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Week 2 and 3 notes

by: Rose Notetaker

Week 2 and 3 notes PSYC 1010

Marketplace > Winthrop University > Psychlogy > PSYC 1010 > Week 2 and 3 notes
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This weeks notes are one research.
Introductory Psychology
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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Rose Notetaker on Monday January 18, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PSYC 1010 at Winthrop University taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Winthrop University.


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Date Created: 01/18/16
Psychology Week 2 and 3 Notes: Research Why is there a need for different research methods?  Psychology is an empirical study which is fact based and has formal systematic observations that are not speculated based on “common sense” or traditional beliefs. Research Methods:  Scientific Method otherwise known as the “philosopher’s Myth” is a research method that is used to acquire new accurate information. This method must have a testable hypothesis, a controlled observation, a clearly defined phenomenon, and the scientist must be critical and objective. Also in ensuring accurate results one must utilize accurate and precise instrumentation, valid and reliable measures, and the researcher must be objective while reporting results. Why is it called the Philosopher’s Myth?  The scientific method was created by philosophers in search of the full truth. In the search of the full truth philosopher’s believed that scientists must stay completely objective. Staying objective is the major key in research success. Invalid Research in History:  Sir Cyril Burt- was a psychologist that skewed research results about children education to match his personal beliefs and biases. Though he skewed the data, his method of separating gifted children from normal children is still used is school systems today.  1962 poly water Research is a Value System  Dual Nature of science  Basic V Applied (atomic bomb)  Use of animals  Questions asked Goals of Scientific method 1. Description- events and relationships are defined classified and categorized 2. Prediction- 2 things vary together (correlation) 3. Understanding- cause/causes of a phenomenon are identified X Causes Y  Manipúlate a variable (IV)  Controlled conditions (extreanous variables)  Observe effects on second variable  Only research that allows cause and effect conclusions Independent variable- manipulated to determine effect on a second variable Dependent variable- measured to assess the affect on the independent variable. In order to do such research one must first define the terms of the study. Ex: If one is composing a research on what causes fear, the word fear must be defined first. What is considered fear? Body perspiration? Elevated blood pressure? Hypothesis- a tentative testable explaination for somethingr4 Experimental Group- exposed to the manipulation. Given some special treatment Control group- comparison group not given special treatment Extraneous variable- vars (things) other than the IV that may influence the DV Confounding- when the IV covaries with one is linked to an unintended variable (can’t tell which vars are responsible for effects) Internal Valilidity- lack of cofounds. Effects are do to the IV of interest External Valility- generalizability, extent that research results represent the larger population Control Key Concepts  Isolate extraneous vars  Hold conditions constant  Balancing/randomization- all subjects have an equal chance to be assigned to any group or condition in the study Correlation (r): - statistical measure of how closely two things vary together.  How well either one predicts another  Range: -1.0 to +1.0  r=0.0- no relationship between the variables  r=+/- 1.0- perfect relationship between variables  number represents the strength of the relationship  sign represents the direction of the relationship Positive correlation-two variables vary in the same direction Negative Correlation-two variables vary in opposite directions Correlation and Causality  Rule #1- correlation doesn’t mean causation x&y are related (don’t know why or direction)  Third party variable causing the relationship Naturalistic Observation- careful usually prolonged observation  Watching and recording no intervening with subject  Common clinical settings  Interviews, observation, examine, record, and psychological testing  High subjective  Case study research involves analyzing collections of case studies Survey- correlational data. A survey is the most common method of data collection that is easier to collect in larger samples. Some issues can’t study with the experiment (ex. Poor nutrition and birth rate) the problem with surveys is that they depend on self-report which means accuracy could be skewed. Evaluating Reseach:  Be skeptical  Correlation does NOT mean causation


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