhyolite and sandstone, Mormon Mesa, Overton Nevada Focusing on the absence of something rather that the materials its made out of o Spiral Jerry, Robert Smithson, 1969-1970, black rock, salt crystal, and earth, Great Salt Lake, Utah o Roden Crater Project, James Turrell, begun 1974, cinder cone volcano, Sedona, Arizona Independent Group – discussed mass culture and fine art Lawrence Alloway – the first the write about pop art NeoDada before pop art – reinterpretation of the dada movement – idea of found object, collections of things, being combined into one work of art Assemblage – accumulation of random objects into an artwork – debris of modern life Combine – originated with Rauschenberg – combination of painting and sculpture trompe l’oeil – to fool the eye – it looks so realistic that we think that its real Happeningsunscripted performance–participation from the spectator–involves the audienceAllan Kaprow Pop art – interested in identifiable imagery from pop culture – a major shift in the art world – subject matter strays away from mythical, religious, etc. – celebrating commonplace objects, everyday life – wanted to elevate popular culture into high art “high” art vs. “low” culture Benday dots – Lichtenstein – emphasized mechanical production that fascinates pop artists – gives an appearance that they are massproduced (even though they aren’t) Compassion fatigue – Andy Warhol – when the public loses the ability to sympathize with events from which they feel removed Minimalism – avoiding overt symbolism and emotional content – emphasized anonymity over the expressive – focused their attention of the materiality of the art object – influenced by Russian Constructivism(approach led to the use od modular fabrication and industrial materials) and readymades(Duchamp) employment of manufactured materials Conceptual art – more about the idea than the work itself – prizes ideas over the formal or visual coponents of art works – rejected standard ideas of art – linked to Duchamp – influenced by minimalism – reduced the material presence of work Institutional Critique = a shift away from emphasizing the objectbased work of art to pointedly expression cultural values of society at large Feminist art – saying that women are just as important as men in the art world – didn’t use traditional painting or sculpture – embraced other medias Earthworks and Land Art – using material from the site itself – uses landscapes – left to erode and change under natural conditions – documented by video recordings – located away from civilization Photorealism / Superrealism Image Identification: Chapter 19 – Taking Chances with Popular Culture Eduardo Paolozzi, I Was a Rich Man’s Plaything, 1947 Richard Hamilton, Just what is it that makes today’s homes so different, so appealing?, 1956 – celebration of consumerism – living modern lifestyle, pop culture references, rug is reference to Pollack – often cited as the first work of pop art – modern interpretation of Adam and Eve David Hockney, A Bigger Splash, 1967 – fascinated with swimming pools, loved that everyone in CA had one – he was from Great Britain Robert Rauschenberg, Bed, 1955 – 3D combine – direct relfectoin from the artist because it came from his own bed Robert Rauschenberg, Monogram, 1959 – mixing the lines of painting and sculpturefinding materials while walking around NYC – no clear focal point Robert Rauschenberg, Estate, 1963 – incorporating scenes of mass media and urban living – reference to abstract t expressionists brushstroke Jasper Johns, Flag, 19541955 – like Rauschenberg he engaged with modern art movements elevated his work to high art – used common objects – not patriotism, Cold war happening, oppression, bad things that happened in the US Jasper Johns, Target with Plaster Casts, 1955tries to engage the viewer with things that are seen but not looked atworks meaning changes depending on which boxes were open Jasper Johns, Painted Bronze, 1960 – represents Johns and Rauschenberg’s relationshipdifferences in their personalities(open=outgoing Rasuchenberg closed = Johns, impenetrable,introverted) idea came from someone saying he could sell anything, even beer canstrompe l’oeil Jasper Johns, Field Painting, 1964 – abstract imagery – metal letters connect to magnetic hinge Allan Kaprow, Household, 1964 – happening featuring women licking jam off a car – to him art can be anything at all – the smell, feel, and taste of the jam affect the happening – not permanent – documented by picture or video 19.19 Red Grooms and the Ruckus Company, Ruckus Manhattan, 19751976 George Segal, The Diner, 19641966 – like the people of Pompeii – deaths are documented as people are going about everyday life – used medical plaster bandages (death reference) – Cold War is happening – idea that death can happen at anytime – people are anonymous (relatable) Claes Oldenburg, Floor Cake (Giant Piece of Cake), 1962 – ice cream boxes on the inside – inspired by luxury objects – wanted to make everyday objects on a large scale Roy Lichtenstein, Whaam!, 1963 – benday dots – takes comics and changes what they say and crops them – focusing on specific images – recreates them by hand Roy Lichtenstein, Big Painting No. 6 , 1965 – reference to abstract expressionist brushstroke – understands the importance of abstract expressionism in modern art – still making fun of it – makes it looked mass produced James Rosenquist, F111, 1965 – incorporation of pop culture in subject matter – references a person gasping for air in a nuclear fall out – playing into all of these things that are happening in everyday life and what they are thinking about and purchasing – his subject is the F111 – positioned it as flying through the flack of consumer society Wayne Thiebaud, Pie Counter, 1963 – categorizes it as Americaness – paint is thick suggesting the thickness of the frosting Edward Ruscha, Standard Station, Amarillo, Texas, 1963 – took a series of photographs as he traveled and turned these ordinary boring locations into dramatic mysterious symbols in American landscape – foreshortened the composition to give dramatic angles Claes Oldenburg and Coosje van Bruggen, Shuttlecocks, 1994 – saw the museums lawn as a tennis court – inspired by a feathered headdress from an Indian that she saw in the Museum Andy Warhol, Campbell’s Soup Cans , 1962 – mass producing mass produced consumer goods – glorifying the soup can – elevating it the realm of high art Andy Warhol, Gold Marilyn Monroe , 1962 – fascinated with Monroe’s fame – she was a sex symbol – died of an overdose – she was more famous after her death – she was like a mass produced consumer item (everyone knew who she was, she was everywhere) – created icon – incorporation of the gold elevates her to the role of a religious figure Andy Warhol, Marilyn Diptych, 1962 ^^ still focuses on Marilyn Frank Stella, Die Fahne Hoch! (Raise the Flag), 1959 – style = minimalist = the white pinstripes are bare canvas – opening the Nazi anthem – nod to Johns who created flags Donald Judd, Untitled, 1965 – factory produced material (iron) – light and shadow really affect these works – forces the viewer to be aware of their own space Joseph Kosuth, One and Three Chairs, 1965 – meant to question which is closest to the reality of what a chair really is – object, representation, and written description – no hierarchy Bruce Nauman, SelfPortrait as a Fountain, 19661970 – blurring the lines between the artist and the work of art because the artist becomes the work of art – making a parody of the long time traditions in academic art 22.21 Carolee Schneeman, Interior Scroll, 1975 Gilbert and George, The Singing Sculpture (“Underneath the Arches”), 1969 singing a 1930s song that relates to homeless men that lived under bridges during the depression – blurring the lines between the artist and the work of art Judy Chicago, The Dinner Party , 19741979 – place setting for influential women throughout history – also names on the floor – also references different times in history when women were more repressed and times when they were more honored – chalices make it feel more ceremonious – rewriting history to incorporate the female voice Janine Antoni, Gnaw, 1992 – associate chocolate with desire and love – lard = makes us fat – about selfimage Janine Antoni, Lipstick Display, 1992 ^^ Michael Heizer, Double Negative, 19691970 – massive spaces cut into the surface of the art – the work of art is the NEGATIVE space – its not the Earth that is art, it’s the space that is left – it’s a challenge to the history of sculpture because it can’t sit in a gallery Robert Smithson, Spiral Jetty, 19691970 – rock and dirt that was taken from the site and built a jetty that spirals 1500 feet out into the water – a polluted scifi land scape – water took on different colors – it will eventually erode away 23.31 James Turrell, Roden Crater Project, begun 1974 23.37 Chuck Close, Linda, 19751976 23.44 Duane Hanson, Tourists, 1970 *** Ron Mueck, Couple Under an Umbrella, 2013 Pop Art Beginnings Independent group – a gathering of artists in London who met regularly to discuss topics such as mass culture’s place in fine art, the found object, and science, and technology Members included artists Edourdo Paolozzi and Richard Hamilton, as well as the critic Lawrence Alloway *The war is over but they are still dealing with struggles related to it – Europeans were effected worse from the war compared to Americans – so Europeans were aware of “pop” but they were cautiously enthusiastic The term “Pop Art” has a number of possible origins The first use of the term in writing has been attributed to critic Lawrence Alloway Richard Hamilton also described “pop” in a letter The first artwork to incorporate the word “pop” was created by Eduardo Paolozzi By the mid 1950’s artists working in New York City faced a critical juncture in modern art Follow the abstract expressionists? Or rebel against the strict formalism advocated by many schools of modernism? Jasper Johns – “things the mind already knows” Robert Rauschenberg – “combines” Fluxus and Neo-Dada pop art Semiotics = deals with signs and signified Happenings = an unscripted performance usually in an ordinary open space in which one or more artists, using materials without fine art associations, encourage the spontaneous participation of the spectator No definitive or consistent style Varied greatly in terms of scale and intricacy Importance of the viewer and the element of chance Concept of the ephemeral – the performance was a temporary experience and could not be exhibited in a museum in the traditional sense Happenings were documented by photographs and oral histories Pop Art Subject matter strayed far from the traditional “high” art themes of morality, mythology, and classic history Rather pop art was celebration of common-place objects and people of everyday life Desired to elevate popular culture to the level of fine art Blurred the boundaries between “high art” and “low art” culture Pop artists embraced the post-WWII manufacturing and media boom Was this an endorsement of the capitalist market and the goods that is circulated? Or did it emphasize art’s place as a commodity? Minimalism Minimalist painters and sculptors avoided overt symbolism and emotional content Emphasized anonymity over the expressive excess of abstract expressionism Focused their attention on the materiality of the art object The minimalists were influenced by Russian constructivism Approach led to the use of modular fabrication and industrial materials Readymades of Marcel Duchamp Examples of the employment of prefabricated materials Minimalist works tend to feature repeated geometric forms with the emphasis placed on the physical space of the artwork Viewers were led to experience qualities of weight, height, gravity, agility, or even the appearance of light as a material presence Conceptual Art Conceptual art is a movement that prizes ideas over the formal or visual components of art works Conceptual artists produced works and writings that completely rejected standard ideas of art Believed concerns such as aesthetics, expression, skill, and marketability were all irrelevant standards by which art was usually judged Conceptual artists link their work to the tradition of Marcel Duchamp, whose readymades challenged the definition of art Also influenced by the simplicity of minimalism They reduced the material presence of the work to an absolute minimum – a tendency that some have referred to as the “dematerialization” of art Believed that if the artist began the artwork, the museum or gallery and the audience in some way completed it This category of conceptual art is known as institutional critique A shift away from emphasizing the object-based work of art to pointedly expressing cultural values of society at large Feminist Art Feminist artists sought to change the world around them through their art, focusing on intervening in the established art world, the art historical canon, as well as everyday social interactions No singular medium or style uniting feminist artists Sought to create a dialogue between the viewer and the artwork through the women’s perspective Art used to incite the viewer to question the social and political landscape Feminist artists often embraced alternative media, incorporative fabric, fiber, performance, and video These materials did not have the same historically male-dominated precedent as painting and sculpture Earthworks and Land Art Refers to an art movement that emerged in the 1960’s in which landscape and the work kf art are inextricably linked The term earthwork was coined by Robert Smithson, and refers to an art form that is created in nature using natural materials such as soil, rock, organic media, and water with introduced materials Land art and earthworks are frequently located well away from civilization Left to change and erode under natural conditions Many of the first works were ephemeral(not meant to last) in nature and now only exist as video recordings or photographic documents Art Since 1945 – Exam 1 Review of the “-isms” and movements leading up to 1945 Impressionism (1870-1890) – a French movement dating from the late nineteenth century The impressionists searched for a more exact analysis of the effects of light and color in nature o En plein aire – (worked outdoors) o Small brightly colored strokes o Use of complementary colors to form shadows and highlights o In addition to nature, impressionist subject matter also included imagery of modern French life o Among the most recognizable figures in the movement were Claude Monet, Pierre Auguste Renior, Edouard Manet, Edgar Degas, and Camille Pissarro o Examples of Artwork Impression, Sunrise, Claude Monet 1872, Oil on canvas Moulin de la Galette, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, 1876, Oil on canvas Musicians in the Orchestra, Edgaar Degas, 1872, Oil on canvas Post Impressionism – not a particular style of painting, rather it was the collective title given to the works of a few independent artists at the end of the nineteenth century o The post impressionists rebelled against the limitations of impressionism to develop a range of more personal styles The major artists associated with post-impressionism were Paul Cezanne, Paul Gauguin, Vincent Van Gogh and Georges Seurat Mont Sainte-Victoire as Seen from Les Lauves, Paul Cezanne, 1902- 1906, oil on canvas The Sower, Vincent van Gogh, 1888, oil on canvas The Seine and La Grande Jatte, Springtime, Georges Seurat, 1888, oil on canvas Fauvism (1905-1910)– developed in France by Henri Matisse and Andre Derain – Faives means “Wild Beasts” – coined by Louis Vauxcelles o Fauvists works exhibited two main characteristics Simplification in terms of representation Intensely exaggerated color o Examples The Open Window, Henri Matisse, 1905, oil on canvas Le Bonheur de Vivre (The Joy of Life), Henri Matisse, 1905-1906, oil on canvas Gertrude Stein held weekly Salons in her home (where artists could sell work and be critiqued) German Expressionism (1905-1925) – a style of art that was charged with an emotional or spiritual vision of the world o Influenced by the works of Vincent van Gogh and Edvard Much o Also drew inspiration from German Gothic and “primitive” art o The expressionists were divided into 2 factions Die Brucke (The Bridge) An artistic community of young artists in Dresden who aimed to overthrow the conservative traditions of German art Ernst Ludwig Kirchner and Karl Schmidt-Roffluf were two of the styles founding members Street Dresden, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, 1908, oil on canvas Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) Possessed a spiritual aspect and sought to find a common creative ground between the various expressionist art forms Vasily Kandinsky and Franz Marc were among its founding members The Large Blue Horses, Franz Marc, 1911, oil on canvas Cubism (1907-1915 – invented around 1907 in Paris by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque o The first abstract style of modern art o Cubist paintings ignore the traditions of perspective and represent many views of a subject at one time o There were 2 distinct phases of the cubist style Analytic cubism Synthetic cubism o Semi abstraction – still has “one foot” in representational art o Pure abstraction – visual elements (color, shape line) are used independently – they become the subject in a work of art o Analytic Cubism – the first phase of the cubist movement (pre-1912) The breaking down of forms into individual parts The formal qualities of analytic cubism Reduction of the palette to earthy tones o They believed that color distracted from the form Forms are pulled apart into flat rides, planes, and curves o Violin and Palette, Georges Braque, 1909-1910, oil on canvas o Synthetic Cubism Returns to represtnation with three key changes: Legibility and stability Forms are being built up, instead of broken down Incorporates two new techniques o Collage Taking a variety of images from paper or cloth and pasting them onto the surface of the canvas o Assemblage Like collage, but incorporated more 3D objects Still life with Chair Caning, Pablo Picasso, 1912, oil and oil cloth on canvas, edged with rope Futurism (1909-1914) o Founded by the poet Filippo Tommas Martinetti They glorified industrialization, technology, and transportation, along with the speed, noise, and energy of urban life The futurists adopted the visual vocabulary of cubism to express their ideas but with a slight twist The main figures associated with the movement were the artists Umberto Boccioni and Giacomo Balla Rhythmic special repetitions of an objects outline during movement o Unique Forms of Continuity in Space, Umberto Boccioni, 1913, bronze o o Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash, Giacomo Balla, 1912, oil on canvas o o Simultaneity – rhythmic outline of each movement – a frame by frame view Suprematism (1915-1925) o Developed in 1915 by the Russian artist Kazimir Malevich o A geometric style of abstract painting derived from elements of cubism and futurism o Rejected any use of representational images; pure abstraction o Black Square, Kazimir Malevich, 1915, oil on canvas Color and shape are important – he is against what is going on in western art – he is saying shape and color can be art too o Constructivism (1913-1930) o Emerged in Russia around 1913 o Used the same geometric language as suprematism, but abandoned its mystical vision in favor of their “Socialism of Vision” A Utopian view of mechanized modernity according to the ideal of the Russian Revolution A more political art movement o Vladimir Tatlin, Alexsander Rodchenko, and El Lissitzky were among the best artists associated with constructivism o Proun = projects for the establishment of new art o Beat the Whites with Red Wedge, El Lissitzky, 1919, lithograph Red = communists ---- white = forces against communism o Dada (1916-1922) o The dada movement started in 1916 in Zurich and spread as far as New York o Form of artistic anarchy born out of disgust for the social, political and cultural establishment of the time o Dadaism was essentially “anti-art” – it was intent on destroying the artistic values of the past – they were reacting to the war (WWI) o Max Ernst, Hannah Hoch, Marcel Duchamp, Raoul Hausmann, Kirt Schwitters, and Hans Arp were among the most well-known of the dada artists o L.H.O.O.Q, Marcel Duchamp, 1919, readymade Readymade means taking something that isn’t really art and transforming it into an artwork L.H.O.O.Q – this is a French pun for “She has a hot ass” He is poking fun at western art and traditions – changing the meaning of “Mona Lisa” o Fountain, R. Mutt (Marcel Duchamp), 1917, porcelain urinal, readymade o Cut with the Kitchen Knife Dada Through he Last Weimar Beer-Belly Cultural Epoch in Germany, Hannah Hoch, 1919, collage De Stijl (1917-1931) o De Stijl – a dutch style of pure abstraction developed by Piet Mondian, Theo van Doesburg, Bart van der Leck around 1917 o Mondrian was the outstanding artist of the group He desired to develop a universal visual language that was free from nay hint of the nationalism that led to WWI o Tableau I, Piet Mondian, 1921, oil on canvas o Schroder House, Gerrit Rietveld, 1924, Utrecht Netherlands Surrealism (1924-1939) o The positive response to Dada’s negativity o Aimed to liberate the artists imagination by tapping into the unconscious mind to discover a “superior” reality, or a “sur-reality” o It draws upon the images of dreams the effects of combining disassociated images and the technique of pure psychic automatism Pure psychic automatism = the spontaneous form of drawing without the conscious control of the mind o The most influential of the surrealist artists were Max Ernst, Joan Miro, Salvador Dali, and Rene Magritte o Two Children are Threatened by a Nightingale, Max Ernst, 1924, Oil on wood with painted wood elements o The Accommodations of Desire, Salvador Dali. 1929, oil and cut-and-pasted printed paper on canvas o La Poupee, Hans Bellmer, 1935, vintage gelatin silver print American Art Before WWII In the United States, exposure to European modernit trends was generally limited to reproductions But acess to European modernism increased considerably with the opening of venues dedicated to presenting new art to the American Audience o Armory Show o Alred Stieglitz’s 291 Gallery The Eight o The eight was a loosely organized group for their portrayals of the transient and everyday realities of American life Led by Robert Henri United by their hostility toward the academy Believed that artists had the right to paint subjects of their own choosing o Comprised of Henri, along with John Sloan, Everett Shinn, William Glackens, George Luks, Ernest Lawson, Maurice Prendergast, and Arthur B. Davies Several of these artists went on to become leading members of the Ashcan School The Aschan School o The artists of the Aschan School were urban realists who supported Robert Henri’s credo: “Art for life’s sake” (not art for arts sake) o Represented New York’s vitality but also documented problems of immigration and urban poverty o Stylistically they used a darker palette and gestural brushwork o Snow in New York, Robert Henri, 1902, Oil on canvas o Hairdresser’s Window, John Sloan, 1907, oil on canvas Realistic representation of street life in an urban setting o Stag at Sharkey’s, George Bellows, 1909, oil on canvas We can sense the energy – in the brushwork o Cliff Dwellers, George Bellows, 1913, oil on canvas 291 Gallery o Came to serve as a gathering place for American pioneers of international modernism o Led by the photographers Alfred Stieglitz and Edward Steichen o Established the core of experimental art in the United States during the first half of the 20 tcentury o The Steerage, Alfred Stieglitz, 1907, gelatin-silver print Stieglitz is known for Straight Photography = using fundamental properties of the camera to create a photograph – not enhancing in the darkroom o Gloria Swanson, Edward Steichen, 1924, gelatin-silver print o Chinese Restaurant, Max Weber, 1915, oil on canvas o Portrait of a German Officer, Marsden Hartley, 1914, oil on canvas o Memento Mori = a reference to death, everyone is going to die o Lower Manhattan, John Marin, 1922, watercolor and charcoal with paper cut- out attached with thread on paper o Nature Symbolized No. 2, Arthur G. Dove, 1911, pastel on paper o Foghorns, Arthur G. Dove, 1929, oil on canvas o Synesthesia = reinterpretation of sounds into colors shapes and lines o Drawing XIII, Georgia O’Keeffe, 1915, charcoal on paper o Music – Pink and Blue II, Georgia O’Keeffe, 1919. Oil on canvas o Cow’s Skull with Calico Roses, Georgia O’Keeffe, 1931, oil on canvas o Ranchos de Taos Church, New Mexico, Paul Strand, 1931, gelatin-silver print o Two Callas, Imogen Cunningham, 1929, gelatin-silver print o Group f.64 Cunningham and Ansel Adams Group of photographers dedicated to straight photography o Agave Design I, Imogen Cunningham, 1920s, Gelatin-silver print o Datura, Imogen Cunningham, 1930, gelatin-silver print o Frozen Lakes and Cliffs, The Sierra Nevada, Sequoia National Park, California, Ansel Adams, 1932, gelatin-silver print The Armory Show (1913) – described as the most important exhibition ever held in the United States; features over 1400 works of European and American art – referred to as the most important exhibition in the United States Synchromism (1913-1918) Refers to an abstract style of painting launched in Paris in 1913 two American painters, Stanton Macdonald-Wright and Morgan Russell Primacy of color – not only as a form of expression but as the subject matter itself Abstraction on Spectrum (organization, 5), Stanton Macdonald-Wright, 1914, oil on canvas o Synchromy in Orange: to Form, Morgan Russell, 1913-1914, oil on canvas o Precisionism (1920s-1930s) A modern American movement that originated in the 1920s Known for their highly controlled approach to technique and form Formally, compositions were comprised of simple shapes with clear outlines, minimal detail, and smooth handling of surfaces Subjects included urban settings and the sprawling industrial locales of steel mills, coalmines, and factory complexes Major proponents of the movement included Charles Sheeler and Charles Demuth Turned away from European modernism – painted very “American” subjects 2 Views of technology o 1. Utopian Tech as beneficial o 2. Dehumanizing Pollution, replace workers, dominate the landscape Church Street El, Charles Sheeler, 1920, oil on canvas o American Landscape, Charles Sheeler, 1930, oil on canvas o The Figure 5 in Gold, Charles Demuth, 1928, oil on composition board Regionalism 1929-1945 An American art movement that emerged in the Midwest after the Wall Street crash of 1929 and continued until the end of WWII Primarily a realist movement with subject matter drawn from local traditions – the Midwestern farm landscape and the history of their home towns and native region Regionalism = “American Scene” – social realism Viewed as a rejection of abstract art and the foreign influence of France and Europe Regionalism was also called “American Scene” painting a term that encompassed social realism as well Became the unofficial style of the FDR’s works progress Administration (WPA) The dominant regionalist artist include o Thomas Hart Benton from Missouri o Grant Wood from Iowa o John Steuart Curry from Kansas City Building, from the mural series America Today, Thomas Hart Benton, 1930, distemper and egg tempera on gessoed linen with oil glaze o Thomas Craven – art critic Persephone, Thomas Hart Benton, 1938-1939, tempera with oil glazes on canvas, mounted on panel o American Gothic, Grant Wood, 1930, oil on beaver board o Baptism in Kansas, John Steuart Curry, 1928, oil on canvas o Early Sunday Morning, Edward Hopper, 1930, oil on canvas o Isolation / loneliness in an urban setting o Nighthawks, Edward Hopper, 1942, oil on canvas o The Migration series, Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941, casein tempera on hardboard o Panel No. 1: During World War I there was a great migration north by Southern African Americans, from the migration series, Jacob Lawrence, 1940, 1941, casein tempera on hardboard o Panel No. 3: In every town Negroes were leaving by the hundreds to go North enter into Northern industry, from the Migration series, Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941, casein tempera on hardboard o The Passion of Sacco and Vanzetti, Ben Shahn, 1931, 1932, termpera on canvas o American Documentary Photography The popularity of documentary photography was facilitated by the stifled American economy and the failed banks and crops of the depression o Sponsored by the Federal Farm Security Administration (known as the FSA) o Roy Stryker - recruited and employed these photographers Migrant Mother, Dorothea Lange, 1936, gelatin-silver print o These photos are staged – not completely realistic o Nebraska farmer come to pick peas. Near Calipatria, California, Dorothea Lange, 1936 o Miner’s Home, West Virginia, Walker Evans, 1936, gelatin-silver print o Mexican Artists o The Leading Mexican muralists were often referred to as the Tres Grandes Diego Rivera Jose Clemente Orozco David Siqueiros o They employed the classical tradition of fresco painting o An art of social protest with an affinity for the liberal and progressive left o The Flower Seller, Diego Rivera, 1941, oil on canvas o Detroit Industry (north wall), Diego Rivera, 1932-1933, fresco o Vaccination from Detroit Industry (North Wall), Diego Rivera, 1932-1933, fresco o The Epic of American Civilization, Jose Celemnte Orozco, 1932-1934, fresco o The Epic of American Civilization: Modern Migration of the Spirit, Jose Clemente Orozco, 1932-1934, fresco o Echo of a Scream, David Alfaro Siqueiros, 1937, enamel on wood o Self-Portrait on the Border Between Mexico and the United States, Frida Kahlo, 1932, oil on sheet metal o Self-Portrait with Thorn Necklace, Frida Kahlo, 1940, oil on canvas o Egg Beater #4, Stuart Davis, 1928, oil on canvas o Report from Rockport, Stuart Davis, 1940, oil on canvas o Romulus and Remus, Alexander Calder, 1928, wire and wood o Lobster Trap and Fish Tail, Alexander Calder, 1939, hanging mobile: painted steel wire and sheet aluminum It is a kinetic mobile, meaning it moves Abstract Expressionism The most significant influence on the themes and concepts of the abstract expressionists was surrealism o Inspired by the surrealists interest in the unconscious o Carl Jung and archetypal symbols o Andre Breton and “pure psychic automatism” Within the AbEx movement, we can identify two primary strains in regard to style, method and credo: o Gestural painters o Color field painters Gestural painting o concerned with the spontaneous touch of the artist his or her artistic “handwriting” and the texture of the paint o Included Jackson Pollock, Willem de Kooning, and Franz Kline Color Field painting o Known for their abstract statements consisting of large unified shapes or areas of color o Included Mark Rothko, Barnett Newman, Clyfford Still, Adolph Gettleib, and to a slightly lesser degree, Robert Motherwell and Ad Reinhardt Art Critic of action painting: Harold Rosenberg Spring, Hans Hofmann, 1944-1945, oil on wood o The Wind, Hans Hofmann, 1944, oil, duco, and India ink on poster board o The Artist and His Mother, Arshile Gorky, ca. 1929-1936, oil on canvas o The Liver is the Cock’s Comb, Arshile Gorky, 1944, oil on canvas o Painting, Willem de Kooning, 1948, enamel on canvas o Woman I, Willem de Kooning, 1950-1952, oil on canvas o Associate action painting with de Kooning and Pollack Erased de Kooning Drawing, Robert Rauschenberg, 1953, drawing with traces of media Guardians of the Secret, Jackson Pollock, 1943, oil on canvas o Number 1A, 1948, Jackson Pollock, 1948, oil and enamel paint on canvas o Autumn Rhythm: Number 30, Jackson Pollock, 1950, oil and enamel paint on canvas o Clement Greenberg – art critic – liked art for arts sake – liked Pollack’s work – hated pop art Untitled, Lee Krasner, 1949, oil on composition board o Milkweed, Lee Krasner, 1955, oil, paper, and canvas collage on canvas o Nijinsky, Franz Kline, 1950, enamel on canvas o 1950 o 1940 Color Field Painters Post-Painterly Abstraction Systemic Painting No. 1 (No. 18, 1948), Mark Rothko, 1948, 1949, oil on canvas o Untitled, Mark Rothko, 1949, oil on canvas o Paintings in the Rothko Chapel, Mark Rothko, 1965-1966 (opened in 1971), oil on canvas, Houston, TX o Broken Obelisk, Mark Rothko, Houston TX, o Onement, I, Barnett Newman, 1948, oil on canvas and oil on masking, tape on canvas o o “Zip” = Barnett Newman --- they started calling this stripe “The Zip” 1944-N No. 2, (red flash on black field), Clyfford Still, 1944, oil on canvas o Number 2, Clyfford Still, 1949, oil on canvas o Voyager’s Return, Adolph Gottlieb, 1946, oil on canvas o o Ideograms = imagined symbols that appear in the grid-like canvas Blues, from the Bursts series, Adolph Gottlieb, 1962, oil on canvas o Pancho Villa, Dead and Alive, Robert Motherwell, 1943, gouache and oil with cut- and pasted papers on cardboard o Elegy to the Spanish Republic, No 34, Robert Motherwell, 1953-1954, oil on canvas o The Letter, David Smith, 1950, welded steel o Sentinel I, David Smith, 1956, painted steel o Cubi XVIII, David Smith, 1963, stainless steel o Kouros, Isamu Noguchi, 1944-1945, pink Georgia marble on slate base o Medici Slot Machine, Joseph Cornell, 1942, construction o Untitled (The Hotel Eden), Joseph Cornell, 1945, mixed-media, construction o Dawn’s Wedding Chapel I, Louise Nevelson, 1959, painted wood o Installation: designed environment of artwork – site specific – meant to be entered, experienced, and explored Dawn’s Wedding Feast (installation view), Louise Nevelson, 1959, painted wood o The Charnel House, Paris 1944-1945 Pablo Picasso 1945 Oil and Charcoal on canvas Based off of a Spanish republican family that was killed in their kitchen Head of a Man on a Rod, Alberto Giacometti, 1947, bronze Chariot, Alberto Giacometti, 1950, bronze Corps de Dames – Chateau d’Etoupe, Jean Dubuffet, 1950, oil on canvas Spatial Concept: The End of God, Lucio Fontana, 1963, oil on canvas Spatial concept #2, Lucio Fontana, 1960, oil on canvas Composition, Alberto Burri, 1953, oil, gold paint, and glue on canvas and burlap The Enigma of Frozen Water, Asger Jorn, 1970, oil on canvas Willem Sandberg, Karel Appel, 1956, oil on canvas Angry Landscape, Karel Appel, 1967, oil on canvas Reclining Figure, Henry Moore, 1957- 1958, travertine marble Painting, Francis Bacon, 1946, oil on canvas Head VI, Francis Bacon, 1949, oil on canvas Triptych—May—June 1973, Francis Bacon, 1973, oil on canvas Girl with White Dog, Lucian Freud, 1951-1952, oil on canvas Naked man, Back View, Lucian Freud, 1991-1992, oil on canvas Blue Monochrome, Yves Klein, 1961, dry pigment in synthetic polymer medium on cotton over plywood Leap into the Void, Yves Klein, 1960, photograph Shroud Anthropometry 20 “Vampire”, Yves Klein, 1960, pigment on canvas Homage to New York, Jean Tinguely, 1960, mixed media; self destructing installation in the garden of the Museum of Modern Art, New York Bluebeard’s Wife, Arman, 1969, mixed media in polyester resin Long-Term Parking, Arman, 1982, 60 automobiles imbedded in cement Wrapped Kunsthalle, Christo and Jeanne-Claude, 1968, Bern, Switzerland Package, 1961, Christo, 1961, fabric and rope Cut Piece, Yoko Ono, Performance at Carnegie Recital Hall, New York City, March 21, 1965 How to Explain Pictures to a Dead Hare, Joseph Beuys, 1965, performance at the Galerie Schmela, Dusseldorf The Pack, Joseph Beuys, 1969, installation with Volkswagen bus and twenty sleds, each carrying felt, fat, and a flashlight
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