AMH2097, Semester Notes
AMH2097, Semester Notes AMH2097
Popular in Nationality, Race, and Ethnicity in the United States
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This 8 page Bundle was uploaded by Jackie L on Monday January 18, 2016. The Bundle belongs to AMH2097 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Robbins in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see Nationality, Race, and Ethnicity in the United States in History at Florida State University.
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If Jackie isn't already a tutor, they should be. Haven't had any of this stuff explained to me as clearly as this was. I appreciate the help!
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Date Created: 01/18/16
The United States the Second Wave Immigrated into: America from 1880-1920 The Progressives Progressive Era (1900-1920) 1. Scientific Racism Example-Craniology (check bumps on peoples skull) If you wanted to be a doctor and you didn’t have the right skull for that people would say that you do not have the right mental capacity The Germ Theory: Venereal Diseases (STDs) and (Splurge) o Believe that something that smells is because of the immigrants IQ Tests: see if he could in fact map out intelligence o Give these IQ tests to people in English and have a scale of “steps in mental development” o IdiotLow Grade Imbecile Medium ImbecileHigh grade ImbecileMoron Requirement to come to America and to get a job (forcing people to get low level jobs and not be able to work there way up Eugenics: idea is Intelligence is hereditary o Example: holocaust/Hitler and his idea of the perfect race o “Solutions” to the immigration problem Positive Eugenics: nice white people should reproduce and have a lot of white children so that they can always outnumber the other people (reproduction) Negative Eugenics: stop the inferior people from actually having people and stop them from being able to reproduce (sterilization against their will) Buck vs. Bell: Oliver Wendell Holmes-“Three generations of Imbeciles is enough” o Supreme court says its completely legal and they are allowed to do this o The idea that intelligence is hereditary and that after so many times you continuously reproducing with inferior races we are going to have to stop it in any way we can 2. Nativist to Know Nothing Party to Immigration Laws=political party that is against immigration Scientific Racism in Action: Ellis Island and Immigration Restriction Before this time immigrations were able to just come in but now we need to study who is coming in, how many are coming in, if they are imbeciles or not If people are sick, handicapped, imbeciles we have the right to not even let them come into the United States Putting Scientific Racism into Action: Ellis Island Anyone that wants to come into this Country must come through a station Operated from 1892-1954/largest processing center Processed over 12 million immigrations 1. Count how many people are coming in 2. Categorize where they are from 3. Eventually we will form immigration laws because it was almost like a scientific project to make the best immigration laws that America could make Scientific Racism in Action: Immigration Restriction Immigration Act of 1903 o Targets anarchists o Groups that come in the second wave have a lot of overlapping similarities with stereotypes o No one was upset about this first act o The government is taking baby steps towards laws Immigration Act of 1917 o Literacy Tests: every immigrant that comes into the United States has to take this literacy test (English=problem cause immigrants don’t all speak English) o Banned men and women from entering who were the 3D’s Dependents, delinquents, and defectives (undesirables) ** Note: Scientific Racism also seen in: Literacy tests as part of the Jim Crow South (1890s-1910s) Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 18 Amendment: 1919, Prohibition added to the U.S. Constitution The Quota Acts Come up with our first large scale immigration act If she asks about this she is talking about the 1921 and 1924 acts 1. Immigration Act of 1921: Established a quota for how many individuals of a particular immigrant group could enter the country annually Quota=3% of group’s population in the US as of the 1910 census o Based on where you are from Total number=357,000 (that is allowed to come in a year) o Mathematical formula to be vague and allow us to be restrictive if we want to now and look like assholes o If one more person comes we have the right to send them back to their country so every immigrant has to have a round trip ticket because we need to be able to get them back out 2. Immigration Act of 1924 The first thing to change is total numbers=164,000 Established a harsher annual quota New Quota=2% of group’s population in the US as of the 1890 Census o Removed second wave completely Barred Asian immigrants (targeting immigrants from Japan and India in particular) EXCEPTION: Quotas did not apply to the immigrants from the western hemisphere Mexico, Caribbean, South America, and Canada (applies to both acts) How do groups move up in the hierarchy? 1. Assimilation 2. Voting Blocks (power) 3. Children (citizens not immigrants) 4. Other “more undesirable” immigrants German-Americans 1880-1920 Con’t 20 thCentury: WWI-End of the Model? World War I o Unlike WWII, we just got into WWI- we were not attacked, nothing dramatic o At first we claimed that we are going to be a neutral/isolationist country Both England and Germans say that they wanted us on their side-we completely stayed out of the war though (but we were selling goods to both sides materials, weapons, etc.) Stalemate war: neither side can win/equally matched- people are dying by the thousands so England (allied powers) and Germany use what they know about the U.S. to try to get them on their side Propaganda- yellow journalism: lies, manipulations of the truth in real newspapers (New York Times) sways U.S. opinion to England’s side o England and Germany send out all these political cartoons o “The Hun”-brutish like ape and violence (England shows the Germans like this) o Germany didn’t know how to tap into the U.S.’s biggest fears o U.S. Starts to look around at an area known as the German Triangle US Reaction: o “Pumped up Patriotism” (Nativists): let’s so something about immigration and WWI is one of the major reasons we pass these quota acts because they are trying to prove that people we consider the “best” are doing something completely wrong o Violence against German-Americans: burn down newspaper facilities, burn books in streets, draw in quarter German teachers, lynch individuals who we think are doing bad things (publisher of German newspapers, etc.) o Prohibition o Why would this hurt German-Americans? Hurts them because they are the ones that craft it German-American Response: o Hyper-Assimilation: assimilating quickly/doing what usually takes a very long time and changing within a day (PC example: German American before WWI-same individual after WWI and was quickly Americanized) o German-Americans will tart to speak English, read Newspapers in English, Parochial schools through English, they will cut ties with Germans, change their names (Smith/John is most common), will see names of beer change (BudweiserBud) o President Woodrow Wilson-“Any man who carries a hyphen about with him carries a dagger that he is ready to plunge into the vitals of this Republic whenever he gets ready” (reinforcing violence) o During the Second Wave, Germans are going to have a lot of problems and the most hated group in the United States (star at the top of hierarchy and fall) Second Wave Immigration from Mexico Mexican immigration starts during second wave, but there were already Mexicans in America that did not emigrate (they were already here from the start) Mexicans in “America” Spain colonizes Mexico in 1521 1821-Mesxico received Independence from Spain Mexico territory included up until Washington and Texas was a debatable region Mexican-Americans (?) 1830s-American Expansion (Slavery is in full scale and cotton is the best crop) The US citizens start to move further west 1845-United States annexation of Texas-Mexicans are going to get very angry about this and it causes a war Mexican American War (1845-1848) United States wins this war Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 1848-take everything north of the Rio Grand River/ gives them Texas as well o Mexicans live in this region became American when US claimed their area o Incorporation-you live in the united states of America o Citizenship-you are all known citizens of the United States (many stayed because their families have been here for centuries) o This is the only time America gives citizenship so freely-easiest thing to incorporate these people in America Mexicans’ Opinion on American Incorporation “We did not cross the line, the line crossed us” Mexican- Americans are a complex group because some of them can trace their ancestors to America before it was colonized and annexed in 1845 How are they treated? 1848-smack in the middle of the First Wave Mexicans have the idea that we are going to like them because we took them and gave them citizenship (successful, own land, etc.) 1. Land: Extra-legal organizations (people in US take land from Mexicans, when they go to the court of law that is located in America these individuals will obviously back the Americans Some Mexicans refuse to leave their land and these people have extra legal organizations make these Mexicans miserable 2. Labor: Miners, Railroads, Migrant Farm Works (Mexicans will be one of the harshest groups in the mid-west in regards to Chinese because they will always take the job for less money) Before Mexican American WarMexicans 1/3 were farm owners and 1/3 were skilled…by1900 2/3 unskilled (flipped completely) (Actual) Immigration from Mexico-Second Wave What made them leave-main push factor? Mexican Revolution (1910-1930): Porfirio Diaz o Different Opinions-people either like him (upper class) hate him (lower class) o Upper Class: goes to the US and asks corporations if they want to open a factory in Mexico for cheap labor push for Industrialization and foreign development o They like this because they tend to partner up with the foreign influence o Lower class loves industrialization but they are ones that end up not getting paid due to their low wages o Peons-Mexican works “person who works for practically nothing and against their will” PC example- ball and chain attached to the worker who is doing the same work that a cow/horse would do…pulling the upper class o Rurales-Extra Legal Organization: Diaz stars to send his rurales that are basically a secret police that will work outside of the law to basically make sure that Mexicans do not complain about this work, do what they are supposed to do, and that they are pushed down o 90% illiteracy: Diaz will cut a lot of rights for Mexican workers, which was education…Peons are not allowed to go to school and many become illiterate (can’t sign their name on their documentation to come into the United States) o Lower Class will emigrate the Upper class will stay o Numbers: 1.5 million that will come in this second wave alone o Location: SW states (Cali, Arizona, NM, Texas, etc.) Why do they go to those states? o Mexicans are already there, climate is similar, and it is closer (walking) What made them come to the United States-Pull Factors? Lower class Mexicans do not have the money to go further it was close It is also a country that is open to these immigrations why? o Chinese Exclusion Act: less Chinese coming in that usually take the cheap labor so Mexicans can take these jobs o Exemptions from Quota Acts (immigration acts of 1921&1924): the quota acts do not deal with people that are neighbors so, we are going to have an exemption and these individuals are able to come in when no one else is able to come in…we need people to work for cheap so we still need to allow certain individuals into America Stereotypes Political cartoons will be from the past and current Second wave will bring new types of ways that stereotypes will be created with WASPs 1. Inferior Race “Mexican Race”: un-assimilate-able because their physical characteristics Scientific Racism (unintelligent because they are all illiterate and IQ tests in English that will all end up being imbeciles Southeast-blacks=Southwest-Mexicans: they will be associated with African Americans…enslavement is still going on “Brown Scare”-Characterized as Brown-skin pigment=not white, filthy, greasy (Taking over America…still absolutely exists today) *Why do WASPs fear born individuals coming into America losing power because of numbers by immigration and children 2. Violent We have a very long evolution of violence for Mexicans due to the history Waking up in America-these people fought back When Americans were trying to annex Texas-these people fought back and started a war against us We also have the idea that they are violent from the beginning because they do things different than us (total war: everyone is fighting) Crime oriented (Gangs: usually people who join together for self preservations/fraternity and maybe because their poverty)…less than 15 of population 1920…many Mexicans did not want to assimilate so we start to have Mexican and Mexican-Americans develop a type of dress that was very different than Americans known as the Pachuco (African Americans and Mexican/Mexican-Americans) o Young individuals who hag out at street corners with their friends…the problem s fear a large group of people (loitering) which then will be arrested if there is any crime happening around them even though they were not involved in any of it o Street gangs o Drug cartel
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